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Ocular Neovascularization With Retinal Vascular Occlusion: II. Occurrence in Central and Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

Ocular Neovascularization With Retinal Vascular Occlusion: II. Occurrence in Central and Branch... Abstract • Sixty-one patients (64 eyes) with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and 41 patients (44 eyes) with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) were studied in detail clinically to find out the pathogenesis of their ocular neovascularization (NV). Ocular NV was seen in 12 eyes (11 patients) with CRAO: iris NV was seen in all 12 eyes, angle NV was seen with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) in ten of them, and no NV was seen in BRAO. Nine of ten patients with CRAO associated with NVG were old, having severe carotid artery disease (CAD) and severe generalized atherosclerotic arterial disease; in the remaining patient, NVG was caused by diabetes mellitus. Severe CAD results in chronic ocular ischemia, which, in turn, produces NV of the iris and angle and NVG; the latter, combined with poor perfusion pressure in the central retinal artery (caused by severe CAD), results in CRAO. Our study showed little evidence that CRAO, per se, is responsible for ocular NV. Various evidence in support of this hypothesis is presented. Our study also showed that the only eyes to recover good vision were those with transient CRAO for up to 1½ hours, and no treatment helped. References 1. Loring EG: Remarks on embolism . Am J Med Sci 1874;67:313-328.Crossref 2. Nettleship E: Embolism of central artery of rentina: Microscopical examination . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1876;8:9-20. 3. Watson WS, Nettleship E: A case of embolism of the central artery of the retina . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1875;8:251-259. 4. Manz W: Anatomische untersuchung eines an Embolie der Arteria Centralis Retinae erblindeten Auges , in Festschrift zur Feier des Siebzigsten Geburtstages Von Hermann Von Helmholtz . Hamburg, Von L Voss, 1891, vol 14, pp 264-273. 5. Marple WB: A contribution to the pathology of embolism of the central artery of the retina . NY Eye Ear Infirm Rep 1895;3:1-16. 6. Ridley NC: Notes of a case of thrombosis of the central artery of the retina, with acute glaucoma as a sequel . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1895;14:264-273. 7. Galinowsky Z: Ueber endarteriitis der arteria centralis retinae mit concrementbildung . Arch Augenheilkd 1901;43:183-199. 8. Coats G: Obstruction of the central artery of the retina . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1905;16:262-306. 9. Harms C: Anatomische untersuchungen über gefässerkrakungen im gebiete der Arteria und Vena Centralis Retinae und ihre folgen für die cirkulation mit besonderer berucksichtigung des sog: Hamorrhagischen infarktes der netzhaut . Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 1905;61:1-151.Crossref 10. Schwitzer H: Embolia arteriae centralis Retinae . Z Augenheilkd 1906;16:61-62. 11. Coats G: Pathology of obstruction of the central artery of the retina . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1914;19:45-70. 12. Opin: Embolie de l'artere centrale de la retine et glaucome secondaire . Arch Ophtalmol 1927;44:321-341. 13. Villard H, DeJean C: Thrombose de l'artere centrale de la retine . Ann Ocul 1928;165:241-247. 14. Bussola E: Embolia dell'arteria centrale della retina e glaucoma secondario . Boll Ocul 1930:9:495-512. 15. Ross JVM: Bilateral occlusion of central retinal artery—complicated by bilateral secondary glaucoma . Ear Nose Throat J 1950;29:561-578. 16. Holt H: Closure of the central artery . Am J Ophthalmol 1951;34:1760-1761. 17. Benton CD: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Arch Ophthalmol 1953;49:280-284.Crossref 18. Winter FC: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Trans Pac Coast Otoophthalmol Soc Annu Meet 1957;38:9-16. 19. Wolter JR, Liddicoat DA: Secondary glaucoma following occlusion of the central artery of the retina . Am J Ophthalmol 1958;46:182-186. 20. Wolter JR, Lubeck MJ: Sekundärglaukom nach verschlub der Zentralarterie der Netzhaut . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1958;133:179-189. 21. Holm A, Sachs J, Wilson A: Glaucoma secondary to occlusion of central retinal artery . Am J Ophthalmol 1959;48:530-532. 22. Perraut LE, Zimmerman LE: The occurrence of glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Arch Ophthalmol 1959; 61:845-865.Crossref 23. Wolter JR, Phillips RL: Secondary glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Am J Ophthalmol 1959;47:335-340. 24. Gupta JS: Secondary glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Br J Ophthalmol 1960;44:52.Crossref 25. Zoldan T: Sopra due casi di glaucoma secondario ad occlusione dell'arteria centrale della retina . Boll Ocul 1960;39:484-489. 26. Appelmans M, Michiels J, Lebas P: Obliteration de l'artere centrale de la retine compliquee d'hypertension oculaire . Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 1961;127:174-184. 27. Sedan J: Le glaucome, complication inhabituelle de la thrombose de l'artere centrale de la retine . Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1961, pp 101-104. 28. Weiss DI, Leopold IH: Prognosis of secondary glaucoma following retinal artery occlusion . Am J Ophthalmol 1961;51:793-796. 29. Madsen PH: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Acta Ophthalmol 1965;43:350-354.Crossref 30. Asbury T, Spaulding AG, Perry LD: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1970;68:41-55. 31. Karjalainen K: Occlusion of the central retinal artery and retinal branch arterioles . Acta Ophthalmol 1971;109( (suppl) ):1-96. 32. Wolter JR: Double embolism of the central retinal artery and one long posterior ciliary artery followed by secondary hemorrhagic glaucoma . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;73:651-657. 33. Wolter JR, Ryan RW: Atheromatous embolism of the central retinal artery . Arch Ophthalmol 1972;87:301-304.Crossref 34. Knapp H: Report on the meeting of the American Ophthalmological Society . Arch Ophthalmol 1880;9:340. 35. Uhthoff W: Zu den arteriellen und venösen zirkulationsstörungen der netzhaut . Dtsch Ophtalmol Ges Heidelberg 1925;45:63-76. 36. Benedict WL: The clinical significance of closure of the retinal vessels . J Med Assoc Ga 1949;38:423-433. 37. Liversedge LA, Smith VH: Neuromedical and ophthalmic aspects of central retinal artery occlusion . Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1962;82:571-588. 38. Meythaler H: Über die verschlüsse von blutgefäBen der Netzhaut . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1966;149:32-41. 39. Von Hofe K, Brossog E: Über die ergebnisse vergleichender klinischer untersuchungen bei Arteriellen und Venösen gefäBverschlüssen der Netzhaut . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1967;150:16-26. 40. Anderson DM, Morin JD, Hunter WS: Rubeosis iridis . Can J Ophthalmol 1971;6:183-188. 41. Hoskins HD: Neovascular glaucoma: Current concepts . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1974;78:330-333. 42. Appen RE, Wray SH, Cogan DG: Central retinal artery occlusion . Am J Ophthalmol 1975;79:374-381. 43. Duke-Elder S, Dobree JH: System of Ophthalmology . London, Kimpton, 1967, vol 10, p 77. 44. Smith JL: Unilateral glaucoma in carotid occlusive disease . JAMA 1962;182:683-684.Crossref 45. Brown GC, Magargal LE, Shields JA, et al: Retinal arterial obstruction in children and young adults . Ophthalmology 1981;88:18-25.Crossref 46. Knox DL: Ischemic ocular inflammation . Am J Ophthalmol 1965;60:995-1002. 47. Michelson PE, Knox DL, Green WR: Ischemic ocular inflammation . Arch Ophthalmol 1971;86:274-280.Crossref 48. Schmidt H: Beitrag zur kenntniss der Embolie der Arteria Centralis Retinae . Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 1874;20:287-307.Crossref 49. Harbitz F: Bilateral carotid arteritis . Arch Pathol Lab Med 1926;1:499-510. 50. Skipper EW, Flint FJ: Symmetrical arterial occlusion of upper extremities, head, and neck: A rare syndrome . Br Med J 1952;2:9-14.Crossref 51. Heydenreich A: Die durchblutungsströrungen am Auge bei der 'pulseless disease.' Z Aerztl Fortbild 1957;5:199-204. 52. Pavlou AT, Wolff HG: The bulbar conjunctival vessels in occlusions of the internal carotid artery . Arch Intern Med 1959;104:53-60.Crossref 53. Vergez A: Syndrome oculaire rare au cours d'une thrombose carotidienne spontanee (thrombose de l'artere ophtalmique) . Ann Ocul 1959; 192:376-384. 54. Miller SJH: Carotid insufficiency . Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1960;80:287-299. 55. Bronner A: L'ischemie neuro-retinienne par obliteration de l'ophtalmique: Interet dynamometrique et peirmetrique . Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1961;5-6:315-319. 56. Hager H: Die Diagnose der karotisthrombose durch den augenarzt . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1962;141:801-840. 57. Weiss DI, Shaffer RN, Nehrenberg TR: Neovascular glaucoma complicating carotid-cavernous fistula . Arch Ophthalmol 1963;69:304-307.Crossref 58. Hoefnagels KLJ: Rubeosis of the iris associated with occlusions of the carotid artery . Ophthalmologica 1964;148:196-200.Crossref 59. Bronner A, Lobstein PA: Le syndrome d'occlusion de l'artere ophtalmique . Doc Ophthalmol 1966;20:660-668. 60. Bettelheim H: Die Obliteration der Arteria Ophthalmica . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1967; 150:636-643. 61. Schulze RR: Rubeosis iridis . Am J Ophthalmol 1967;63:487-495. 62. Sanders MD, Hoyt WF: Hypoxic ocular sequelae of carotid-cavernous fistulae . Br J Ophthalmol 1969;53:82-97.Crossref 63. Hart CT, Haworth S: Bilateral common carotid occlusion with hypoxic ocular sequelae . Br J Ophthalmol 1971;55:383-388.Crossref 64. Bullock JD, Falter RT, Downing JE, et al: Ischemic ophthalmia secondary to an ophthalmic artery occlusion . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;74:486-493. 65. Huckman MS, Haas J: Reversed flow through the ophthalmic artery as a cause of rubeosis iridis . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;74:1094-1099. 66. Makabe R: Eigenartiges neovaskulares glaukom nach verschlusz der carotis interna . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1974;164:700-704. 67. Nishikawa N, Fukuda M, Shimizu Y, et al: Rubeotic glaucoma secondary to internal carotid artery occlusion . Folia Ophthalmol Jpn 1977; 28:841-846. 68. Eggleston TF, Bohlwig CA, Eggleston HC, et al: Photocoagulation for ocular ischemia associated with carotid artery occlusion . Ann Ophthalmol 1980;12:84-87. 69. Harris MJ, Fine SL, Miller NR: Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative retinopathy secondary to a carotid-cavernous fistula . Am J Ophthalmol 1980;90:515-518. 70. Raitta C: Die bedeutung des ziliarkreislaufs für die Irisneovaskularisation . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1980;177:354-361.Crossref 71. Young LHY, Appen RE: Ischemic oculopathy: A manifestation of carotid artery disease . Arch Neurol 1981;38:358-361.Crossref 72. Bietti GB, Neuschüler R: On the behaviour of the intraocular pressure in patients with obstructive lesions of the carotis . Bibl Ophthalmol 1968;76:215-226. 73. Russell RWR: Transient cerebral ischemia , in Cerebral Arterial Disease . Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1976, pp 125-145. 74. Wise GN, Dollery CT, Henkind P: The Retinal Circulation . New York, Harper & Row Inc, 1971, p 299. 75. Toole JF, Yuson CP, Janeway R, et al: Transient ischemic attacks: A prospective study of 225 patients . Neurology 1978;28:746-753.Crossref 76. Schwartz CJ, Mitchell JRA: Atheroma of the carotid and vertebral arterial systems . Br Med J 1961;2:1057-1963.Crossref 77. Wilson LA, Warlow CP, Russell RWR: Cardiovascular disease in patients with retinal arterial occlusions . Lancet 1979;1:292-294.Crossref 78. Lorentzen SE: Occlusion of the central retinal artery: A follow-up . Acta Ophthalmol 1969;47:690-703.Crossref 79. Willerson D, Aaberg TM: Acute central retinal artery occlusion and optic disc neovascularization . Arch Ophthalmol 1978;96:451-452.Crossref 80. Verhoeff FH: The effect of chronic glaucoma on the central retinal vessels . Arch Ophthalmol 1913;42:145-152. 81. Leber T: Die Krankheiten der netzhaut , in Graefe-Saemisch-Hess Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde . Leipzig, Englemann, 1915, vol 7, 2, pp 195-196. 82. Wise GN: In discussion of paper by Asbury et al.30 Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1970;68:52-53. 83. Hayreh SS, Kolder HE, Weingeist TA: Central retinal artery occlusion and retinal tolerance time . Ophthalmology 1980;87:75-78.Crossref 84. Hayreh SS, Weingeist TA: Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina: I. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein fundus angiographic studies . Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:896-912.Crossref 85. Hayreh SS, Weingeist TA: Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina: IV. Retinal tolerance time to acute ischaemia . Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:818-825.Crossref 86. Augsburger JJ, Magargal LE: Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction . Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:913-917.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Ocular Neovascularization With Retinal Vascular Occlusion: II. Occurrence in Central and Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1982 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
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1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1982.01030040563002
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Abstract

Abstract • Sixty-one patients (64 eyes) with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and 41 patients (44 eyes) with branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) were studied in detail clinically to find out the pathogenesis of their ocular neovascularization (NV). Ocular NV was seen in 12 eyes (11 patients) with CRAO: iris NV was seen in all 12 eyes, angle NV was seen with neovascular glaucoma (NVG) in ten of them, and no NV was seen in BRAO. Nine of ten patients with CRAO associated with NVG were old, having severe carotid artery disease (CAD) and severe generalized atherosclerotic arterial disease; in the remaining patient, NVG was caused by diabetes mellitus. Severe CAD results in chronic ocular ischemia, which, in turn, produces NV of the iris and angle and NVG; the latter, combined with poor perfusion pressure in the central retinal artery (caused by severe CAD), results in CRAO. Our study showed little evidence that CRAO, per se, is responsible for ocular NV. Various evidence in support of this hypothesis is presented. Our study also showed that the only eyes to recover good vision were those with transient CRAO for up to 1½ hours, and no treatment helped. References 1. Loring EG: Remarks on embolism . Am J Med Sci 1874;67:313-328.Crossref 2. Nettleship E: Embolism of central artery of rentina: Microscopical examination . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1876;8:9-20. 3. Watson WS, Nettleship E: A case of embolism of the central artery of the retina . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1875;8:251-259. 4. Manz W: Anatomische untersuchung eines an Embolie der Arteria Centralis Retinae erblindeten Auges , in Festschrift zur Feier des Siebzigsten Geburtstages Von Hermann Von Helmholtz . Hamburg, Von L Voss, 1891, vol 14, pp 264-273. 5. Marple WB: A contribution to the pathology of embolism of the central artery of the retina . NY Eye Ear Infirm Rep 1895;3:1-16. 6. Ridley NC: Notes of a case of thrombosis of the central artery of the retina, with acute glaucoma as a sequel . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1895;14:264-273. 7. Galinowsky Z: Ueber endarteriitis der arteria centralis retinae mit concrementbildung . Arch Augenheilkd 1901;43:183-199. 8. Coats G: Obstruction of the central artery of the retina . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1905;16:262-306. 9. Harms C: Anatomische untersuchungen über gefässerkrakungen im gebiete der Arteria und Vena Centralis Retinae und ihre folgen für die cirkulation mit besonderer berucksichtigung des sog: Hamorrhagischen infarktes der netzhaut . Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 1905;61:1-151.Crossref 10. Schwitzer H: Embolia arteriae centralis Retinae . Z Augenheilkd 1906;16:61-62. 11. Coats G: Pathology of obstruction of the central artery of the retina . R Lond Ophthalmol Hosp Rep 1914;19:45-70. 12. Opin: Embolie de l'artere centrale de la retine et glaucome secondaire . Arch Ophtalmol 1927;44:321-341. 13. Villard H, DeJean C: Thrombose de l'artere centrale de la retine . Ann Ocul 1928;165:241-247. 14. Bussola E: Embolia dell'arteria centrale della retina e glaucoma secondario . Boll Ocul 1930:9:495-512. 15. Ross JVM: Bilateral occlusion of central retinal artery—complicated by bilateral secondary glaucoma . Ear Nose Throat J 1950;29:561-578. 16. Holt H: Closure of the central artery . Am J Ophthalmol 1951;34:1760-1761. 17. Benton CD: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Arch Ophthalmol 1953;49:280-284.Crossref 18. Winter FC: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Trans Pac Coast Otoophthalmol Soc Annu Meet 1957;38:9-16. 19. Wolter JR, Liddicoat DA: Secondary glaucoma following occlusion of the central artery of the retina . Am J Ophthalmol 1958;46:182-186. 20. Wolter JR, Lubeck MJ: Sekundärglaukom nach verschlub der Zentralarterie der Netzhaut . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1958;133:179-189. 21. Holm A, Sachs J, Wilson A: Glaucoma secondary to occlusion of central retinal artery . Am J Ophthalmol 1959;48:530-532. 22. Perraut LE, Zimmerman LE: The occurrence of glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Arch Ophthalmol 1959; 61:845-865.Crossref 23. Wolter JR, Phillips RL: Secondary glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Am J Ophthalmol 1959;47:335-340. 24. Gupta JS: Secondary glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Br J Ophthalmol 1960;44:52.Crossref 25. Zoldan T: Sopra due casi di glaucoma secondario ad occlusione dell'arteria centrale della retina . Boll Ocul 1960;39:484-489. 26. Appelmans M, Michiels J, Lebas P: Obliteration de l'artere centrale de la retine compliquee d'hypertension oculaire . Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 1961;127:174-184. 27. Sedan J: Le glaucome, complication inhabituelle de la thrombose de l'artere centrale de la retine . Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1961, pp 101-104. 28. Weiss DI, Leopold IH: Prognosis of secondary glaucoma following retinal artery occlusion . Am J Ophthalmol 1961;51:793-796. 29. Madsen PH: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Acta Ophthalmol 1965;43:350-354.Crossref 30. Asbury T, Spaulding AG, Perry LD: Glaucoma following occlusion of the central retinal artery . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1970;68:41-55. 31. Karjalainen K: Occlusion of the central retinal artery and retinal branch arterioles . Acta Ophthalmol 1971;109( (suppl) ):1-96. 32. Wolter JR: Double embolism of the central retinal artery and one long posterior ciliary artery followed by secondary hemorrhagic glaucoma . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;73:651-657. 33. Wolter JR, Ryan RW: Atheromatous embolism of the central retinal artery . Arch Ophthalmol 1972;87:301-304.Crossref 34. Knapp H: Report on the meeting of the American Ophthalmological Society . Arch Ophthalmol 1880;9:340. 35. Uhthoff W: Zu den arteriellen und venösen zirkulationsstörungen der netzhaut . Dtsch Ophtalmol Ges Heidelberg 1925;45:63-76. 36. Benedict WL: The clinical significance of closure of the retinal vessels . J Med Assoc Ga 1949;38:423-433. 37. Liversedge LA, Smith VH: Neuromedical and ophthalmic aspects of central retinal artery occlusion . Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1962;82:571-588. 38. Meythaler H: Über die verschlüsse von blutgefäBen der Netzhaut . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1966;149:32-41. 39. Von Hofe K, Brossog E: Über die ergebnisse vergleichender klinischer untersuchungen bei Arteriellen und Venösen gefäBverschlüssen der Netzhaut . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1967;150:16-26. 40. Anderson DM, Morin JD, Hunter WS: Rubeosis iridis . Can J Ophthalmol 1971;6:183-188. 41. Hoskins HD: Neovascular glaucoma: Current concepts . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1974;78:330-333. 42. Appen RE, Wray SH, Cogan DG: Central retinal artery occlusion . Am J Ophthalmol 1975;79:374-381. 43. Duke-Elder S, Dobree JH: System of Ophthalmology . London, Kimpton, 1967, vol 10, p 77. 44. Smith JL: Unilateral glaucoma in carotid occlusive disease . JAMA 1962;182:683-684.Crossref 45. Brown GC, Magargal LE, Shields JA, et al: Retinal arterial obstruction in children and young adults . Ophthalmology 1981;88:18-25.Crossref 46. Knox DL: Ischemic ocular inflammation . Am J Ophthalmol 1965;60:995-1002. 47. Michelson PE, Knox DL, Green WR: Ischemic ocular inflammation . Arch Ophthalmol 1971;86:274-280.Crossref 48. Schmidt H: Beitrag zur kenntniss der Embolie der Arteria Centralis Retinae . Albrecht Von Graefes Arch Klin Exp Ophthalmol 1874;20:287-307.Crossref 49. Harbitz F: Bilateral carotid arteritis . Arch Pathol Lab Med 1926;1:499-510. 50. Skipper EW, Flint FJ: Symmetrical arterial occlusion of upper extremities, head, and neck: A rare syndrome . Br Med J 1952;2:9-14.Crossref 51. Heydenreich A: Die durchblutungsströrungen am Auge bei der 'pulseless disease.' Z Aerztl Fortbild 1957;5:199-204. 52. Pavlou AT, Wolff HG: The bulbar conjunctival vessels in occlusions of the internal carotid artery . Arch Intern Med 1959;104:53-60.Crossref 53. Vergez A: Syndrome oculaire rare au cours d'une thrombose carotidienne spontanee (thrombose de l'artere ophtalmique) . Ann Ocul 1959; 192:376-384. 54. Miller SJH: Carotid insufficiency . Trans Ophthalmol Soc UK 1960;80:287-299. 55. Bronner A: L'ischemie neuro-retinienne par obliteration de l'ophtalmique: Interet dynamometrique et peirmetrique . Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1961;5-6:315-319. 56. Hager H: Die Diagnose der karotisthrombose durch den augenarzt . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1962;141:801-840. 57. Weiss DI, Shaffer RN, Nehrenberg TR: Neovascular glaucoma complicating carotid-cavernous fistula . Arch Ophthalmol 1963;69:304-307.Crossref 58. Hoefnagels KLJ: Rubeosis of the iris associated with occlusions of the carotid artery . Ophthalmologica 1964;148:196-200.Crossref 59. Bronner A, Lobstein PA: Le syndrome d'occlusion de l'artere ophtalmique . Doc Ophthalmol 1966;20:660-668. 60. Bettelheim H: Die Obliteration der Arteria Ophthalmica . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1967; 150:636-643. 61. Schulze RR: Rubeosis iridis . Am J Ophthalmol 1967;63:487-495. 62. Sanders MD, Hoyt WF: Hypoxic ocular sequelae of carotid-cavernous fistulae . Br J Ophthalmol 1969;53:82-97.Crossref 63. Hart CT, Haworth S: Bilateral common carotid occlusion with hypoxic ocular sequelae . Br J Ophthalmol 1971;55:383-388.Crossref 64. Bullock JD, Falter RT, Downing JE, et al: Ischemic ophthalmia secondary to an ophthalmic artery occlusion . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;74:486-493. 65. Huckman MS, Haas J: Reversed flow through the ophthalmic artery as a cause of rubeosis iridis . Am J Ophthalmol 1972;74:1094-1099. 66. Makabe R: Eigenartiges neovaskulares glaukom nach verschlusz der carotis interna . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1974;164:700-704. 67. Nishikawa N, Fukuda M, Shimizu Y, et al: Rubeotic glaucoma secondary to internal carotid artery occlusion . Folia Ophthalmol Jpn 1977; 28:841-846. 68. Eggleston TF, Bohlwig CA, Eggleston HC, et al: Photocoagulation for ocular ischemia associated with carotid artery occlusion . Ann Ophthalmol 1980;12:84-87. 69. Harris MJ, Fine SL, Miller NR: Photocoagulation treatment of proliferative retinopathy secondary to a carotid-cavernous fistula . Am J Ophthalmol 1980;90:515-518. 70. Raitta C: Die bedeutung des ziliarkreislaufs für die Irisneovaskularisation . Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1980;177:354-361.Crossref 71. Young LHY, Appen RE: Ischemic oculopathy: A manifestation of carotid artery disease . Arch Neurol 1981;38:358-361.Crossref 72. Bietti GB, Neuschüler R: On the behaviour of the intraocular pressure in patients with obstructive lesions of the carotis . Bibl Ophthalmol 1968;76:215-226. 73. Russell RWR: Transient cerebral ischemia , in Cerebral Arterial Disease . Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone, 1976, pp 125-145. 74. Wise GN, Dollery CT, Henkind P: The Retinal Circulation . New York, Harper & Row Inc, 1971, p 299. 75. Toole JF, Yuson CP, Janeway R, et al: Transient ischemic attacks: A prospective study of 225 patients . Neurology 1978;28:746-753.Crossref 76. Schwartz CJ, Mitchell JRA: Atheroma of the carotid and vertebral arterial systems . Br Med J 1961;2:1057-1963.Crossref 77. Wilson LA, Warlow CP, Russell RWR: Cardiovascular disease in patients with retinal arterial occlusions . Lancet 1979;1:292-294.Crossref 78. Lorentzen SE: Occlusion of the central retinal artery: A follow-up . Acta Ophthalmol 1969;47:690-703.Crossref 79. Willerson D, Aaberg TM: Acute central retinal artery occlusion and optic disc neovascularization . Arch Ophthalmol 1978;96:451-452.Crossref 80. Verhoeff FH: The effect of chronic glaucoma on the central retinal vessels . Arch Ophthalmol 1913;42:145-152. 81. Leber T: Die Krankheiten der netzhaut , in Graefe-Saemisch-Hess Handbuch der Gesamten Augenheilkunde . Leipzig, Englemann, 1915, vol 7, 2, pp 195-196. 82. Wise GN: In discussion of paper by Asbury et al.30 Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1970;68:52-53. 83. Hayreh SS, Kolder HE, Weingeist TA: Central retinal artery occlusion and retinal tolerance time . Ophthalmology 1980;87:75-78.Crossref 84. Hayreh SS, Weingeist TA: Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina: I. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein fundus angiographic studies . Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:896-912.Crossref 85. Hayreh SS, Weingeist TA: Experimental occlusion of the central artery of the retina: IV. Retinal tolerance time to acute ischaemia . Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:818-825.Crossref 86. Augsburger JJ, Magargal LE: Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction . Br J Ophthalmol 1980;64:913-917.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1982

References