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Ocular Effects Produced by High-Intensity X-Radiation

Ocular Effects Produced by High-Intensity X-Radiation Abstract One of the outstanding features of radiation damage is the difference between embryonic and adult tissues and their reactions and the manner in which these reactions are manifested (Hicks*; Russell4; Wilson and Karr5; Wilson, Jordan, and Brent,6 and Warkany and Schraffenberger7 ). The sequence of x-ray-induced developmental abnormalities and a strict timetable of their genesis have been established in rats and mice by Hicks.3 He demonstrated a certain resistance of the embryonic tissue toward x-ray doses in the range of 100-200 r during the first eight days of gestation. No measurable damage resulted, and the newborn rat appeared normal. Doses ranging from 300-400 r and administered to the rats during the first eight days either destroyed the embryos or resulted in normal newborn rats. The same doses applied at a later time led to definite developmental defects. In Anderson's textbook of "Pathology,"8 the lymphoid tissues, References 1. References 1 to 3. 2. Hicks, S. P., and Wright, K. A.: Variation of Pathologic Response to Radiation with Time Intensity Factors, read at the International Congress of Clinical Pathologists, Washington, D. C., Sept. 9, 1954. 3. References 13 and 14. 4. Chinn, H. I., U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas: Personal communication to the authors. 5. Lieut. Col. J. E. Pickering and Mr. Everett O. Richey, of the Department of Radiobiology, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, directed this aspect of the study. 6. Technical assistance was given by M/Sgt. John Hughes (histology) and Mr. Ivan Richardson (photography). 7. Hicks, S. P.: Developmental Malformation Produced by Radiation: A Timetable of Their Development , Am. J. Roentgenol. 69:272, 1953. 8. Hicks, S. P.: Mechanism of Radiation Anencephaly, Anophthalmia, and Pituitary Anomalies , A. M. A. Arch. Path. 57:363, 1954. 9. Hicks, S. P.: Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Adult and Embryonic System, in Metabolic and Toxic Diseases of the Nervous System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1952) 32:439, 1953. 10. Russell, L. B.: X-Ray Induced Developmental Abnormalities in the Mouse and Their Use in the Analysis of Embryological Patterns: I. External and Gross Visceral Changes , J. Exper. Zool. 114: 545, 1950. 11. Wilson, J. G., and Karr, J. W.: Effects of Irradiation on Embryonic Development: I. X-Rays on the 10th Day of Gestation in the Rat , Am. J. Anat. 88:1, 1951. 12. Wilson, J. G.; Jordan, H. C., and Brent, R. L.: Effects of Irradiation on Embryonic Development: II. X-Rays on the Ninth Day of Gestation in the Rat , Am. J. Anat. 92:153, 1953. 13. Warkany, J., and Schraffenberger, E.: Congenital Malformations Induced in Rats by Roentgen Rays: Skeletal Changes in the Offspring Following a Single Irradiation of the Mother , Am. J. Roentgenol. 57:455, 1947. 14. Anderson, W. A. D., Editor: Pathology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1948, p. 183. 15. Vogel, H. H., Jr.: Retinal Damage and Cataract Formation Following X-Irradiation of the Heads of Newborn Mice, Progress Report ANL-4676, Biological and Medical Research Division, 1951, pp. 29-40. 16. Hicks, S. P., and Montgomery, P. O'B.: Effects of Acute Radiation on the Adult Mammalian Central Nervous System , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 80:15, 1952. 17. Gerstner, H. B.; Konecci, E. B., and Taylor, W. F.: Biological and Medical Aspects of Ionizing Radiation: Effect of Local Brain X-Irradiation on the Pinna Reflex of Guinea Pigs, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Project 21-3501-0005, Report No. 8, 1953. 18. Noell, W. K.; Eichel, B., and Cibis, P. A.: Visual Cells and Pigment Epithelium After High Intensity X-Irradiation , Fed. Proc. 13:106, 1954. 19. Noell, W. K.: Effect of Iodoacetate on the Vertebrate Retina , J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol. 37:283, 1951. 20. Noell, W. K.: Studies on the Electrophysiology and the Metabolism of the Retina, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Project Report No. 21-1201-0004. 21. Gerstner, H. B.; Pickering, J. E., and Dugi, A. J.: Biological and Medical Aspects of Ionizing Radiation: Sequelae Following Application of High Intensity X-Radiation to the Head of Rabbits, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project 21-3501-0005, Report No. 15. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Ocular Effects Produced by High-Intensity X-Radiation

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1955.00930010659006
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract One of the outstanding features of radiation damage is the difference between embryonic and adult tissues and their reactions and the manner in which these reactions are manifested (Hicks*; Russell4; Wilson and Karr5; Wilson, Jordan, and Brent,6 and Warkany and Schraffenberger7 ). The sequence of x-ray-induced developmental abnormalities and a strict timetable of their genesis have been established in rats and mice by Hicks.3 He demonstrated a certain resistance of the embryonic tissue toward x-ray doses in the range of 100-200 r during the first eight days of gestation. No measurable damage resulted, and the newborn rat appeared normal. Doses ranging from 300-400 r and administered to the rats during the first eight days either destroyed the embryos or resulted in normal newborn rats. The same doses applied at a later time led to definite developmental defects. In Anderson's textbook of "Pathology,"8 the lymphoid tissues, References 1. References 1 to 3. 2. Hicks, S. P., and Wright, K. A.: Variation of Pathologic Response to Radiation with Time Intensity Factors, read at the International Congress of Clinical Pathologists, Washington, D. C., Sept. 9, 1954. 3. References 13 and 14. 4. Chinn, H. I., U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas: Personal communication to the authors. 5. Lieut. Col. J. E. Pickering and Mr. Everett O. Richey, of the Department of Radiobiology, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, directed this aspect of the study. 6. Technical assistance was given by M/Sgt. John Hughes (histology) and Mr. Ivan Richardson (photography). 7. Hicks, S. P.: Developmental Malformation Produced by Radiation: A Timetable of Their Development , Am. J. Roentgenol. 69:272, 1953. 8. Hicks, S. P.: Mechanism of Radiation Anencephaly, Anophthalmia, and Pituitary Anomalies , A. M. A. Arch. Path. 57:363, 1954. 9. Hicks, S. P.: Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the Adult and Embryonic System, in Metabolic and Toxic Diseases of the Nervous System , A. Res. Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. (1952) 32:439, 1953. 10. Russell, L. B.: X-Ray Induced Developmental Abnormalities in the Mouse and Their Use in the Analysis of Embryological Patterns: I. External and Gross Visceral Changes , J. Exper. Zool. 114: 545, 1950. 11. Wilson, J. G., and Karr, J. W.: Effects of Irradiation on Embryonic Development: I. X-Rays on the 10th Day of Gestation in the Rat , Am. J. Anat. 88:1, 1951. 12. Wilson, J. G.; Jordan, H. C., and Brent, R. L.: Effects of Irradiation on Embryonic Development: II. X-Rays on the Ninth Day of Gestation in the Rat , Am. J. Anat. 92:153, 1953. 13. Warkany, J., and Schraffenberger, E.: Congenital Malformations Induced in Rats by Roentgen Rays: Skeletal Changes in the Offspring Following a Single Irradiation of the Mother , Am. J. Roentgenol. 57:455, 1947. 14. Anderson, W. A. D., Editor: Pathology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1948, p. 183. 15. Vogel, H. H., Jr.: Retinal Damage and Cataract Formation Following X-Irradiation of the Heads of Newborn Mice, Progress Report ANL-4676, Biological and Medical Research Division, 1951, pp. 29-40. 16. Hicks, S. P., and Montgomery, P. O'B.: Effects of Acute Radiation on the Adult Mammalian Central Nervous System , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 80:15, 1952. 17. Gerstner, H. B.; Konecci, E. B., and Taylor, W. F.: Biological and Medical Aspects of Ionizing Radiation: Effect of Local Brain X-Irradiation on the Pinna Reflex of Guinea Pigs, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Project 21-3501-0005, Report No. 8, 1953. 18. Noell, W. K.; Eichel, B., and Cibis, P. A.: Visual Cells and Pigment Epithelium After High Intensity X-Irradiation , Fed. Proc. 13:106, 1954. 19. Noell, W. K.: Effect of Iodoacetate on the Vertebrate Retina , J. Cell. & Comp. Physiol. 37:283, 1951. 20. Noell, W. K.: Studies on the Electrophysiology and the Metabolism of the Retina, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Project Report No. 21-1201-0004. 21. Gerstner, H. B.; Pickering, J. E., and Dugi, A. J.: Biological and Medical Aspects of Ionizing Radiation: Sequelae Following Application of High Intensity X-Radiation to the Head of Rabbits, U. S. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas, Project 21-3501-0005, Report No. 15.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1955

References

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