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On the Theory and Practice of Shaking Infants: Its Potential Residual Effects of Permanent Brain Damage and Mental Retardation

On the Theory and Practice of Shaking Infants: Its Potential Residual Effects of Permanent Brain... Abstract In the first modern discussion in 1946 of the parent-infant stress syndrome (PITS), or battered baby syndrome, I described six infants, 13 months or younger, who suffered from the combination of subdural hematomas and characteristic bone lesions.1 During the last 25 years2-5 substantial evidence, both manifest and circumstantial, has gradually accumulated which suggests that the whiplash-shaking and jerking of abused infants are common causes of the skeletal as well as the cerebrovascular lesions; the latter is the most serious acute complication and by far the most common cause of early death.6 Today we invite your attention to the evidence which supports our concept that the whiplash-shaking and jerking of infants are frequently pathogenic and often result in grave permanent damage to infantile brains and eyes. We shall also point out that potentially pathogenic whip-lash-shaking is practiced commonly in a wide variety of ways, under a wide References 1. Caffey J: Multiple fractures in the long bones of infants suffering from subdural hematoma . Amer J Roentgen 56:163-173, 1946. 2. Caffey J: Some traumatic lesions in the growing skeleton other than fractures and dislocations . Brit J Radiol 30:225-238, 1957.Crossref 3. Caffey J: Significance of the history in the diagnosis of traumatic injury to children . J Pediat 67:1000-1014, 1965.Crossref 4. Caffey J: Traumatic cupping of the metaphyses of growing bones . Amer J Roentgen 108:451-460, 1970.Crossref 5. Caffey J: The parent-infant traumatic stress syndrome; (Caffey-Kempe syndrome), (battered babe syndrome) . Amer J Roentgen 114:217-228, 1972.Crossref 6. Weston JT: The pathology of child abuse , in Helfer RE, Kempe CH (eds.): The Battered Child . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965, pp 77-100. 7. Steele BF, Pollock CB: A psychiatric study of parents who abuse infants and small children , in Helfer RE, Kempe CH (eds.): The Battered Child . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965, pp 103-147. 8. Guthkelch AN: Infantile subdural hematoma and its relationship to whiplash injuries . Brit Med J 2:430-431, 1971.Crossref 9. Kempe CH, Silverman FN, Steele BF, et al: The battered child syndrome . JAMA 181:17-24, 1962.Crossref 10. Swischuk LE: Spine and spinal cord trauma in the battered child syndrome . Radiology 92:733-737, 1969.Crossref 11. Staheli LT: Fever following trauma in childhood . JAMA 199:163-165, 1967.Crossref 12. Gilkes MJ: Fundi of battered babies . Lancet 2:468, 1967.Crossref 13. Ingraham FD, Matson DD: Neurosurgery of Infancy and Childhood . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1954. 14. Ford FR: Diseases of the Nervous System in Infancy and Childhood and Adolescence , ed 4. Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1960. 15. Kiffney GT: The eye of the "battered child." Arch Ophthal 72:231-233, 1964.Crossref 16. Maroteaux P, et al: The fundi of battered babies , Presse Med 75:711, 1967. 17. Friendly DS: Ocular manifestations of child abuse . Trans Amer Acad Opthal Otolaryng 75:318-332, 1971. 18. Lorber J, Granger RG: Cerebral cavities following ventricular puncture in infants . Clin Radiol 14:98-109, 1963.Crossref 19. Smith HV, Crothers B: Subdural fluid as a consequence of pneumoencephalography . Pediatrics 5:375-389, 1950. 20. Laurie H, Berne AS: A contribution on the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital communicating hydrocephalus: The syndrome of delayed hemorrhage into the cisterns of the transverse cerebral fissure of infants . Neurology 15:815-822, 1965.Crossref 21. Russel DS: Observation on the Pathology of Hydrocephalus , special report series 265, Medical Research Council. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1949. 22. Elmer E: Children in Jeopardy: A Study of Abused Minors and Their Families . Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967. 23. Morse CW, Sahler OJZ, Friedman SB: A three-year study of abused and neglected children . Amer J Dis Child 120:439-446, 1970. 24. Christy RA: Lengthening Shadows . Report of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the Delivery of Medical Care to Children, 1970, p 60. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

On the Theory and Practice of Shaking Infants: Its Potential Residual Effects of Permanent Brain Damage and Mental Retardation

American Journal of Diseases of Children , Volume 124 (2) – Aug 1, 1972

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1972 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1972.02110140011001
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract In the first modern discussion in 1946 of the parent-infant stress syndrome (PITS), or battered baby syndrome, I described six infants, 13 months or younger, who suffered from the combination of subdural hematomas and characteristic bone lesions.1 During the last 25 years2-5 substantial evidence, both manifest and circumstantial, has gradually accumulated which suggests that the whiplash-shaking and jerking of abused infants are common causes of the skeletal as well as the cerebrovascular lesions; the latter is the most serious acute complication and by far the most common cause of early death.6 Today we invite your attention to the evidence which supports our concept that the whiplash-shaking and jerking of infants are frequently pathogenic and often result in grave permanent damage to infantile brains and eyes. We shall also point out that potentially pathogenic whip-lash-shaking is practiced commonly in a wide variety of ways, under a wide References 1. Caffey J: Multiple fractures in the long bones of infants suffering from subdural hematoma . Amer J Roentgen 56:163-173, 1946. 2. Caffey J: Some traumatic lesions in the growing skeleton other than fractures and dislocations . Brit J Radiol 30:225-238, 1957.Crossref 3. Caffey J: Significance of the history in the diagnosis of traumatic injury to children . J Pediat 67:1000-1014, 1965.Crossref 4. Caffey J: Traumatic cupping of the metaphyses of growing bones . Amer J Roentgen 108:451-460, 1970.Crossref 5. Caffey J: The parent-infant traumatic stress syndrome; (Caffey-Kempe syndrome), (battered babe syndrome) . Amer J Roentgen 114:217-228, 1972.Crossref 6. Weston JT: The pathology of child abuse , in Helfer RE, Kempe CH (eds.): The Battered Child . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965, pp 77-100. 7. Steele BF, Pollock CB: A psychiatric study of parents who abuse infants and small children , in Helfer RE, Kempe CH (eds.): The Battered Child . Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1965, pp 103-147. 8. Guthkelch AN: Infantile subdural hematoma and its relationship to whiplash injuries . Brit Med J 2:430-431, 1971.Crossref 9. Kempe CH, Silverman FN, Steele BF, et al: The battered child syndrome . JAMA 181:17-24, 1962.Crossref 10. Swischuk LE: Spine and spinal cord trauma in the battered child syndrome . Radiology 92:733-737, 1969.Crossref 11. Staheli LT: Fever following trauma in childhood . JAMA 199:163-165, 1967.Crossref 12. Gilkes MJ: Fundi of battered babies . Lancet 2:468, 1967.Crossref 13. Ingraham FD, Matson DD: Neurosurgery of Infancy and Childhood . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1954. 14. Ford FR: Diseases of the Nervous System in Infancy and Childhood and Adolescence , ed 4. Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1960. 15. Kiffney GT: The eye of the "battered child." Arch Ophthal 72:231-233, 1964.Crossref 16. Maroteaux P, et al: The fundi of battered babies , Presse Med 75:711, 1967. 17. Friendly DS: Ocular manifestations of child abuse . Trans Amer Acad Opthal Otolaryng 75:318-332, 1971. 18. Lorber J, Granger RG: Cerebral cavities following ventricular puncture in infants . Clin Radiol 14:98-109, 1963.Crossref 19. Smith HV, Crothers B: Subdural fluid as a consequence of pneumoencephalography . Pediatrics 5:375-389, 1950. 20. Laurie H, Berne AS: A contribution on the etiology and pathogenesis of congenital communicating hydrocephalus: The syndrome of delayed hemorrhage into the cisterns of the transverse cerebral fissure of infants . Neurology 15:815-822, 1965.Crossref 21. Russel DS: Observation on the Pathology of Hydrocephalus , special report series 265, Medical Research Council. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1949. 22. Elmer E: Children in Jeopardy: A Study of Abused Minors and Their Families . Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1967. 23. Morse CW, Sahler OJZ, Friedman SB: A three-year study of abused and neglected children . Amer J Dis Child 120:439-446, 1970. 24. Christy RA: Lengthening Shadows . Report of the American Academy of Pediatrics on the Delivery of Medical Care to Children, 1970, p 60.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1972

References