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Organization as a Unifying Concept in Schizophrenia

Organization as a Unifying Concept in Schizophrenia Abstract Introduction The purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept by means of which it may be possible to demonstrate some communality in the seemingly conflicting theories of schizophrenia. Although the data and hypotheses about schizophrenia come from numerous scientific disciplines, and although the total research in this area can never fit into any single theory or program, it still may be possible to show how the various viewpoints are vitally interrelated. The most recent Bellak4 volume, reviewing the syndrome of schizophrenia, lists well over 4,000 articles and books on the subject. In contrast to this impressively large list of publications, there persists among the workers in this area a feeling that a clear understanding of schizophrenia still remains to be achieved. The experts, not to mention the novices, are often disturbed by the many seemingly contradictory findings and proposals advanced by the proponents References 1. Altman, J. E.; McGarry, J. J., and Friedman, S.: Parental Deprivation and the “Broken Home” in Dementia Praecox and Other Mental Diseases , Am. J. Psychiat. 108:685-693, 1952. 2. Bateson, G.; Jackson, D. D.; Haley, J., and Weekland, J.: Toward a Theory of Schizophrenia , Behav. Sc. 7:251-164, 1956. 3. Bellak, L.: Dementia Praecox: The Past Decade’s Work and Present Status , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1948. 4. Bellak, L., and Benedict, P. R.: Schizophrenia: A Review of the Syndrome , New York, Logos Press, 1958. 5. Bender, L.: Childhood Schizophrenia: Clinical Study of 100 Schizophrenic Children , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 17:40-56, 1947.Crossref 6. Binder, A.: Schizophrenic Intellectual Impairment: Uniform or Differential , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 52:11-18, 1956. 7. Bovard, E. W.: The Effects of Early Handling on Viability of the Albino Rat , Psychol. Rev. 65:257-271, 1958. 8. Cameron, N.: Reasoning, Regression, and Communication in Schizophrenics, Psychological Monographs , Vol. 50, No. 1 (Whole No. 221), Columbus, Ohio, Psychological Review Company, 1938. 9. Cameron, N.: Behavior Pathology , Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951. 10. Carothers, J. C.: Study of Mental Derangement in Africans , Psychiatry 11:47-86, 1948. 11. Champman, L. J.: Distractability in the Conceptual Performance of Schizophrenics , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 53:286-291, 1956. 12. Chow, K. L., and Nissen, H. W.: Interocular Transfer of Learning in Visually Naive and Experienced Infant Chimpanzees , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 48:229-232, 1955. 13. Cohen, B. D.; Senf, R., and Huston, P. E.: Perceptual Accuracy in Schizophrenia, Depression, and Neurosis, and Effects of Amytal , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 52:363-367, 1956. 14. Despert, J.: Prophylactic Aspects of Schizophrenia in Childhood , Nerv. Child 1:199-236, 1942. 15. Eaton, J. W., and Weil, R. S.: Culture and Mental Disorders , Glencoe, Ill., Free Press, 1955. 16. Faris, R. E. L., and Dunham, H. W.: Mental Disorders in Urban Areas , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1939. 17. Feigl, H.: Philosophical Embarrassments of Psychology , Am. Psychologist 14:115-128, 1959. 18. Ferraro, A.: Interpretation of Cerebral Histopathologic Changes in Cases of Schizophrenia , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 10:104-105, 1951. 19. Forgays, D. G., and Forgays, J. W.: The Nature of the Effect of Free Environmental Experience in the Rat , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 45:322-328, 1952. 20. Forgus, R. H.: The Effect of Early Perceptual Learning on the Behavioral Organization of Adult Rats , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 47:331-336, 1954. 21. Garfield, S. L.: A Preliminary Appraisal of Wechsler-Bellevue Scatter Patterns in Schizophrenia , J. Consult. Psychol. 12:32-36, 1948. 22. Garmezy, N.: Stimulus Differentiation by Schizophrenic and Normal Subjects Under Conditions of Reward and Punishment , J. Person. 20:253-276, 1950. 23. Gellhorn, E.: Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1953. 24. Goldstein, K.: The Significance of Special Mental Tests for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 96:575-578, 1939. 25. Hamburger, V.: The Concept of Development in Biology , in The Concept of Development: An Issue in Study of Human Behavior , edited by D. B. Harris, Minneapolis. University of Minnesota Press, 1957. 26. Harnly, M. H.: Flight Capacity in Relation to Phenotypic and Genotypic Variations in the Wings of Drosophila Melanogaster , J. Exper. Zool. 88:263-274, 1941. 27. Harlow, H.: The Formation of Learning Sets , Psychol. Rev. 56:51-65, 1949. 28. Harper, A. E.: Discrimination Between Schizophrenics and Normals , J. Consult. Psychol. 14:351-357, 1950. 29. Hebb, D. O.: Alice in Wonderland or Psychology Among the Biological Sciences , in Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior , edited by H. E. Harlow and C. N. Woolsey, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 30. Helfand, I.: Role Taking in Schizophrenia , J. Consult. Psychol. 20:37-41, 1956.Crossref 31. Hill, D., and others: A Central Homeostatic Mechanism in Schizophrenia , J. Ment. Sc. 97:111-131, 1951. 32. Hollingshead, A. B., and Redlich, F. C.: Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1958. 33. Hoskins, R. G.: The Biology of Schizophrenia , New York, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1946. 34. Huston, P. E., and Shakow, D.: Learning Capacity in Schizophrenia, with Special Reference to the Concept of Deterioration , Am. J. Psychiat. 105:881-888, 1949. 35. Jasper, H.: Reticular-Cortical Systems and Theories of the Integrative Action of the Brain , in Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior , edited by H. F. Harlow and C. N. Woolsey, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 36. Jenkins, R., and Glickman, S.: Common Syndromes in Child Psychiatry: II. The Schizoid Child , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 16:255-261, 1946.Crossref 37. Joseph, A., and Murray, V. F.: Chamorros and Carolinians of Saipan: Personality Studies , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1951. 38. Kallman, F. J.: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 103:309, 1946. 39. Kallman, F. J.: The Genetics of Psychotic Behavior Patterns , in Genetics and the Inheritance of Inherited Neurological and Psychiatric Patterns , edited by D. Hooker and C. C. Hare, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1954. 40. Kasanin, J.; Knight, E., and Sage, P.: The Parent-Child Relationship in Schizophrenia: I. Over-Protection-Rejection , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 79:249-263, 1934. 41. Lin, T. Y.: A Study of the Incidence of Mental Disorders in Chinese and Other Cultures , Psychiatry 16:313-336, 1953. 42. Lindsay, J. S. B.: Periodic Catatonia , J. Ment. Sc. 94:590-602, 1948 43. Linton, R.: Culture and Mental Disorders , edited by G. Devereux, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956. 44. McGaughran, L. S., and Moran, L. J.: “Conceptual Level” vs. “Conceptual Area” Analysis of Object-Sorting in Schizophrenic and Nonpsychiatric Groups , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 52:43-50, 1956. 45. Major, S.: Schizophrenia: A Diencephalic Syndrome , Psychiat. Quart. 23:83-92, 1949. 46. Magoun, H. W.: The Ascending Reticular Activating System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:480-492, 1950. 47. Magoun, H. W.: Non-Specific Brain Mechanisms , in Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior , edited by H. F. Harlow and C. W. Woolsey, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 48. Malzberg, B.: Social and Biological Aspects of Mental Disease , Utica, N.Y., State Hospitals Press, 1940. 49. Mednick, S. A.: A Learning Theory Approach to Research in Schizophrenia , Psychol. Bull. 55:316-327, 1958. 50. Mettler, F. A.: Perceptual Capacity, Functioning of the Corpus Striatum and Schizophrenia , Psychiat. Quart. 29:89-111, 1955. 51. Myerson, A.: Scrutiny, Social Anxiety, and Inner Turmoil in Relationship to Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 105:401-409, 1948. 52. Nielsen, J. M.: The Basic Pathology of Schizophrenia , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 107:340-357, 1948. 53. Osgood, C. E.: Method and Theory in Experimental Psychology , New York, Oxford University Press, 1953. 54. Pastore, N.: The Genetics of Schizophrenia , Psychol. Bull. 26:285, 1949. 55. Peck, H. B.; Rabinovitch, R. D., and Cramer, J. B.: A Treatment Program for Parents of Schizophrenic Children , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 19:592-598, 1949. 56. Penfield, W.: Epileptic Automatisms and the Centrencephalic Integrating System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:513-518, 1950. 57. Peters, H. N.: Multiple Choice Learning in the Chronic Schizophrenic , J. Clin. Psychol. 9:328-333, 1953. 58. Rappaport, S. R.: Intellectual Deficit in Organics and Schizophrenics , J. Consult. Psychol. 13:279-287, 1949. 59. Rashkis, H. A.: Three Types of Thinking Disorders: An Investigation of the Behavior on Special Tests of Schizophrenics, General Paretics and Cerebral Arteriosclerotics , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 106:650-670, 1947. 60. Rashkis, H. A.: A General Theory of Treatment in Psychiatry , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 78:491-499, 1957. 61. Rashkis, H. A.: The Organization Factor as an Explanatory Principle in Functional Psychosis , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 80:513-519, 1958. 62. Rashkis, H. A., and Singer, R. D.: The Psychology of Schizophrenia , A.M.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 1:406-416, 1959. 63. Rose, A. M., and Stub, H. R.: Summary of Studies on the Incidence of Mental Disorders , in Mental Health and Mental Disorders: A Sociological Approach Prepared for a Committee of the Society for Study of Social Problems , edited by A. M. Rose, New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1955. 64. Rosenzweig, N.: A Mechanism in Schizophrenia , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:544-555, 1955. 65. Samuels, I.: Reticular Mechanisms and Behavior , Psychol. Bull. 56:1-25, 1959. 66. Sapir, E.: Selected Writings in Language, Culture, and Personality , edited by D. G. Mandelbaum, Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1944, pp. 544-559. 67. Schneirla, T. C.: The Concept of Development in Comparative Psychology , in The Concept of Development , edited by D. B. Harris, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1957, pp. 78-108. 68. Scott, J. P.: The Genetic and Environmental Differentiation of Behavior , in The Concept of Development , edited by D. B. Harris, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1957. 69. Scott, W. A.: Social Psychological Correlates of Mental Illness and Mental Health , Psychol. Bull. 55:65-85, 1958. 70. Semerari, A.: Recent Views on the Inheritance of Schizophrenia , Rass. neuropsichiat. 4:513, 1950. 71. Shakow, D., and Huston, P. E.: Studies of Motor Functioning in Schizophrenia: I. Speed of Taping , J. Gen. Psychol. 15:63-108, 1936. 72. Shannon, C., and Weaver, W.: The Mathematical Theory of Communication , Urbana, Ill., University of Illinois Press, 1949. 73. Siegel, A. I.: Deprivation of Visual Form Definition in the Ring Dove: I. Discriminatory Learning , J. Comp. Physiol. & Psychol. 46:115-119, 1953. 74. Slater, E.: Psychiaytric Genetics , in Recent Progress in Psychiatry , Ed. 2, edited by G. W. Fleming, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1950. 75. Smartt, C. G. F.: Mental Maladjustment in the East African , J. Ment. Sc. 102:441-466, 1956. 76. Snyder, L. H.: The Principles of Heredity , Ed. 4, Boston, D. C. Heath & Co., 1950. 77. Szalita-Pemow, A. B.: Remarks on Pathogenesis and Treatment in Schizophrenia , Psychiatry 14:295-300, 1951. 78. Szurek, S. A.: Psychotic Episodes and Psychotic Maldevelopment , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 26:519-543, 1956. 79. Thurstone, L. L.: A Factorial Study of Perception , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1944. 80. Tietze, T.: A Study of Mothers of Schizophrenic Patients , Psychiatry 12:55-65, 1949. 81. Tooth, G.: Studies in Mental Illness in the Gold Coast , Research Publications No. 6, London, His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1950. 82. Vigotsky, L. S.: Thought in Schizophrenia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 31:1063-1077, 1934. 83. Wallace, A. F. C.: Mazeway Resyntheses: A Biocultural Theory of Religious Inspiration , Tr. New York Acad. Sc. , Sec. II, 18:626-638, No. (7) , 1956. 84. Wallace, A. F. C.: The Quantity of Organization in Sociocultural Systems, unpublished paper supported by Grants M-883 and M-1106 from the National Institute of Mental Health. 85. Wallace, A. F. C.: Study of Processes of Organization and Revitalization of Psychological and Socio-Cultural Systems, Based on a Comparative Study of Nativistic Religious Revivals , Year Book of the American Philosophical Society, 1957, pp. 310-311. 86. Wallace, A. F. C.: The Psychic Unity of Human Groups in Studying Personality Cross Culturally, edited by B. Kaplan, Evanston, Ill., Row Peterson & Co., to be published. 87. Wedge, B. M., and Abe, S.: Racial Incidence of Mental Disease in Hawaii , Hawaii M. J. 8:337-338, 1949. 88. Wedge, B. M.: Occurrence of Psychosis Among Okinawans in Hawaii , Am. J. Psychiat. 109:255-258, 1952. 89. Weinstein, M. R.: Histopathological Changes in the Brain in Schizophrenia , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 71:539-553, 1954. 90. Williams, R. J.; Berry, L. J., and Beerstecher, E., Jr.: Individual Metabolic Patterns, Alcoholism, Genetrotrophic Diseases , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 35:265-271, 1949. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Organization as a Unifying Concept in Schizophrenia

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American Medical Association
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0375-8532
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10.1001/archpsyc.1960.03590070063007
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Abstract

Abstract Introduction The purpose of this paper is to introduce a concept by means of which it may be possible to demonstrate some communality in the seemingly conflicting theories of schizophrenia. Although the data and hypotheses about schizophrenia come from numerous scientific disciplines, and although the total research in this area can never fit into any single theory or program, it still may be possible to show how the various viewpoints are vitally interrelated. The most recent Bellak4 volume, reviewing the syndrome of schizophrenia, lists well over 4,000 articles and books on the subject. In contrast to this impressively large list of publications, there persists among the workers in this area a feeling that a clear understanding of schizophrenia still remains to be achieved. The experts, not to mention the novices, are often disturbed by the many seemingly contradictory findings and proposals advanced by the proponents References 1. Altman, J. E.; McGarry, J. J., and Friedman, S.: Parental Deprivation and the “Broken Home” in Dementia Praecox and Other Mental Diseases , Am. J. Psychiat. 108:685-693, 1952. 2. Bateson, G.; Jackson, D. D.; Haley, J., and Weekland, J.: Toward a Theory of Schizophrenia , Behav. Sc. 7:251-164, 1956. 3. Bellak, L.: Dementia Praecox: The Past Decade’s Work and Present Status , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1948. 4. Bellak, L., and Benedict, P. R.: Schizophrenia: A Review of the Syndrome , New York, Logos Press, 1958. 5. Bender, L.: Childhood Schizophrenia: Clinical Study of 100 Schizophrenic Children , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 17:40-56, 1947.Crossref 6. Binder, A.: Schizophrenic Intellectual Impairment: Uniform or Differential , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 52:11-18, 1956. 7. Bovard, E. W.: The Effects of Early Handling on Viability of the Albino Rat , Psychol. Rev. 65:257-271, 1958. 8. Cameron, N.: Reasoning, Regression, and Communication in Schizophrenics, Psychological Monographs , Vol. 50, No. 1 (Whole No. 221), Columbus, Ohio, Psychological Review Company, 1938. 9. Cameron, N.: Behavior Pathology , Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951. 10. Carothers, J. C.: Study of Mental Derangement in Africans , Psychiatry 11:47-86, 1948. 11. Champman, L. J.: Distractability in the Conceptual Performance of Schizophrenics , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 53:286-291, 1956. 12. Chow, K. L., and Nissen, H. W.: Interocular Transfer of Learning in Visually Naive and Experienced Infant Chimpanzees , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 48:229-232, 1955. 13. Cohen, B. D.; Senf, R., and Huston, P. E.: Perceptual Accuracy in Schizophrenia, Depression, and Neurosis, and Effects of Amytal , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 52:363-367, 1956. 14. Despert, J.: Prophylactic Aspects of Schizophrenia in Childhood , Nerv. Child 1:199-236, 1942. 15. Eaton, J. W., and Weil, R. S.: Culture and Mental Disorders , Glencoe, Ill., Free Press, 1955. 16. Faris, R. E. L., and Dunham, H. W.: Mental Disorders in Urban Areas , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1939. 17. Feigl, H.: Philosophical Embarrassments of Psychology , Am. Psychologist 14:115-128, 1959. 18. Ferraro, A.: Interpretation of Cerebral Histopathologic Changes in Cases of Schizophrenia , J. Neuropath. & Exper. Neurol. 10:104-105, 1951. 19. Forgays, D. G., and Forgays, J. W.: The Nature of the Effect of Free Environmental Experience in the Rat , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 45:322-328, 1952. 20. Forgus, R. H.: The Effect of Early Perceptual Learning on the Behavioral Organization of Adult Rats , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 47:331-336, 1954. 21. Garfield, S. L.: A Preliminary Appraisal of Wechsler-Bellevue Scatter Patterns in Schizophrenia , J. Consult. Psychol. 12:32-36, 1948. 22. Garmezy, N.: Stimulus Differentiation by Schizophrenic and Normal Subjects Under Conditions of Reward and Punishment , J. Person. 20:253-276, 1950. 23. Gellhorn, E.: Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry , Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1953. 24. Goldstein, K.: The Significance of Special Mental Tests for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 96:575-578, 1939. 25. Hamburger, V.: The Concept of Development in Biology , in The Concept of Development: An Issue in Study of Human Behavior , edited by D. B. Harris, Minneapolis. University of Minnesota Press, 1957. 26. Harnly, M. H.: Flight Capacity in Relation to Phenotypic and Genotypic Variations in the Wings of Drosophila Melanogaster , J. Exper. Zool. 88:263-274, 1941. 27. Harlow, H.: The Formation of Learning Sets , Psychol. Rev. 56:51-65, 1949. 28. Harper, A. E.: Discrimination Between Schizophrenics and Normals , J. Consult. Psychol. 14:351-357, 1950. 29. Hebb, D. O.: Alice in Wonderland or Psychology Among the Biological Sciences , in Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior , edited by H. E. Harlow and C. N. Woolsey, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 30. Helfand, I.: Role Taking in Schizophrenia , J. Consult. Psychol. 20:37-41, 1956.Crossref 31. Hill, D., and others: A Central Homeostatic Mechanism in Schizophrenia , J. Ment. Sc. 97:111-131, 1951. 32. Hollingshead, A. B., and Redlich, F. C.: Social Class and Mental Illness: A Community Study , New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1958. 33. Hoskins, R. G.: The Biology of Schizophrenia , New York, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1946. 34. Huston, P. E., and Shakow, D.: Learning Capacity in Schizophrenia, with Special Reference to the Concept of Deterioration , Am. J. Psychiat. 105:881-888, 1949. 35. Jasper, H.: Reticular-Cortical Systems and Theories of the Integrative Action of the Brain , in Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior , edited by H. F. Harlow and C. N. Woolsey, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 36. Jenkins, R., and Glickman, S.: Common Syndromes in Child Psychiatry: II. The Schizoid Child , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 16:255-261, 1946.Crossref 37. Joseph, A., and Murray, V. F.: Chamorros and Carolinians of Saipan: Personality Studies , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1951. 38. Kallman, F. J.: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 103:309, 1946. 39. Kallman, F. J.: The Genetics of Psychotic Behavior Patterns , in Genetics and the Inheritance of Inherited Neurological and Psychiatric Patterns , edited by D. Hooker and C. C. Hare, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1954. 40. Kasanin, J.; Knight, E., and Sage, P.: The Parent-Child Relationship in Schizophrenia: I. Over-Protection-Rejection , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 79:249-263, 1934. 41. Lin, T. Y.: A Study of the Incidence of Mental Disorders in Chinese and Other Cultures , Psychiatry 16:313-336, 1953. 42. Lindsay, J. S. B.: Periodic Catatonia , J. Ment. Sc. 94:590-602, 1948 43. Linton, R.: Culture and Mental Disorders , edited by G. Devereux, Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956. 44. McGaughran, L. S., and Moran, L. J.: “Conceptual Level” vs. “Conceptual Area” Analysis of Object-Sorting in Schizophrenic and Nonpsychiatric Groups , J. Abnorm. & Social Psychol. 52:43-50, 1956. 45. Major, S.: Schizophrenia: A Diencephalic Syndrome , Psychiat. Quart. 23:83-92, 1949. 46. Magoun, H. W.: The Ascending Reticular Activating System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:480-492, 1950. 47. Magoun, H. W.: Non-Specific Brain Mechanisms , in Biological and Biochemical Bases of Behavior , edited by H. F. Harlow and C. W. Woolsey, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958. 48. Malzberg, B.: Social and Biological Aspects of Mental Disease , Utica, N.Y., State Hospitals Press, 1940. 49. Mednick, S. A.: A Learning Theory Approach to Research in Schizophrenia , Psychol. Bull. 55:316-327, 1958. 50. Mettler, F. A.: Perceptual Capacity, Functioning of the Corpus Striatum and Schizophrenia , Psychiat. Quart. 29:89-111, 1955. 51. Myerson, A.: Scrutiny, Social Anxiety, and Inner Turmoil in Relationship to Schizophrenia , Am. J. Psychiat. 105:401-409, 1948. 52. Nielsen, J. M.: The Basic Pathology of Schizophrenia , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 107:340-357, 1948. 53. Osgood, C. E.: Method and Theory in Experimental Psychology , New York, Oxford University Press, 1953. 54. Pastore, N.: The Genetics of Schizophrenia , Psychol. Bull. 26:285, 1949. 55. Peck, H. B.; Rabinovitch, R. D., and Cramer, J. B.: A Treatment Program for Parents of Schizophrenic Children , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 19:592-598, 1949. 56. Penfield, W.: Epileptic Automatisms and the Centrencephalic Integrating System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 30:513-518, 1950. 57. Peters, H. N.: Multiple Choice Learning in the Chronic Schizophrenic , J. Clin. Psychol. 9:328-333, 1953. 58. Rappaport, S. R.: Intellectual Deficit in Organics and Schizophrenics , J. Consult. Psychol. 13:279-287, 1949. 59. Rashkis, H. A.: Three Types of Thinking Disorders: An Investigation of the Behavior on Special Tests of Schizophrenics, General Paretics and Cerebral Arteriosclerotics , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 106:650-670, 1947. 60. Rashkis, H. A.: A General Theory of Treatment in Psychiatry , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 78:491-499, 1957. 61. Rashkis, H. A.: The Organization Factor as an Explanatory Principle in Functional Psychosis , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 80:513-519, 1958. 62. Rashkis, H. A., and Singer, R. D.: The Psychology of Schizophrenia , A.M.A. Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 1:406-416, 1959. 63. Rose, A. M., and Stub, H. R.: Summary of Studies on the Incidence of Mental Disorders , in Mental Health and Mental Disorders: A Sociological Approach Prepared for a Committee of the Society for Study of Social Problems , edited by A. M. Rose, New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1955. 64. Rosenzweig, N.: A Mechanism in Schizophrenia , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 74:544-555, 1955. 65. Samuels, I.: Reticular Mechanisms and Behavior , Psychol. Bull. 56:1-25, 1959. 66. Sapir, E.: Selected Writings in Language, Culture, and Personality , edited by D. G. Mandelbaum, Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1944, pp. 544-559. 67. Schneirla, T. C.: The Concept of Development in Comparative Psychology , in The Concept of Development , edited by D. B. Harris, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1957, pp. 78-108. 68. Scott, J. P.: The Genetic and Environmental Differentiation of Behavior , in The Concept of Development , edited by D. B. Harris, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1957. 69. Scott, W. A.: Social Psychological Correlates of Mental Illness and Mental Health , Psychol. Bull. 55:65-85, 1958. 70. Semerari, A.: Recent Views on the Inheritance of Schizophrenia , Rass. neuropsichiat. 4:513, 1950. 71. Shakow, D., and Huston, P. E.: Studies of Motor Functioning in Schizophrenia: I. Speed of Taping , J. Gen. Psychol. 15:63-108, 1936. 72. Shannon, C., and Weaver, W.: The Mathematical Theory of Communication , Urbana, Ill., University of Illinois Press, 1949. 73. Siegel, A. I.: Deprivation of Visual Form Definition in the Ring Dove: I. Discriminatory Learning , J. Comp. Physiol. & Psychol. 46:115-119, 1953. 74. Slater, E.: Psychiaytric Genetics , in Recent Progress in Psychiatry , Ed. 2, edited by G. W. Fleming, London, J. & A. Churchill, Ltd., 1950. 75. Smartt, C. G. F.: Mental Maladjustment in the East African , J. Ment. Sc. 102:441-466, 1956. 76. Snyder, L. H.: The Principles of Heredity , Ed. 4, Boston, D. C. Heath & Co., 1950. 77. Szalita-Pemow, A. B.: Remarks on Pathogenesis and Treatment in Schizophrenia , Psychiatry 14:295-300, 1951. 78. Szurek, S. A.: Psychotic Episodes and Psychotic Maldevelopment , Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 26:519-543, 1956. 79. Thurstone, L. L.: A Factorial Study of Perception , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1944. 80. Tietze, T.: A Study of Mothers of Schizophrenic Patients , Psychiatry 12:55-65, 1949. 81. Tooth, G.: Studies in Mental Illness in the Gold Coast , Research Publications No. 6, London, His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1950. 82. Vigotsky, L. S.: Thought in Schizophrenia , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 31:1063-1077, 1934. 83. Wallace, A. F. C.: Mazeway Resyntheses: A Biocultural Theory of Religious Inspiration , Tr. New York Acad. Sc. , Sec. II, 18:626-638, No. (7) , 1956. 84. Wallace, A. F. C.: The Quantity of Organization in Sociocultural Systems, unpublished paper supported by Grants M-883 and M-1106 from the National Institute of Mental Health. 85. Wallace, A. F. C.: Study of Processes of Organization and Revitalization of Psychological and Socio-Cultural Systems, Based on a Comparative Study of Nativistic Religious Revivals , Year Book of the American Philosophical Society, 1957, pp. 310-311. 86. Wallace, A. F. C.: The Psychic Unity of Human Groups in Studying Personality Cross Culturally, edited by B. Kaplan, Evanston, Ill., Row Peterson & Co., to be published. 87. Wedge, B. M., and Abe, S.: Racial Incidence of Mental Disease in Hawaii , Hawaii M. J. 8:337-338, 1949. 88. Wedge, B. M.: Occurrence of Psychosis Among Okinawans in Hawaii , Am. J. Psychiat. 109:255-258, 1952. 89. Weinstein, M. R.: Histopathological Changes in the Brain in Schizophrenia , A.M.A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 71:539-553, 1954. 90. Williams, R. J.; Berry, L. J., and Beerstecher, E., Jr.: Individual Metabolic Patterns, Alcoholism, Genetrotrophic Diseases , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 35:265-271, 1949.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1960

References