Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

ON THE REINSPIRATION OF EXPIRED AIR

ON THE REINSPIRATION OF EXPIRED AIR Abstract I desire to record a phenomenon and to discuss its significance. The phenomenon is, the immediate reinspiration of a portion of our expired air. This occurs quite commonly — so commonly, in fact, that it is an accompaniment of respiration during the major part of the lives of many people, and during a large part of the lives of practically all. The observation of this phenomenon is not new. Lehmann1 and Heymann2 have each reported a small group of experiments, in which they determined the carbon dioxid of the inspired air, compared this with the carbon dioxid of the surrounding air, and from the difference computed the proportion of the breath which was reinspired. The proportion varied greatly. It was sometimes more than 6 per cent.; it dropped to zero in the open air and in a breeze of 3 meters per second. A few years ago References 1. Lehmann: Der Kohlensäuregehalt der Inspirationsluft im Freien und im Zimmer , Arch. f. Hyg. , 1899, xxxiv, 315. 2. Heymann: Ueber den Einfluss wieder eingeathmeter Expirationsluft auf die Kohlensäure-Abgabe , Ztschr. f. Hyg. , 1905, xlix, 388.Crossref 3. Crowder: A Study of the Ventilation of Sleeping Cars , The Archives Int. Med. , 1911, vii, 85.Crossref 4. Haldane and Priestly: The Regulation of the Lung Ventilation , Jour. Physiol. , 1905, xxxii, 225. 5. Hough: Variations in the Response of Healthy Men to the Dyspneic Conditions Produced by Breathing a Confined Volume of Air , Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1911, xxviii, 369. 6. Henderson and Russell: A Simple Method for Determining the Carbon Dioxid Content of the Alveolar Air , Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxix, 436. 7. Douglas and Haldane: The Dead Space of the Respiratory Passages , Jour. Physiol. , 1912 8. Abst. in Brit. Med. Jour. , (Nov. 16) , 1912, p. 1411. 9. Hill, Leonard: Caisson Sickness . Edward Arnold, London, 1912, p. 47. 10. Haldane and Poulton: The Effect of Want of Oxygen on Respiration , Jour. of Physiol. , 1908, xxxvii, 390. 11. Unless oxygen has fallen so low in the body that imperfect oxidation in the processes of metabolism causes the formation of abnormal acids, notably lactic, which reinforce the CO2 in the blood for action on the respiratory center. 12. The unit volume of the tidal air when the inspired air is pure (4CO2 per 10,000), is assumed to be one-fifth of the volume remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration. This is about the average for quiet breathing. Hough5 and Douglas and Haldane7 have shown that increase in the pulmonary ventilation is brought about chiefly by increasing the depth of inspiration, supplemented when necessary by an increase in the rate of breathing and then by increased expiratory effort. The curve in the chart is constructed to depth of inspiration only, and assumes not only a constant rate of production of CO2 in the body, but a constant rate of breathing and a constant volume of air in the lungs at the end of expiration. The figures in the chart are essentially correct for the increasing minute-volume of pulmonary ventilation, whatever the change in breathing by which this is brought about, when the unit is based on the removal by the outgoing tidal air of an average production of CO2 by the resting body, which is really the better way to express the relation. 13. Crowder, The Archives Int. Med. , 1911, vii, 85Crossref 14. Trans. of the Section on Preventive Medicine and Public Health , Am. Med. Assn. , 1911, 177 15. The Archives Int. Med. , 1913, xi, 66.Crossref 16. Flügge, Heymann, Paul, Erclenz: Ztschr. f. Hyg. , 1905, xlix, 363, 388, 405, 433.Crossref 17. Weichardt: Arch. f. Hyg. , 1908, lxv, 252 18. 1911, lxxiv, 185. 19. Inabe: Ueber das Kenotoxin Weichardts in dem Ausathmungsluft , Ztschr. f. Hyg. , 1911, lxviii, i. 20. Amoss: Organic Matter in the Expired Breath , Jour. of Exper. Med. , 1913, xvii, 132.Crossref 21. Hill, Leonard: The Influence of Ozone in Ventilation. Jour. Royal Soc. Arts , 1912, lx, 344. 22. Rosenau and Amoss: Organic Matter in the Expired Breath , Jour. Med. Research , 1911, xxv, 35. 23. Wells: Studies of the Chemistry of Anaphylaxis , Jour. Infect. Dis. , 1908, v, 449.Crossref 24. Sewall: On What Do the Hygienic and Therapeutic Virtues of the Open Air Depend , Jour. Am. Med. Assn. , 1912, lviii, 174.Crossref 25. Melzer: Factors of Safety in Animal Structure and Animal Economy , Harvey Lectures, New York, 1907-8, p. 139. 26. Boycott and Haldane: The Effects of Low Atmospheric Pressure on Respiration , Jour. Physiol. , 1908, xxxvii, 335. 27. Bernard et Mantoux: Capacité pulmonare minima compatible avec la vie , Jour. de physiol. exper. , 1913, xv, 16 28. Ed. Abstr. in Jour. Am. Med. Assn. , 1913, lx, 1794 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

ON THE REINSPIRATION OF EXPIRED AIR

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume XII (4) – Oct 1, 1913

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/on-the-reinspiration-of-expired-air-SuuYXjv3Bh
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1913 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1913.00070040065005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract I desire to record a phenomenon and to discuss its significance. The phenomenon is, the immediate reinspiration of a portion of our expired air. This occurs quite commonly — so commonly, in fact, that it is an accompaniment of respiration during the major part of the lives of many people, and during a large part of the lives of practically all. The observation of this phenomenon is not new. Lehmann1 and Heymann2 have each reported a small group of experiments, in which they determined the carbon dioxid of the inspired air, compared this with the carbon dioxid of the surrounding air, and from the difference computed the proportion of the breath which was reinspired. The proportion varied greatly. It was sometimes more than 6 per cent.; it dropped to zero in the open air and in a breeze of 3 meters per second. A few years ago References 1. Lehmann: Der Kohlensäuregehalt der Inspirationsluft im Freien und im Zimmer , Arch. f. Hyg. , 1899, xxxiv, 315. 2. Heymann: Ueber den Einfluss wieder eingeathmeter Expirationsluft auf die Kohlensäure-Abgabe , Ztschr. f. Hyg. , 1905, xlix, 388.Crossref 3. Crowder: A Study of the Ventilation of Sleeping Cars , The Archives Int. Med. , 1911, vii, 85.Crossref 4. Haldane and Priestly: The Regulation of the Lung Ventilation , Jour. Physiol. , 1905, xxxii, 225. 5. Hough: Variations in the Response of Healthy Men to the Dyspneic Conditions Produced by Breathing a Confined Volume of Air , Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1911, xxviii, 369. 6. Henderson and Russell: A Simple Method for Determining the Carbon Dioxid Content of the Alveolar Air , Am. Jour. Physiol. , 1912, xxix, 436. 7. Douglas and Haldane: The Dead Space of the Respiratory Passages , Jour. Physiol. , 1912 8. Abst. in Brit. Med. Jour. , (Nov. 16) , 1912, p. 1411. 9. Hill, Leonard: Caisson Sickness . Edward Arnold, London, 1912, p. 47. 10. Haldane and Poulton: The Effect of Want of Oxygen on Respiration , Jour. of Physiol. , 1908, xxxvii, 390. 11. Unless oxygen has fallen so low in the body that imperfect oxidation in the processes of metabolism causes the formation of abnormal acids, notably lactic, which reinforce the CO2 in the blood for action on the respiratory center. 12. The unit volume of the tidal air when the inspired air is pure (4CO2 per 10,000), is assumed to be one-fifth of the volume remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration. This is about the average for quiet breathing. Hough5 and Douglas and Haldane7 have shown that increase in the pulmonary ventilation is brought about chiefly by increasing the depth of inspiration, supplemented when necessary by an increase in the rate of breathing and then by increased expiratory effort. The curve in the chart is constructed to depth of inspiration only, and assumes not only a constant rate of production of CO2 in the body, but a constant rate of breathing and a constant volume of air in the lungs at the end of expiration. The figures in the chart are essentially correct for the increasing minute-volume of pulmonary ventilation, whatever the change in breathing by which this is brought about, when the unit is based on the removal by the outgoing tidal air of an average production of CO2 by the resting body, which is really the better way to express the relation. 13. Crowder, The Archives Int. Med. , 1911, vii, 85Crossref 14. Trans. of the Section on Preventive Medicine and Public Health , Am. Med. Assn. , 1911, 177 15. The Archives Int. Med. , 1913, xi, 66.Crossref 16. Flügge, Heymann, Paul, Erclenz: Ztschr. f. Hyg. , 1905, xlix, 363, 388, 405, 433.Crossref 17. Weichardt: Arch. f. Hyg. , 1908, lxv, 252 18. 1911, lxxiv, 185. 19. Inabe: Ueber das Kenotoxin Weichardts in dem Ausathmungsluft , Ztschr. f. Hyg. , 1911, lxviii, i. 20. Amoss: Organic Matter in the Expired Breath , Jour. of Exper. Med. , 1913, xvii, 132.Crossref 21. Hill, Leonard: The Influence of Ozone in Ventilation. Jour. Royal Soc. Arts , 1912, lx, 344. 22. Rosenau and Amoss: Organic Matter in the Expired Breath , Jour. Med. Research , 1911, xxv, 35. 23. Wells: Studies of the Chemistry of Anaphylaxis , Jour. Infect. Dis. , 1908, v, 449.Crossref 24. Sewall: On What Do the Hygienic and Therapeutic Virtues of the Open Air Depend , Jour. Am. Med. Assn. , 1912, lviii, 174.Crossref 25. Melzer: Factors of Safety in Animal Structure and Animal Economy , Harvey Lectures, New York, 1907-8, p. 139. 26. Boycott and Haldane: The Effects of Low Atmospheric Pressure on Respiration , Jour. Physiol. , 1908, xxxvii, 335. 27. Bernard et Mantoux: Capacité pulmonare minima compatible avec la vie , Jour. de physiol. exper. , 1913, xv, 16 28. Ed. Abstr. in Jour. Am. Med. Assn. , 1913, lx, 1794

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1913

References