Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FUNDUS OCULI DURING BLACK-OUT

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FUNDUS OCULI DURING BLACK-OUT Abstract ONE OF the consequences of flying at high velocities is that changes in direction or speed may produce profound physiological effects in the pilot. These accelerative forces are known as g forces (expressed as multiples of the gravitational attractive force). Depending upon how the force is vectored through the body of the subject, it is referred to as a positive, negative, or transverse g force. Military maneuvers, such as gunnery and dive bomb runs and steep inside turns, produce a characteristic group of symptoms culminating in black-out and unconsciousness which are known collectively as the physiological effects of positive g.* Many authors use the words "black-out" and "unconsciousness" interchangeably. In an effort to counteract this semantic error, the term amaurosis fugax has been substituted as a more accurate and all-inclusive description.† However, this is not fully warranted, because clinically amaurosis fugax refers to a temporary loss of vision, such as References 1. References 1 through 4. 2. References 5 and 14. 3. References 6 and 7. 4. Jasper, H. H.: Personal communication to the author. 5. References 10, 13, and 14. 6. References 15 and 16. 7. References 18 through 21. 8. Fulton, J. F.: Aviation Medicine in Its Preventive Aspects , New York, Oxford University Press, 1948. 9. Armstrong, H. G.: Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine , Ed. 3, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1952. 10. Glasser, O., Editor: Medical Physics , Vol. 1, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1950, pp. 22-26. 11. Bergin, K. G.: Aviation Medicine, Its Theory and Application , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1949. 12. Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary , Ed. 1, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1949, p. 47. 13. Walsh, F. B.: Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1947, p. 1031. 14. Duke-Elder, W. Stewart: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 4, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p. 3682. 15. Stewart, W. K.: Investigations on Centrifugal Force , J. Physiol. 104:7-8P, 1945. 16. Beckman, E. L.; Duane, T. D.; Ziegler, J. E., and Hunter, H. N.: Human Tolerance to High Positive G Applied at a Rate of 5 to 10 G per Second, J. Aviation Med., to be published. 17. Ruff, S., and Strughold, H.: Grundriss der Luftfahrtmedizin , Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1939 18. Ham, G. C.: Effects of Centrifugal Acceleration on Living Organisms , War Med. 3:30-56, 1943. 19. Andina, F.: Über "Schwarzsehen" als Ausdruck von Blutdruckschwankungen beim Sturzflügen , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 18:753-756, 1937. 20. Marshall, G. S.: Physiological Problems of Human Flight , Brit. M. J. 1:226-227, 1940.Crossref 21. Livingston, P. C.: The Problem of "Blackout" in Aviation (Amaurosis Fugax) , Brit. J. Surg. 26:749-756, 1939.Crossref 22. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950. 23. Colle, J.; Duke-Elder, P. M., and Duke-Elder, W. S.: Studies on Intra-Ocular Pressure: Action of Drugs on Vascular and Muscular Factors Controlling Intra-Ocular Pressure , J. Physiol. 71:1-30, 1931. 24. Espildora-Luque, C.: Modern Trends in Ophthalmology , Vol. II, edited by Arnold Sorsby, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1947, Chap. 14. 25. Lambert, E. H., and Wood, E. H.: The Problem of Blackout and Unconsciousness in Aviators , M. Clin. N. America 30:833-844, 1946. 26. Lambert, E. H.: The Physiological Basis of "Blackout" as It Occurs in Aviators , Federation Proc. 4:43, 1945. 27. Lambert, E. H.; Hallenbeck, G. A.; Baldes, E. J.; Wood, E. H., and Code, C. F.: Symptoms Which Occur in Man During Exposure to Positive Acceleration (Motion Picture) , Federation Proc. 4:43, 1945. 28. Code, C. F.; Wood, E. H.; Strum, R. E.; Lambert, E. H., and Baldes, E. J.: Sequence of Physiologic Events in Man During Exposure to Positive Acceleration , Federation Proc. 4:14-15, 1945. 29. Keighley, G.: Clark, W. G., and Drury, D. R.: Flicker Fusion Frequency Measurements on Man Subjected to Positive Acceleration on a Human Centrifuge , J. Appl. Physiol. 4:57-62, 1951. 30. Henry, J. P.; Gauer, O. H.; Kety, S. S., and Kramer, K.: Factors Maintaining Cerebral Circulation During Gravitational Stress , J. Clin. Invest. 30:292-300, 1952.Crossref 31. Noell, W. K.: Site of Asphyxial Block in Mammalian Retinae , J. Appl. Physiol. 3:489-500, 1951. 32. Burian, H. M.: Electroretinography and Its Clinical Application , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 49:241-256, 1953.Crossref 33. Sommers, I. G.: Histology and Histopathology of the Eye and Its Adnexa , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1949, p. 310. 34. Duane, T. D.; Beckman, E. L.; Ziegler, J. E., and Hunter, H. N.: Human Studies of 15 Transverse G, J. Aviation Med., to be published. 35. Beckman, E. L.; Ziegler, J. E.; Duane, T. D., and Hunter, H. N.: Preliminary Studies in Primates Subjected to Maximum Simple Accelative Loads , J. Aviation Med. 24:377-392, 1953. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

OBSERVATIONS ON THE FUNDUS OCULI DURING BLACK-OUT

A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 51 (3) – Mar 1, 1954

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/observations-on-the-fundus-oculi-during-black-out-NfSl3u0vyc
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1954 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6339
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1954.00920040349008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract ONE OF the consequences of flying at high velocities is that changes in direction or speed may produce profound physiological effects in the pilot. These accelerative forces are known as g forces (expressed as multiples of the gravitational attractive force). Depending upon how the force is vectored through the body of the subject, it is referred to as a positive, negative, or transverse g force. Military maneuvers, such as gunnery and dive bomb runs and steep inside turns, produce a characteristic group of symptoms culminating in black-out and unconsciousness which are known collectively as the physiological effects of positive g.* Many authors use the words "black-out" and "unconsciousness" interchangeably. In an effort to counteract this semantic error, the term amaurosis fugax has been substituted as a more accurate and all-inclusive description.† However, this is not fully warranted, because clinically amaurosis fugax refers to a temporary loss of vision, such as References 1. References 1 through 4. 2. References 5 and 14. 3. References 6 and 7. 4. Jasper, H. H.: Personal communication to the author. 5. References 10, 13, and 14. 6. References 15 and 16. 7. References 18 through 21. 8. Fulton, J. F.: Aviation Medicine in Its Preventive Aspects , New York, Oxford University Press, 1948. 9. Armstrong, H. G.: Principles and Practice of Aviation Medicine , Ed. 3, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1952. 10. Glasser, O., Editor: Medical Physics , Vol. 1, Chicago, Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1950, pp. 22-26. 11. Bergin, K. G.: Aviation Medicine, Its Theory and Application , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1949. 12. Blakiston's New Gould Medical Dictionary , Ed. 1, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1949, p. 47. 13. Walsh, F. B.: Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1947, p. 1031. 14. Duke-Elder, W. Stewart: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , Vol. 4, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1949, p. 3682. 15. Stewart, W. K.: Investigations on Centrifugal Force , J. Physiol. 104:7-8P, 1945. 16. Beckman, E. L.; Duane, T. D.; Ziegler, J. E., and Hunter, H. N.: Human Tolerance to High Positive G Applied at a Rate of 5 to 10 G per Second, J. Aviation Med., to be published. 17. Ruff, S., and Strughold, H.: Grundriss der Luftfahrtmedizin , Leipzig, Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1939 18. Ham, G. C.: Effects of Centrifugal Acceleration on Living Organisms , War Med. 3:30-56, 1943. 19. Andina, F.: Über "Schwarzsehen" als Ausdruck von Blutdruckschwankungen beim Sturzflügen , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 18:753-756, 1937. 20. Marshall, G. S.: Physiological Problems of Human Flight , Brit. M. J. 1:226-227, 1940.Crossref 21. Livingston, P. C.: The Problem of "Blackout" in Aviation (Amaurosis Fugax) , Brit. J. Surg. 26:749-756, 1939.Crossref 22. Adler, F. H.: Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1950. 23. Colle, J.; Duke-Elder, P. M., and Duke-Elder, W. S.: Studies on Intra-Ocular Pressure: Action of Drugs on Vascular and Muscular Factors Controlling Intra-Ocular Pressure , J. Physiol. 71:1-30, 1931. 24. Espildora-Luque, C.: Modern Trends in Ophthalmology , Vol. II, edited by Arnold Sorsby, New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1947, Chap. 14. 25. Lambert, E. H., and Wood, E. H.: The Problem of Blackout and Unconsciousness in Aviators , M. Clin. N. America 30:833-844, 1946. 26. Lambert, E. H.: The Physiological Basis of "Blackout" as It Occurs in Aviators , Federation Proc. 4:43, 1945. 27. Lambert, E. H.; Hallenbeck, G. A.; Baldes, E. J.; Wood, E. H., and Code, C. F.: Symptoms Which Occur in Man During Exposure to Positive Acceleration (Motion Picture) , Federation Proc. 4:43, 1945. 28. Code, C. F.; Wood, E. H.; Strum, R. E.; Lambert, E. H., and Baldes, E. J.: Sequence of Physiologic Events in Man During Exposure to Positive Acceleration , Federation Proc. 4:14-15, 1945. 29. Keighley, G.: Clark, W. G., and Drury, D. R.: Flicker Fusion Frequency Measurements on Man Subjected to Positive Acceleration on a Human Centrifuge , J. Appl. Physiol. 4:57-62, 1951. 30. Henry, J. P.; Gauer, O. H.; Kety, S. S., and Kramer, K.: Factors Maintaining Cerebral Circulation During Gravitational Stress , J. Clin. Invest. 30:292-300, 1952.Crossref 31. Noell, W. K.: Site of Asphyxial Block in Mammalian Retinae , J. Appl. Physiol. 3:489-500, 1951. 32. Burian, H. M.: Electroretinography and Its Clinical Application , A. M. A. Arch. Ophth. 49:241-256, 1953.Crossref 33. Sommers, I. G.: Histology and Histopathology of the Eye and Its Adnexa , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1949, p. 310. 34. Duane, T. D.; Beckman, E. L.; Ziegler, J. E., and Hunter, H. N.: Human Studies of 15 Transverse G, J. Aviation Med., to be published. 35. Beckman, E. L.; Ziegler, J. E.; Duane, T. D., and Hunter, H. N.: Preliminary Studies in Primates Subjected to Maximum Simple Accelative Loads , J. Aviation Med. 24:377-392, 1953.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 1954

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$499/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month