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Osmolality

Osmolality Abstract Introduction THE DETERMINATION of serum and urine osmolality is a technically simple procedure, and if properly applied, is of considerable use in the clinical management of water and electrolyte disturbances. It is the purpose of this paper to review briefly the concept, physiology, and clinical application of osmolality. Osmotic Pressure and Osmolality According to Raoult's law, when a solute is added to a solvent, the chemical potential of the solvent molecules is lowered in proportion to the mole fraction of the solute particles present. This is manifested as lowering of the vapor pressure and freezing point and raising of the osmotic pressure and boiling point of the solvent. The phenomenon of osmotic pressure is one of the colligative properties of a solution which depend upon the number of particles dissolved in the solution but not on their mass, charge, or shape.If the two arms of a U-shaped tube are References 1. Welt, L.G.: Clinical Disorders of Hydration and Acid Base Equilibrium , ed 2, Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1959. 2. Lifson, N., and Visscher, M.B.: Medical Physics , Glasser, (ed.), Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., 1961, vol 1, p 869. 3. Wolf, A.V.: Urinary Concentrative Powers , Amer J Med 32:324, 1962.Crossref 4. Holmes, J.H.: Measurement of Osmolality in Serum, Urine and Other Biologic Fluids by the Freezing Point Determination, Read before the American Society of Clinical Pathologists Preworkshop on Urinalysis and Renal Function Studies, 1962. 5. Rubin, A.L.: The Relationship Between Plasma Osmolarity and Concentration in Disease States , Clin Res Proc 4:129, 1956. 6. Edelman, J.A.: Interrelation Between Serum Na Concentration, Total Exchangeable Na, Total Exchangeable K and Total Body Water , J Clin Invest 37:1236, 1958.Crossref 7. Galambos, J.T.; Herndun, E.G.; Reynolds, G.H.: Specific Gravity Determinations, Fact or Fancy , New Eng J Med 270:506, 1964.Crossref 8. Verney, E.B.: The ADH and the Factors Which Determine Its Release , Proc Roy Soc Biol 135:25, 1947.Crossref 9. Wolf, A.V.: Osmometric Analysis of Thirst in Man and Dog , Amer J Physiol 161:76, 1950. 10. Andersson, B., and McCann, S.M.: Drinking Antidiuresis and Milk Ejection From Electrical Stimulation Within Hypothalamus of the Goat , Acta Physiol Scand 35:191, 1955.Crossref 11. Gilbert, G.J., and Glaser, G.H.: On the Nervous System Integration of Water and Salt Metabolism , Arch Neurol 5:179, 1961.Crossref 12. Albrink, M.N., et al: The Displacement of Serum Water by the Lipids of Hyperlipemic Serum , J Clin Invest 34:1483, 1955.Crossref 13. Luca, C.P., et al: Diabetic Coma Without Ketoacidosis , Lancet 1:75, 1963.Crossref 14. Schwartz, W.B.: Syndrome of Renal Sodium Loss and Hyponatremia Probably Resulting From Inappropriate Secretion of ADH , Amer J Med 23:929, 1957.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1965 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1965.03870050097014
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Introduction THE DETERMINATION of serum and urine osmolality is a technically simple procedure, and if properly applied, is of considerable use in the clinical management of water and electrolyte disturbances. It is the purpose of this paper to review briefly the concept, physiology, and clinical application of osmolality. Osmotic Pressure and Osmolality According to Raoult's law, when a solute is added to a solvent, the chemical potential of the solvent molecules is lowered in proportion to the mole fraction of the solute particles present. This is manifested as lowering of the vapor pressure and freezing point and raising of the osmotic pressure and boiling point of the solvent. The phenomenon of osmotic pressure is one of the colligative properties of a solution which depend upon the number of particles dissolved in the solution but not on their mass, charge, or shape.If the two arms of a U-shaped tube are References 1. Welt, L.G.: Clinical Disorders of Hydration and Acid Base Equilibrium , ed 2, Boston: Little Brown & Co., 1959. 2. Lifson, N., and Visscher, M.B.: Medical Physics , Glasser, (ed.), Chicago: Yearbook Medical Publishers, Inc., 1961, vol 1, p 869. 3. Wolf, A.V.: Urinary Concentrative Powers , Amer J Med 32:324, 1962.Crossref 4. Holmes, J.H.: Measurement of Osmolality in Serum, Urine and Other Biologic Fluids by the Freezing Point Determination, Read before the American Society of Clinical Pathologists Preworkshop on Urinalysis and Renal Function Studies, 1962. 5. Rubin, A.L.: The Relationship Between Plasma Osmolarity and Concentration in Disease States , Clin Res Proc 4:129, 1956. 6. Edelman, J.A.: Interrelation Between Serum Na Concentration, Total Exchangeable Na, Total Exchangeable K and Total Body Water , J Clin Invest 37:1236, 1958.Crossref 7. Galambos, J.T.; Herndun, E.G.; Reynolds, G.H.: Specific Gravity Determinations, Fact or Fancy , New Eng J Med 270:506, 1964.Crossref 8. Verney, E.B.: The ADH and the Factors Which Determine Its Release , Proc Roy Soc Biol 135:25, 1947.Crossref 9. Wolf, A.V.: Osmometric Analysis of Thirst in Man and Dog , Amer J Physiol 161:76, 1950. 10. Andersson, B., and McCann, S.M.: Drinking Antidiuresis and Milk Ejection From Electrical Stimulation Within Hypothalamus of the Goat , Acta Physiol Scand 35:191, 1955.Crossref 11. Gilbert, G.J., and Glaser, G.H.: On the Nervous System Integration of Water and Salt Metabolism , Arch Neurol 5:179, 1961.Crossref 12. Albrink, M.N., et al: The Displacement of Serum Water by the Lipids of Hyperlipemic Serum , J Clin Invest 34:1483, 1955.Crossref 13. Luca, C.P., et al: Diabetic Coma Without Ketoacidosis , Lancet 1:75, 1963.Crossref 14. Schwartz, W.B.: Syndrome of Renal Sodium Loss and Hyponatremia Probably Resulting From Inappropriate Secretion of ADH , Amer J Med 23:929, 1957.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1965

References

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