Abstract ONE OF the consequences of flying at high velocities is that changes in direction or speed may produce profound physiological effects in the pilot. These accelerative forces are known as g forces (expressed as multiples of the gravitational attractive force). Depending upon how the force is vectored through the body of the subject, it is referred to as a positive, negative, or transverse g force. Military maneuvers, such as gunnery and dive bomb runs and steep inside turns, produce a characteristic group of symptoms culminating in black-out and unconsciousness which are known collectively as the physiological effects of positive g.* Many authors use the words "black-out" and "unconsciousness" interchangeably. In an effort to counteract this semantic error, the term amaurosis fugax has been substituted as a more accurate and all-inclusive description.† However, this is not fully warranted, because clinically amaurosis fugax refers to a temporary loss of vision, such as References 1. References 1 through 4. 2. References 5 and 14. 3. References 6 and 7. 4. Jasper, H. H.: Personal communication to the author. 5. References 10, 13, and 14. 6. References 15 and 16. 7. References 18 through 21. 8. Fulton, J. F.: Aviation Medicine in Its Preventive Aspects , New York, Oxford University Press, 1948. 9. Armstrong, H. G.: Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine , Ed. 3, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1952. 10. Glasser, O., Editor: Medical Physics , Vol. 1, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1950, pp. 22-26. 11. Bergin, K. G.: Aviation Medicine, Its Theory and Application , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1949. 12. Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary , Ed. 1, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1949, p. 47. 13. Walsh, F. B.: Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1947, p. 1031. 14. Duke-Elder, W. Stewart: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 4, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p. 3682. 15. Stewart, W. K.: Investigations on Centrifugal Force , J. Physiol. 104:7-8P, 1945. 16. Beckman, E. L.; Duane, T. D.; Ziegler, J. E., and Hunter, H. N.: Human Tolerance to High Positive G Applied at a Rate of 5 to 10 G per Second, J. Aviation Med., to be published. 17. Ruff, S., and Strughold, H.: Grundriss der Luftfahrtmedizin , Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1939 18. Ham, G. C.: Effects of Centrifugal Acceleration on Living Organisms , War Med. 3:30-56, 1943. 19. Andina, F.: Über "Schwarzsehen" als Ausdruck von Blutdruckschwankungen beim Sturzflügen , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 18:753-756, 1937. 20. Marshall, G. S.: Physiological Problems of Human Flight , Brit. M. J. 1:226-227, 1940.Crossref 21. Livingston, P. C.: The Problem of "Blackout" in Aviation (Amaurosis Fugax) , Brit. J. Surg. 26:749-756, 1939.Crossref 22. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950. 23. Colle, J.; Duke-Elder, P. M., and Duke-Elder, W. S.: Studies on Intra-Ocular Pressure: Action of Drugs on Vascular and Muscular Factors Controlling Intra-Ocular Pressure , J. Physiol. 71:1-30, 1931. 24. Espildora-Luque, C.: Modern Trends in Ophthalmology , Vol. II, edited by Arnold Sorsby, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1947, Chap. 14. 25. Lambert, E. H., and Wood, E. H.: The Problem of Blackout and Unconsciousness in Aviators , M. Clin. N. America 30:833-844, 1946. 26. Lambert, E. H.: The Physiological Basis of "Blackout" as It Occurs in Aviators , Federation Proc. 4:43, 1945. 27. Lambert, E. H.; Hallenbeck, G. A.; Baldes, E. J.; Wood, E. H., and Code, C. F.: Symptoms Which Occur in Man During Exposure to Positive Acceleration (Motion Picture) , Federation Proc. 4:43, 1945. 28. Code, C. F.; Wood, E. H.; Strum, R. E.; Lambert, E. H., and Baldes, E. J.: Sequence of Physiologic Events in Man During Exposure to Positive Acceleration , Federation Proc. 4:14-15, 1945. 29. Keighley, G.: Clark, W. G., and Drury, D. R.: Flicker Fusion Frequency Measurements on Man Subjected to Positive Acceleration on a Human Centrifuge , J. Appl. Physiol. 4:57-62, 1951. 30. Henry, J. P.; Gauer, O. H.; Kety, S. S., and Kramer, K.: Factors Maintaining Cerebral Circulation During Gravitational Stress , J. Clin. Invest. 30:292-300, 1952.Crossref 31. Noell, W. K.: Site of Asphyxial Block in Mammalian Retinae , J. Appl. Physiol. 3:489-500, 1951. 32. Burian, H. M.: Electroretinography and Its Clinical Application , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 49:241-256, 1953.Crossref 33. Sommers, I. G.: Histology and Histopathology of the Eye and Its Adnexa , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1949, p. 310. 34. Duane, T. D.; Beckman, E. L.; Ziegler, J. E., and Hunter, H. N.: Human Studies of 15 Transverse G, J. Aviation Med., to be published. 35. Beckman, E. L.; Ziegler, J. E.; Duane, T. D., and Hunter, H. N.: Preliminary Studies in Primates Subjected to Maximum Simple Accelative Loads , J. Aviation Med. 24:377-392, 1953.
A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Mar 1, 1954
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