Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy Abstract Landmarks in the development of treatment of retinal detachment include the recognition of the significance of retinal breaks that resulted in the distinction between rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and exudative retinal detachment, the development of indirect ophthalmoscopy and scleral depression that allow better visualization of the peripheral area of the retina and better identification of retinal breaks, the recognition of the need to seal all retinal breaks, and the realization that vitreous traction is the major underlying cause of retinal tears and RRD. Scleral buckling procedures combine retinopexy to provide a scar around retinal breaks to seal them and scleral indentation to neutralize vitreous traction; they provided the first effective treatment of RRD. As surgeons gained experience with scleral buckling, they became aware that some RRDs, particularly those with fixed folds and/or a funnel configuration, often could not be repaired using this approach. It was thought that excessive vitreous traction was at fault, and the condition was called "massive vitreous retraction."1 References 1. Havener WH. Massive vitreous retraction . Ophthalmic Surg Lasers . 1973;4:22. 2. Machemer R, Laqua H. Pigment epithelium proliferation in retinal detachment (massive periretinal proliferation) . Am J Ophthalmol . 1975;80:1-33. 3. Laqua H, Machemer R. Glial cell proliferation in retinal detachment (massive periretinal proliferation) . Am J Ophthalmol . 1975;80:602-618. 4. Sugita G, Tano Y, Machemer R, Abrams G, Claflin A, Fiorentino G. Intravitreal autotransplantation of fibroblasts . Am J Ophthalmol . 1980;89:121-130. 5. Machemer R, Laqua H. A logical approach to the treatment of massive periretinal proliferation . Ophthalmology . 1978;85:584-593.Crossref 6. Algvere P, Kock E. Experimental fibroplasia in the rabbit vitreous: retinal detachment induced by autologous fibroblasts . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1976;199:215-222.Crossref 7. The Retina Society Terminology Committee. The classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Ophthalmology . 1983;90:121-125.Crossref 8. Machemer R, Aaberg TM, Freeman HM, Irvine AR, Lean JS, Michels RM. An updated classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;112:159-165. 9. Girard P, Mimouan G, Karpouzas I, Montefiore G. Clinical risk for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after retinal detachment surgery . Retina . 1994;14:417-424.Crossref 10. Cowley M, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA, Kaiser D, Gaskin H. Clinical risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1147-1151.Crossref 11. Vinores SA, Campochiaro PA, Conway BP. Ultrastructural and electronimmunocytochemical characterization of cells in epiretinal membranes . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:14-28. 12. Vinores SA, Campochiaro PA, McGehee R, Orman W, Hackett SF, Hjelmeland LM. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical changes in retinal pigment epithelium, retinal glia, and fibroblasts in vitreous culture . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:2529-2545. 13. Mueller-Jensen K, Machemer R, Azarnia R. Autotransplantation of retinal pigment epithelium in intravitreal diffusion chamber . Am J Ophthalmol . 1975;80:530-537. 14. Vinores SA, Derevjanik NL, Mahlow J, et al. Class III β-tubulin in human retinal epithelial cells in culture and in epiretinal membranes . Exp Eye Res . 1995;60:385-400.Crossref 15. Anderson DH, Stern WH, Fisher SK, Erickson PA, Borgula GA. The onset of pigment epithelial proliferation after retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1981;21:10-16. 16. Heriot WJ, Machemer R. Pigment epithelial repair . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1992;230:91-100.Crossref 17. Del Priore LV, Hornbeck R, Kaplan HJ, et al. Débridement of the pig retinal pigment epithelium in vivo . Arch Ophthalmol . 1995;113:939-944.Crossref 18. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Vinores SA, Tobe T. The retinal pigmented epithelium and retinal wound repair . Great Basin Vis Sci Symp . 1996;2:28-34. 19. Bryan JA III, Campochiaro PA. A retinal pigment epithelial cell-derived growth factor(s) . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:422-425.Crossref 20. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Vinores SA. Growth factors in the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium . Prog Ret Eye Res . 1996;15:547-567.Crossref 21. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Vinores SA, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor is an autocrine growth stimulator in retinal pigmented epithelial cells . J Cell Sci . 1994;107:2459-2469. 22. Guerrin M, Moukadiri H, Chollet P, et al. Vasculotropin/vascular endothelial growth factor is an autocrine growth factor for human retinal pigmented epithelial cells cultured in vitro . J Cell Physiol . 1995;64:385-394.Crossref 23. Kaiser D. Bacteria also vote . Science . 1996;272:1598-1599.Crossref 24. Fisher SK, Erickson PA, Lewis GP, Anderson DH. Intraretinal proliferation induced by retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:1739-1748. 25. Lewis GP, Matsumoto B, Fisher SK. Changes in the organization and expression of cytoskeletal proteins during retinal degeneration induced by retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:2404-2416. 26. Cook B, Lewis GF, Fisher SK, Adler R. Apoptotic photoreceptor degeneration in experimental retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:990-996. 27. Campochiaro PA, Bryan JA III, Conway BP, Jaccoma EH. Intravitreal chemotactic and mitogenic activity: implication of blood-retinal barrier breakdown . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:1685-1687.Crossref 28. Sen HA, Robertson TJ, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA. The role of breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in cell-injection models of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1988;106:1291-1294.Crossref 29. Jaccoma EH, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA. Cryotherapy causes extensive break-down of the blood-retinal barrier: a comparison with argon laser photocoagulation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:1728-1730.Crossref 30. Brubaker RF, Pederson JE. Ciliochoroidal detachment . Surv Ophthalmol . 1983;27:281-289.Crossref 31. Campochiaro PA, Jerdan JA, Glaser BM. Serum contains chemoattractants for human retinal pigment epithelial cells . Arch Ophthalmol . 1984;102:1830-1833.Crossref 32. Leschey KH, Hackett SF, Singer JH, Campochiaro PA. Growth factor responsiveness of human retinal pigment epithelial cells . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:839-846. 33. Hui YN, Sorgente N, Ryan SJ. Posterior vitreous separation and retinal detachment induced by macrophages . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1987;225:279-284.Crossref 34. Algvere P, Wallow IH, Martini B. The development of vitreous membranes and retinal detachment induced by intravitreal carbon microparticles . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1988;226:471-478.Crossref 35. Griffith TS, Brunner T, Fletcher SM, Green DR, Ferguson TA. Fas ligandinduced apoptosis as a mechanism of immune privilege . Science . 1995;270:1189-1192.Crossref 36. Campochiaro PA, Kaden IH, Vidaurri-Leal J, Glaser BM. Cryotherapy enhances intravitreal dispersion of viable retinal pigment epithelial cells . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:434-436.Crossref 37. Vinores SA, Henderer JD, Mahlow J, et al. Isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in epiretinal membranes: immunolocalization to retinal pigmented epithelial cells . Exp Eye Res . 1995;60:607-619.Crossref 38. Campochiaro PA, Glaser BM. Platelet-derived growth factor is chemotactic for retinal pigment epithelial cells . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:576-579.Crossref 39. Harvey AK, Roberge F, Hjelmeland LM. Chemotaxis of rat retinal glia to growth factors found in repairing wounds . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1987;28:1092-1099. 40. Chen, Y-S, Hackett SF, Schoenfeld C-L, et al. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors to cells of vascular and avascular epiretinal membranes . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1996;37:S120. 41. The Silicone Study Group. Vitrectomy with silicone oil or perfluoropropane gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a randomized clinical trial: Silicone Study report 2 . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:780-792.Crossref 42. Lewis H, Aaberg TM, Abrams GW. Causes of failure after initial vitreoretinal surgery for severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;111:8-14. 43. Rubsamen PE, Davis PA, Hernandez E, O'Grady GE, Cousin SW. Prevention of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy with a biodegradable intravitreal implant for the sustained release of fluorouracil . Arch Ophthalmol . 1994;112:407-413.Crossref 44. Chandler DB, Rozakis G, de Juan E, Machemer R. The effect of triamcinolone acetonide on a refined experimental model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1985;99:686-690. 45. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Conway BP. Retinoic acid promotes densitydependent growth arrest in retinal pigment epithelial cells . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:65-72. 46. Nakagawa M, Refojo MF, Marin JF, Doi M, Tolentino FI. Retinoic acid in silicone and silicone-fluorosilicone copolymer oils in a rabbit model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:2388-2395. 47. Fekrat S, de Juan E, Campochiaro PA. The effect of oral 13-cis-retinoic acid on retinal redetachments after surgical repair in eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Ophthalmology . 1995;102:412-418.Crossref 48. Sidle A, Palaty C, Dirks P, et al. Activity of the retinoblastoma family proteins, PRB, P107, and P130, during cellular proliferation and differentiation . Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol . 1996;31:237-271.Crossref 49. Sakamoto T, Kimura H, Scuric Z, et al. Inhibition of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy by retroviral vector-mediated transfer of a suicide gene: can proliferative vitreoretinopathy be a target of gene therapy? Ophthalmology . 1995;102:1417-1424.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Pathogenic Mechanisms in Proliferative Vitreoretinopathy

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 115 (2) – Feb 1, 1997

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/pathogenic-mechanisms-in-proliferative-vitreoretinopathy-OQlvQve03G
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1997.01100150239014
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Landmarks in the development of treatment of retinal detachment include the recognition of the significance of retinal breaks that resulted in the distinction between rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and exudative retinal detachment, the development of indirect ophthalmoscopy and scleral depression that allow better visualization of the peripheral area of the retina and better identification of retinal breaks, the recognition of the need to seal all retinal breaks, and the realization that vitreous traction is the major underlying cause of retinal tears and RRD. Scleral buckling procedures combine retinopexy to provide a scar around retinal breaks to seal them and scleral indentation to neutralize vitreous traction; they provided the first effective treatment of RRD. As surgeons gained experience with scleral buckling, they became aware that some RRDs, particularly those with fixed folds and/or a funnel configuration, often could not be repaired using this approach. It was thought that excessive vitreous traction was at fault, and the condition was called "massive vitreous retraction."1 References 1. Havener WH. Massive vitreous retraction . Ophthalmic Surg Lasers . 1973;4:22. 2. Machemer R, Laqua H. Pigment epithelium proliferation in retinal detachment (massive periretinal proliferation) . Am J Ophthalmol . 1975;80:1-33. 3. Laqua H, Machemer R. Glial cell proliferation in retinal detachment (massive periretinal proliferation) . Am J Ophthalmol . 1975;80:602-618. 4. Sugita G, Tano Y, Machemer R, Abrams G, Claflin A, Fiorentino G. Intravitreal autotransplantation of fibroblasts . Am J Ophthalmol . 1980;89:121-130. 5. Machemer R, Laqua H. A logical approach to the treatment of massive periretinal proliferation . Ophthalmology . 1978;85:584-593.Crossref 6. Algvere P, Kock E. Experimental fibroplasia in the rabbit vitreous: retinal detachment induced by autologous fibroblasts . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1976;199:215-222.Crossref 7. The Retina Society Terminology Committee. The classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Ophthalmology . 1983;90:121-125.Crossref 8. Machemer R, Aaberg TM, Freeman HM, Irvine AR, Lean JS, Michels RM. An updated classification of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;112:159-165. 9. Girard P, Mimouan G, Karpouzas I, Montefiore G. Clinical risk for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after retinal detachment surgery . Retina . 1994;14:417-424.Crossref 10. Cowley M, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA, Kaiser D, Gaskin H. Clinical risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:1147-1151.Crossref 11. Vinores SA, Campochiaro PA, Conway BP. Ultrastructural and electronimmunocytochemical characterization of cells in epiretinal membranes . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:14-28. 12. Vinores SA, Campochiaro PA, McGehee R, Orman W, Hackett SF, Hjelmeland LM. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical changes in retinal pigment epithelium, retinal glia, and fibroblasts in vitreous culture . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:2529-2545. 13. Mueller-Jensen K, Machemer R, Azarnia R. Autotransplantation of retinal pigment epithelium in intravitreal diffusion chamber . Am J Ophthalmol . 1975;80:530-537. 14. Vinores SA, Derevjanik NL, Mahlow J, et al. Class III β-tubulin in human retinal epithelial cells in culture and in epiretinal membranes . Exp Eye Res . 1995;60:385-400.Crossref 15. Anderson DH, Stern WH, Fisher SK, Erickson PA, Borgula GA. The onset of pigment epithelial proliferation after retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1981;21:10-16. 16. Heriot WJ, Machemer R. Pigment epithelial repair . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1992;230:91-100.Crossref 17. Del Priore LV, Hornbeck R, Kaplan HJ, et al. Débridement of the pig retinal pigment epithelium in vivo . Arch Ophthalmol . 1995;113:939-944.Crossref 18. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Vinores SA, Tobe T. The retinal pigmented epithelium and retinal wound repair . Great Basin Vis Sci Symp . 1996;2:28-34. 19. Bryan JA III, Campochiaro PA. A retinal pigment epithelial cell-derived growth factor(s) . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:422-425.Crossref 20. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Vinores SA. Growth factors in the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium . Prog Ret Eye Res . 1996;15:547-567.Crossref 21. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Vinores SA, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor is an autocrine growth stimulator in retinal pigmented epithelial cells . J Cell Sci . 1994;107:2459-2469. 22. Guerrin M, Moukadiri H, Chollet P, et al. Vasculotropin/vascular endothelial growth factor is an autocrine growth factor for human retinal pigmented epithelial cells cultured in vitro . J Cell Physiol . 1995;64:385-394.Crossref 23. Kaiser D. Bacteria also vote . Science . 1996;272:1598-1599.Crossref 24. Fisher SK, Erickson PA, Lewis GP, Anderson DH. Intraretinal proliferation induced by retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:1739-1748. 25. Lewis GP, Matsumoto B, Fisher SK. Changes in the organization and expression of cytoskeletal proteins during retinal degeneration induced by retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:2404-2416. 26. Cook B, Lewis GF, Fisher SK, Adler R. Apoptotic photoreceptor degeneration in experimental retinal detachment . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:990-996. 27. Campochiaro PA, Bryan JA III, Conway BP, Jaccoma EH. Intravitreal chemotactic and mitogenic activity: implication of blood-retinal barrier breakdown . Arch Ophthalmol . 1986;104:1685-1687.Crossref 28. Sen HA, Robertson TJ, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA. The role of breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in cell-injection models of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1988;106:1291-1294.Crossref 29. Jaccoma EH, Conway BP, Campochiaro PA. Cryotherapy causes extensive break-down of the blood-retinal barrier: a comparison with argon laser photocoagulation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:1728-1730.Crossref 30. Brubaker RF, Pederson JE. Ciliochoroidal detachment . Surv Ophthalmol . 1983;27:281-289.Crossref 31. Campochiaro PA, Jerdan JA, Glaser BM. Serum contains chemoattractants for human retinal pigment epithelial cells . Arch Ophthalmol . 1984;102:1830-1833.Crossref 32. Leschey KH, Hackett SF, Singer JH, Campochiaro PA. Growth factor responsiveness of human retinal pigment epithelial cells . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:839-846. 33. Hui YN, Sorgente N, Ryan SJ. Posterior vitreous separation and retinal detachment induced by macrophages . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1987;225:279-284.Crossref 34. Algvere P, Wallow IH, Martini B. The development of vitreous membranes and retinal detachment induced by intravitreal carbon microparticles . Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol . 1988;226:471-478.Crossref 35. Griffith TS, Brunner T, Fletcher SM, Green DR, Ferguson TA. Fas ligandinduced apoptosis as a mechanism of immune privilege . Science . 1995;270:1189-1192.Crossref 36. Campochiaro PA, Kaden IH, Vidaurri-Leal J, Glaser BM. Cryotherapy enhances intravitreal dispersion of viable retinal pigment epithelial cells . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:434-436.Crossref 37. Vinores SA, Henderer JD, Mahlow J, et al. Isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in epiretinal membranes: immunolocalization to retinal pigmented epithelial cells . Exp Eye Res . 1995;60:607-619.Crossref 38. Campochiaro PA, Glaser BM. Platelet-derived growth factor is chemotactic for retinal pigment epithelial cells . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:576-579.Crossref 39. Harvey AK, Roberge F, Hjelmeland LM. Chemotaxis of rat retinal glia to growth factors found in repairing wounds . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1987;28:1092-1099. 40. Chen, Y-S, Hackett SF, Schoenfeld C-L, et al. Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors to cells of vascular and avascular epiretinal membranes . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1996;37:S120. 41. The Silicone Study Group. Vitrectomy with silicone oil or perfluoropropane gas in eyes with severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a randomized clinical trial: Silicone Study report 2 . Arch Ophthalmol . 1992;110:780-792.Crossref 42. Lewis H, Aaberg TM, Abrams GW. Causes of failure after initial vitreoretinal surgery for severe proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;111:8-14. 43. Rubsamen PE, Davis PA, Hernandez E, O'Grady GE, Cousin SW. Prevention of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy with a biodegradable intravitreal implant for the sustained release of fluorouracil . Arch Ophthalmol . 1994;112:407-413.Crossref 44. Chandler DB, Rozakis G, de Juan E, Machemer R. The effect of triamcinolone acetonide on a refined experimental model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1985;99:686-690. 45. Campochiaro PA, Hackett SF, Conway BP. Retinoic acid promotes densitydependent growth arrest in retinal pigment epithelial cells . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:65-72. 46. Nakagawa M, Refojo MF, Marin JF, Doi M, Tolentino FI. Retinoic acid in silicone and silicone-fluorosilicone copolymer oils in a rabbit model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1995;36:2388-2395. 47. Fekrat S, de Juan E, Campochiaro PA. The effect of oral 13-cis-retinoic acid on retinal redetachments after surgical repair in eyes with proliferative vitreoretinopathy . Ophthalmology . 1995;102:412-418.Crossref 48. Sidle A, Palaty C, Dirks P, et al. Activity of the retinoblastoma family proteins, PRB, P107, and P130, during cellular proliferation and differentiation . Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol . 1996;31:237-271.Crossref 49. Sakamoto T, Kimura H, Scuric Z, et al. Inhibition of experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy by retroviral vector-mediated transfer of a suicide gene: can proliferative vitreoretinopathy be a target of gene therapy? Ophthalmology . 1995;102:1417-1424.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1997

References