Abstract DURING the past four years numerous experiments have been carried out which had in common the fact that a person subjected to a change in direction of resultant force relative to himself experienced an illusion. This consisted partly of a feeling of being tilted and of assuming a new position in space and partly of an impression that objects in the visual field moved and occupied new positions in space. These changes accorded more or less with the change in direction of the resultant force. The visual component of this phenomenon was called the "oculogravic illusion," and time has proved the usefulness of this descriptive term. Although this illusion has been known since the time of Mach,1 it has not been the object of intensive investigation. No attempt will be made to summarize past work in this field, since this has already been reviewed adequately in other places.2 References 1. Mach, E.: Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen , Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann, 1875. 2. Boring, E. G.: History of Experimental Psychology , New York, D. Appleton-Century Company, Inc., 1942. 3. Dusser de Barenne, J. G.: The Labyrinthine and Postural Mechanisms , in A Handbook of General Experimental Psychology , edited by C. Murchison, Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1934, pp. 204-246. 4. Griffith, C. R.: Historical Survey of Vestibular Equilibration , Univ. Illinois Bull. 20:1-178, 1922. 5. McNally, W. J., and Stuart, E. A.: Physiology of Labyrinth Reviewed in Relation to Seasickness and Other Forms of Motion Sickness , War Med. 2:683-771, 1942. 6. Witkin, H. A.: Perception of Upright When Direction of Force Acting on Body Is Changed , J. Exper. Psychol. 40:93-106, 1950.Crossref 7. (a) Graybiel, A.; Clark, B., and MacCorquodale, K.: Illusory Perception of Movement Caused by Angular Acceleration and by Centrifugal Force During Flight: I. Methodology and Preliminary Results , J. Exper. Psychol. 37:170-177, 1947.Crossref 8. (b) Clark, B.; Graybiel, A., and MacCorquodale, K.: IV. Illusory Rotation of a Target During Turns , Am. J. Psychol. 61:50-58, 1948.Crossref 9. (c) Clark, B., and Graybiel, A.: Apparent Rotation of Fixed Target Associated with Linear Acceleration in Flight , Am. J. Ophth. 32:549-557, 1949. 10. (d) Graybiel, A., and Brown, R. H.: Delay in Visual Reorientation Following Exposure to Change in Direction of Resultant Force on Human Centrifuge , J. Gen. Psychol. 45:143-150, 1951.Crossref 11. (e) Clark, B., and Graybiel, A.: Visual Perception of Horizontal Following Exposure to Radial Acceleration on Centrifuge , J. Comp. & Physiol. Psychol. 44:525-534, 1951. 12. Clark, B., and Graybiel, A.: A Device to Manipulate and to Indicate the Position of Remote Test Objects in Studies of Visual Space Perception, U. S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Project NM 001 059.01.26, Research Report, Dec. 6, 1951. 13. This concept was presented before the annual meeting of the Aero Medical Association in 1950, and will form part of a forthcoming report by Mr. Frederick Dixon and Dr. John L. Patterson Jr. 14. Graybiel, A., and Clark, B.: Autokinetic Illusion and Its Significance in Night Flying , J. Aviat. Med. 16:111-151, 1945. 15. Graybiel, A., and Hupp, D.: The Oculo-Gyral Illusion: A Form of Apparent Motion Which May Be Observed Following Stimulation of Semicircular Canals , J. Aviat. Med. 17:3-27, 1946. 16. A slight separation of after-image and real target in the horizontal plane may be observed during the apparent rise and fall of the targets. This is due to rotation nystagmus caused by angular acceleration.7 17. Brown, R. H.: Imus, H.; Niven, I. J., and Graybiel, A.: Relationship Between Apparent Displacement and Motion in the Oculogyral Illusion, U. S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine and Tulane University, Pensacola, Fla., Project No. 001 037, Joint Report 1, May 1, 1949. 18. Patterson, J. L., Jr., and Graybiel, A.: Thresholds of Stimulation of Otolith Organ in Man as Determined by Oculogravic Illusion, to be published. 19. Verhoeff, F. H.: Phi Phenomenon and Anomalous Projection , Arch. Ophth. 24:247-251, 1940.
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 1, 1952
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