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PATHOGENESIS OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS (ACUTE PANCREATIC NECROSIS)

PATHOGENESIS OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS (ACUTE PANCREATIC NECROSIS) Abstract Introduction Etiology of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Common Channel Theory and Objections to It Relation of Bile to Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Nonbiliary Causes of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Mechanism of Production of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Does Intraglandular Activation of Trypsin Cause Acute Pancreatic Necrosis? Mechanism of Production of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis by Bile Summary Cause of Death in Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Observations on the Toxicity of Pancreatic Juice Intraperitoneal Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice Intravenous Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice Intraperitoneal Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice, Sterilized by Berkefeld Filtration Intraperitoneal Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice from the Dog into Mice Comment Observations on the Toxicity of the End-Products of Pancreatic Digestion and Autolysis and the Rôle of Bacteria in the Toxemia of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis In Vivo Autolysis of Dog Pancreas Complicated by the Presence of Bacteria Commonly Found in the Uncontaminated Gland References 1. Probably because of mechanical distention of abdomen. 2. Andrews, E.; Rewbridge, A. G., and Hrdina, L.: Causation of Bacillus Welchii Infections in Dogs by Injection of Sterile Liver Extract or Bile Salts , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 53:176, 1931. 3. Archibald, Edward: Acute Edema of the Pancreas , Ann. Surg. 90:803, 1930. 4. The Experimental Production of Pancreatitis in Animals as the Result of the Resistance of the Common Duct Sphincter , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 28:529, 1919, 1 pl. 5. Ideas Concerning the Causation Cases of Pancreatitis , Canad. J. Med. & Surg. 33:263, 1913. 6. —and Brow: The Experimental Production of Pancreatitis as a Result of the Resistance of the Common Duct Sphincter , Tr. Am. S. A. 36:386, 1918. 7. —and Gibbons, E. C.: Further Data Concerning Experimental Production of Pancreatitis , Ann. Surg. 74:462, 1921. 8. Baldwin, W. M.: The Pancreatic Ducts in Man, Together with a Study of the Microscopical Structure of the Minor Duodenal Papilla , Anat. Rec. 5:197, 1911. 9. Baló, Joseph, and Ballon, Harry C.: Effects of Retention of Pancreatie Secretion , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 48:1, 1929. 10. Bartels, Leo G.: Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis Following Perforation of a Duodenal Ulcer , St. Louis M. Rev. 58:203, 1909. 11. Bayliss, W. M., and Starling, E. H.: On the Relation of Enterokinase to Trypsin , J. Physiol. 32:129, 1905. 12. The Proteolytic Activities of the Pancreatic Juice , Bayliss J. Physiol. 30:61, 1904. 13. Bernard, Claude: Leçons de physiologie expérimentale , Paris, J.-B. Baillière, 1856, vol. 2, p. 278. 14. Bernhard, F.: Value of Determination of Blood Sugar and Diastase for Indications for Surgical Treatment and for After-Treatment in Acute Diseases of Pancreas , Klin. Wchnschr. 9:1346, 1930 15. abstr., J. A. M. A. 95:1217 ( (Oct. 18) ) 1930. 16. von Bergmann, G.: Die Todesursache bei acuten Pankreaserkrankungen , abstr., Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 43:49, 1906. 17. von Bergmann Die Todesursache bei acuten Pankreaserkrankungen , Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 3:401, 1906. 18. Binet, L., and Brocq, P.: Le rôle du suc intestinal dans la réproduction expérimentale de la pancréatite hémorragique avec stéatonécrose , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 83:340, 1920. 19. Bradley, H. C., and Taylor, Joseph: Studies of Autolysis: The Influence of Bile on Autolysis , J. Biol. Chem. 29:281, 1917. 20. Brahdy, M. B., and Scheffer, I. H.: Pancreatitis Complicating Mumps , Am. J. M. Sc. 181:255, 1931. 21. Brocq, P., and Morel, L.: Le rôle de la bile dans la reproduction expérimentale des pancréatites hémorragiques avec stéatonécrose , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 82:371, 1919. 22. Brütt, H.: Gasbacilleninfektion des Pankreas und Pankreasnecrose , Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 245:33, 1923. 23. Bunting, C. H.: Acute Haemorrhagic Pancreatitis Following Obstruction of the Bile Papilla , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 17:265, 1906. 24. Bunting and Brown, W. H.: The Pathology of Intraperitoneal Bile Injections in the Rabbit , J. Exper. Med. 14:445, 1911.Crossref 25. Cameron, A. L., and Noble, J. F.: Reflux of Bile up the Duct of Wirsung Caused by an Impacted Biliary Calculus , J. A. M. A. 82:1410 ( (May 3) ) 1924.Crossref 26. Carnot, Paul: Maladies des glandes salivaires et du pancreas , Paris, J.-B. Baillière & fils, 1908. 27. Chepovalnikov: Jahresb. ii. d. Fortschr. d. Tierchem. , 1899, p. 378. 28. Cooke, J. V., and Whipple, G. H.: Metabolism of Dogs with Sterile Abscess, Pancreatitis, and Pleuritis , J Exper. Med. 28:223, 1918.Crossref 29. Dardinski, V. J.: Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis: Report of Two Cases in which Gallstones Could Not be Considered Essential Etiological Factors , Am. J. Path. 7:169, 1931. 30. Deaver, J. B.: Acute Surgical Diseases of the Pancreas , Pennsylvania M. J. 19:179, 1915. 31. Dellal, Victor: Acute Pancreatitis Following Lysol Poisoning , Lancet 1:407 ( (Feb. 21) ) 1931.Crossref 32. Dick, M., and Wallace, V. G. H.: Cholecystography: Toxic Effect of the Dyes , Brit. J. Surg. 15:360, 1928.Crossref 33. Doberauer, Gustav: Ueber die sogenannte akute Pancreatitis und die Ursachen des schweren, oft tödlichen Verlaufes derselben , Beitr. z. klin. Chir. 48:456, 1906. 34. Dragstedt, L. R.: Failure of Reabsorption of Gastric and Pancreatic Juice as a Pathogenic Factor in Some Gastro-Intestinal Disturbances , Am. J. Surg. 11:544, 1931.Crossref 35. Dragstedt and Ellis, J. C.: Fatal Effect of the Total Loss of Gastric Juice , Am. J. Physiol. 93:407, 1930. 36. Dragstedt and Spurrier, Bert: Effect of Diversion of Bile into Vena Cava and Portal Vein in Dogs , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 26:303, 1929. 37. Dragstedt and Vaughn, A. M.: Gastric Ulcer Studies , Arch. Surg. 8:791 ( (May) ) 1924. 38. Dragstedt Moorehead, J. J., and Burcky, F. W.: Intestinal Obstruction: I. An Experimental Study of the Intoxication in Closed Intestinal Loop , J. Exper. Med. 25:421, 1917. 39. Duval, Pierre; Roux, Jean-Charles, and Béclère, Henri: The Duodenum: Medical, Radiologic and Surgical Studies , translated by E. P. Quain, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1928. 40. Dvorak, H. J.: Liver Autolysis in the Peritoneal Cavity of the Dog , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol & Med. 29:431, 1932. 41. Egdahl, Aufin: A Review of 105 Reported Cases of Acute Pancreatitis with Special Reference to Etiology, with Report of Two Cases , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 18:130, 1907. 42. A Study of the Effect of Intravenous Injections of Solutions of Pancreatic Tissue , J. Exper. Med. 9:385, 1907. 43. Eliason, E. L., and North, J. P.: Acute Pancreatitis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 51:183, 1930. 44. Ellis, J. C., and Dragstedt, L. R.: Liver Autolysis in Vivo , Arch. Surg. 20:8, ( (Jan.) ) 1930. 45. Elman, R., and McCaughan, J. M.: Collection of Entire External Secretion of Pancreas Under Sterile Conditions and Fatal Effect of Total Loss of Pancreatic Juice , J. Exper. Med. 45:561, 1927. 46. Elman and Hartman, A. F.: Cause of Death Following Rapidly Total Loss of Pancreatic Juice , Arch. Surg. 20:333 ( (Feb.) ) 1930.Crossref 47. Eppinger, Hans: Zur Pathogenese der Pankreasfettgewebsnekrose , Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 2:216, 1905-1906.Crossref 48. Eve, Frederic: The Bradshaw Lecture on Acute Haemorrhagic Pancreatitis, with Remarks on the Etiology of Chronic Pancreatitis , Lancet 1:1, 1915. 49. Falloise, A.: Distribution et origine des ferments digestifs de l'intestin grèle , Arch. internat. de physiol. 11:299, 1905. 50. Fisher, J. T.: Mechanism of Shock in Acute Disease of the Pancreas , South. California Pract. 23:211, 1908. 51. Fitz, R. H.: Acute Pancreatitis , M. Rec. 35:197, 225 and 253, 1889. 52. Flexner, Simon: The Constituent of the Bile Causing Pancreatitis and the Effect of Colloids upon Its Action , J. Exper. Med. 8:167, 1906.Crossref 53. Experimental Pancreatitis , Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep. 9:743, 1900. 54. The Constituent of the Bile Causing Pancreatitis and the Effects of Colloids upon Its Action , J. Exper. Med. 8:167, 1906.Crossref 55. On the Occurrence of the Fat-Splitting Ferment in Peritoneal Fat Necroses and the Histology of these Lesions , J. Exper. Med. 2:413, 1897.Crossref 56. —and Pearce, R. M.: Experimental Pancreatitis , Univ. Pennsylvania Bull. 14:193, 1901. 57. Fuchs, Paul: Cholelithiasis und Pankreaserkrankungen , Deutsche med. Wchnschr. 28:829, 1902.Crossref 58. Germain, H. H., and Christian, H. A.: A Case of Early Acute Pancreatitis without Hemorrhage , J. A. M. A. 43:888 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1904.Crossref 59. Goodpasture, E. W., and Clark, G.: A Study of the Toxic Substance of the Pancreas , Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep. 18:1, 1919. 60. Grant, J. W. Geary: Acute Necrosis of the Pancreas , Brit. M. J. 2:518, 1928.Crossref 61. Grant and others: Pancreatitis , Grant Brit. M. J. 2:299, 1928.Crossref 62. Guleke, N.: Demonstration einer experimentell gewonnenen Pankreasnekrose , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 41:682, 1904. 63. Ueber die experimentelle Pankreasnekrose und die Todesursache bei acuten Pankreaserkrankungen , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 75:845, 1905-1906. 64. Ueber die experimentelle Pankreasnekrose und die Todesursache bei acuten Pankreaserkrankungen , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 85:615, 1908. 65. Gunther, T. J.: Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis and Acute Peritonitis Associated with Pure Growth of B. Welchii , Tr. Chicago Path. Soc. 8:350, 1909-1912. 66. Harms, E.: Ueber Druckmessungen im Gallen-und Pankreasgangsystem , Arch. f. klin. Chir. 147:637, 1927. 67. Hess, Otto: Experimenteller Beitrag zur Aetiologie der Pankreas- und Fettgewebsnekrose , München med. Wchnschr. 50:1905, 1903. 68. Experimentelles zur Pankreas- und Fettgewebs-Nekrose , Hess München med. Wchnschr. 52:644, 1905. 69. Hewlett, A. W.: On the Occurrence of Lipase in the Urine as a Result of Experimental Pancreas Disease , J. M. Research 11:377, 1904. 70. Hollander, Edward, and Marcus, J. M.: Pancreatic Function: The Quantitative Determination of Pancreatic Enzymes , Arch. Int. Med. 36:585 ( (Oct.) ) 1925.Crossref 71. Horrall, O. H.: Experimental Bile Peritonitis and Its Treatment in the Dog , Arch. Int. Med. 43:114 ( (Jan.) ) 1929.Crossref 72. Hozapfel, R.: Etiology of Hemorrhagic Necrosis of Pancreas , Klin. Wchnschr. 9:596 ( (March 29) ) 1930.Crossref 73. Hueck, Hermann: Subcutane Pankreasruptur , Chirurg. 1:349 ( (March 1) ) 1929. 74. Johnstone, O. P.: Four Cases of Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis in Which the Common Bile Duct and Pancreatic Ducts Had Separate Openings , Colorado Med. 4:93, 1907. 75. Joseph, H., and Prigsheim, J.: Zur Frage der Immunität gegen Pancreasnekrose , Mitt. a. d. Grenzgeb. d. Med. u. Chir. 26:290, 1913. 76. Judd, E. S.: The Relation of the Liver and the Pancreas to Infection of the Gall Bladder , Collected Papers of the Mayo Clinic, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1921, vol. 13, p. 184. 77. Katz, Arthur, and Winkler, Ferdinand: Experimentelle Studien über die Fettgewebsnecrose des Pankreas , Arch. f. Verdauungskr. 4:298, 1898. 78. Kaufmann, M.: Experimental Study of Lymphatic Theory of Pancreatitis: Etiology and Pathogenesis , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 44:15, 1927. 79. Kleiner, I. S.: The Action of Intravenous Injections of Pancreas Emulsions in Experimental Diabetes , J. Biol. Chem. 40:153, 1819. 80. Larkin, J. H.: Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis with Fat Necrosis; Abscess of Liver; Infection by Bacillus Aerogenes Capsulatis , M. Rec. 53:354, 1898. 81. Lattes, Leone: Ueber Pankreasvergiftung , Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 211:1, 1913. 82. Letulle, M., and Nattan, Larrier: Région vaterienne du duodenum et ampoule de vater , Bull. Soc. anat. de Paris 12:491, 1898. 83. Makins, G. H.: A Study of the Symptoms and Complications of Gun Shot Wounds of the Solid Abdominal Viscera , Brit. J. Surg. 3:645, 1916. 84. Mann, F. C., and Giordano, A. S.: The Bile Factor in Pancreatitis , Arch. Surg. 6:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1923. 85. The Bile Factor in Pancreatitis , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 19:353, 1921-1922. 86. Maragliano, Dario: Le cause della morte per necrosi pancreatica , Policlinico (sez. chir.) 19:49, 1912. 87. Maugeret, R.: Cholécysto-pancréatite, essai de pathogénie, Thèse de Paris, 1908. 88. Mayo, W. J.: Surgery of the Pancreas , Ann. Surg. 58:145, 1913.Crossref 89. Meltzer, S. J., and Salant, William: Studies on the Toxicity of Bile , J. Exper. Med. 8:127, 1906.Crossref 90. von Mikulicz-Radecki, John: Surgery of the Pancreas with Especial Consideration of Trauma and Inflammatory Processes , Tr. Cong. Am. Physicians & Surgeons 6:55, 1903. 91. Moynihan, Berkeley: Acute Pancreatitis , Ann. Surg. 81:132, 1925. 92. Gallstones and Their Surgical Treatment , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1904, p. 27. 93. Necheles, H.; Ling, J., and Fernando, F.: Studies on Auto-Digestion; Fate of Organs Implanted into Duodenum , Am. J. Physiol. 79:1, 1926. 94. Norris, Charles: A Report of Four Cases , M. Rec. 53:351, 1898. 95. Northrop, J. H., and Hussey, R. G.: A Method for the Quantitative Determination of Trypsin and Pepsin , J. Gen. Physiol. 5:353, 1922-1923. 96. Ohno, R.: Studien über die Aetiologie der akuten hämorrhagischen Pankreasnekrose beziehungsweise Pankreassaftvergiftung, mit besonderen Berücksichtigung der immunisierenden Prophylaxe und Therapie , Mitt. a. d. med. Fakult. d. k. Univ. zu Kyushu Fukuoka 7:31, 1923. 97. Opie, E. L.: Disease of the Pancreas; Its Cause and Nature , ed. 2, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1910, p. 124. 98. The Etiology of Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 12:182, 1901. 99. Injection of Bile into Pancreatic Duct , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 12:182, 1901. 100. The Relation of Cholelithiasis to Diseases of the Pancreas , J. A. M. A. 43:1102 ( (Oct. 15) ) 1904. 101. —and Meakins, J. 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Chir. 175:301, 1922. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

PATHOGENESIS OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS (ACUTE PANCREATIC NECROSIS)

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Abstract

Abstract Introduction Etiology of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Common Channel Theory and Objections to It Relation of Bile to Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Nonbiliary Causes of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Mechanism of Production of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Does Intraglandular Activation of Trypsin Cause Acute Pancreatic Necrosis? Mechanism of Production of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis by Bile Summary Cause of Death in Acute Pancreatic Necrosis Observations on the Toxicity of Pancreatic Juice Intraperitoneal Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice Intravenous Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice Intraperitoneal Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice, Sterilized by Berkefeld Filtration Intraperitoneal Injection of Fresh, Actively Proteolytic Pancreatic Juice from the Dog into Mice Comment Observations on the Toxicity of the End-Products of Pancreatic Digestion and Autolysis and the Rôle of Bacteria in the Toxemia of Acute Pancreatic Necrosis In Vivo Autolysis of Dog Pancreas Complicated by the Presence of Bacteria Commonly Found in the Uncontaminated Gland References 1. Probably because of mechanical distention of abdomen. 2. Andrews, E.; Rewbridge, A. G., and Hrdina, L.: Causation of Bacillus Welchii Infections in Dogs by Injection of Sterile Liver Extract or Bile Salts , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 53:176, 1931. 3. Archibald, Edward: Acute Edema of the Pancreas , Ann. Surg. 90:803, 1930. 4. The Experimental Production of Pancreatitis in Animals as the Result of the Resistance of the Common Duct Sphincter , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 28:529, 1919, 1 pl. 5. Ideas Concerning the Causation Cases of Pancreatitis , Canad. J. Med. & Surg. 33:263, 1913. 6. —and Brow: The Experimental Production of Pancreatitis as a Result of the Resistance of the Common Duct Sphincter , Tr. Am. S. A. 36:386, 1918. 7. —and Gibbons, E. C.: Further Data Concerning Experimental Production of Pancreatitis , Ann. Surg. 74:462, 1921. 8. Baldwin, W. M.: The Pancreatic Ducts in Man, Together with a Study of the Microscopical Structure of the Minor Duodenal Papilla , Anat. Rec. 5:197, 1911. 9. Baló, Joseph, and Ballon, Harry C.: Effects of Retention of Pancreatie Secretion , Surg., Gynec. & Obst. 48:1, 1929. 10. Bartels, Leo G.: Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis Following Perforation of a Duodenal Ulcer , St. Louis M. Rev. 58:203, 1909. 11. Bayliss, W. M., and Starling, E. H.: On the Relation of Enterokinase to Trypsin , J. Physiol. 32:129, 1905. 12. The Proteolytic Activities of the Pancreatic Juice , Bayliss J. Physiol. 30:61, 1904. 13. Bernard, Claude: Leçons de physiologie expérimentale , Paris, J.-B. Baillière, 1856, vol. 2, p. 278. 14. Bernhard, F.: Value of Determination of Blood Sugar and Diastase for Indications for Surgical Treatment and for After-Treatment in Acute Diseases of Pancreas , Klin. Wchnschr. 9:1346, 1930 15. abstr., J. A. M. A. 95:1217 ( (Oct. 18) ) 1930. 16. von Bergmann, G.: Die Todesursache bei acuten Pankreaserkrankungen , abstr., Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 43:49, 1906. 17. von Bergmann Die Todesursache bei acuten Pankreaserkrankungen , Ztschr. f. exper. Path. u. Therap. 3:401, 1906. 18. Binet, L., and Brocq, P.: Le rôle du suc intestinal dans la réproduction expérimentale de la pancréatite hémorragique avec stéatonécrose , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 83:340, 1920. 19. Bradley, H. C., and Taylor, Joseph: Studies of Autolysis: The Influence of Bile on Autolysis , J. Biol. Chem. 29:281, 1917. 20. Brahdy, M. B., and Scheffer, I. H.: Pancreatitis Complicating Mumps , Am. J. M. Sc. 181:255, 1931. 21. Brocq, P., and Morel, L.: Le rôle de la bile dans la reproduction expérimentale des pancréatites hémorragiques avec stéatonécrose , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 82:371, 1919. 22. Brütt, H.: Gasbacilleninfektion des Pankreas und Pankreasnecrose , Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. 245:33, 1923. 23. Bunting, C. H.: Acute Haemorrhagic Pancreatitis Following Obstruction of the Bile Papilla , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 17:265, 1906. 24. Bunting and Brown, W. H.: The Pathology of Intraperitoneal Bile Injections in the Rabbit , J. Exper. 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Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1934

References