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Observations on the Biochemical Genesis of Acantholysis

Observations on the Biochemical Genesis of Acantholysis Abstract Cantharidin is the vesicating agent of the beetle Canthus vesicatoria. Auspitz described the histopathology of such blisters in 1883,1 and Miescher later confirmed his findings.2 The major changes seen in the epidermis are spongiosis, vesiculation, and acantholysis. In 1926 Borger and Groll stated that cantharides tincture applied to the ears of mice decreased their respiratory rate.3 Little attention was then paid the substance until after 1952, the year of Lever's classic monograph in which he reported acantholysis to be the histologic sine qua non of pemphigus vulgaris.4 The numerous studies of cantharidin acantholysis which followed were facilitated by its successful stereospecific synthesis by Storck et al. in 1951.5 Acantholysis has been produced by other means.6-9 The histologic changes of the cantharidin blister, however, probably more closely resemble sections of pemphigus vulgaris than those produced by other methods. Further, cantharidin is both reliable and simple References 1. Auspitz, H.: Allgemeine Pathologie und Therapie der Haut , in Handbuch der speziellen Pathologie (Ziemssen) , Leipzig, 1883, p. 137. 2. Miescher, G.: Beiträge zur Ekzemfrage: zur Frage der Spezifität der ekzematösen Hautreaktion , Arch. Derm. u. Syph. 173:117-154 ( (Aug.) ) 1936.Crossref 3. Borger, G., and Groll, H.: Die Sauerstoffatmung des Gewebes bei Entzündung und Reizung (Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Entzündung IV.) , Krankheitsforschung 2:220-262, 1926. 4. Lever, W. F.: Pemphigus , Medicine 32:1-123 ( (Feb.) ) 1953.Crossref 5. Storck, G.; von Tamelin, E. E.: Friedman, L., and Burgstahler, A. W.: Cantharidin: A Stereospecific Total Synthesis , J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73: 4501 ( (Sept.) ) 1951.Crossref 6. Kuske, H.: Perkutane Photosensibilisierung durch pflanzliche Wirkstoff , Dermatologica 82: 273-338 (No. (5) ) 1940.Crossref 7. Naylor, P. F. D.: Experimental Friction Blisters , Brit. J. Derm. 67:327-342 ( (Oct.) ) 1955.Crossref 8. Birmingham, D. J.; Key, M. M.; Tubich, G. E., and Perone, V. B.: Phototoxic Bullae Among Celery Harvesters , Arch. Derm. 83:73-87 ( (Jan.) ) 1961.Crossref 9. Epstein, W. L., and Kligman, A. M.: Some Factors Affecting the Reaction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis , J. Invest. Derm. 33:231-243 ( (Nov.) ) 1959.Crossref 10. Peters, R. A.; Stocken, L. A., and Thompson, R. H. S.: British Anti-Lewisite (BAL) , Nature 156:616-617 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1945.Crossref 11. Stocken, L. A., and Thompson, R. H. S.: British Anti-Lewisite: I. Arsenic Derivatives of Thiol Proteins , Biochem. J. 40:529-535 (No. (4) ) 1946. 12. Thompson, R. H. S.: The Effect of Arsenical Vesicants on the Respiration of Skin , Biochem. J. 40:525-529 (No. (4) ) 1946. 13. Dixon, M., and Needham, D. M.: Biochemical Research on Chemical Warfare Agents , Nature 158:432-438 ( (Sept. 28) ) 1946.Crossref 14. Dixon, M.; Needham, H. M., and Webb, E. C.: Enzymes , London, Longmans, Green & Co., Inc., 1958, pp. 58 and 185. 15. Haas, H. T. A.; Kraushaar, A., and Cordua, C. A.: Reizstoffe und ihre Wirkungsweise , Arch. Exp. Path. Pharmakol. 209:138-164 ( (March) ) 1950. 16. Stoughton, R. B.: Mechanisms of Blister Formation , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 76:584-590 ( (Nov.) ) 1957.Crossref 17. Herzberg, J. J., and Rohde, R.: Über Mechanismus der Blasenbildung , Dermatologica 118:396-406, 1959.Crossref 18. Beloff, A., and Peters, R. A.: Observations upon Thermal Burns: The Influence of Moderate Temperature Burns upon Proteinase of the Skin , J. Physiol. 103:461-475 ( (March) ) 1945. 19. Miller, R. F., and Stoughton, R. B.: Enzymatic Vesication in Vivo: I. Effects of Papain on Human Skin , J. Invest. Derm. 35:141-150 ( (Sept.) ) 1960.Crossref 20. Wells, G. C., and Babcock, C.: Epidermal Protease , J. Invest. Derm. 21:459-463 ( (Dec.) ) 1953.Crossref 21. Stoughton, R. B.: Enzymatic Cytolysis of Epithelium by Filtrates of Feces from Patients with Ulcerative Colitis , Science 116:37-39 ( (July 11) ) 1952.Crossref 22. Stoughton, R. B., and Novack, N.: Disruption of Tonofibrils and Intercellular Bridges by Disulfide Splitting Agents , J. Invest. Derm. 26: 127-135 ( (Feb.) ) 1956. 23. Steigleder, G. K., and Weakley, D. R.: J. Invest. Derm. to be published. 24. Stoughton, R. B., and Bagatell, F.: The Nature of Cantharidin Acantholysis , J. Invest. Derm. 33:287-292 ( (Nov.) ) 1959.Crossref 25. Hunter, F. E.: Phosphorous Metabolism , Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1951, Vol. 1. 26. Langdon, R. G., and Weakley, D. R.: Preparation and Some Properties of Soluble Glucose-6-Phosphatase , Fed. Proc. 16:208 ( (March) ) 1957. 27. Mills, G. L.: Personal communication to the authors, cited by Allison and Williamson.28 28. Allison, J. H., and Williamson, D. H.: The Abnormal Cantharidin Blister in Atopy: An Explanation of Its Production , Brit. J. Derm. 72: 383-402 ( (Nov.) ) 1960.Crossref 29. Stoughton, R. B.: Disruption of Epithelial Cells by Heat and Specific Chemical Agents , J. Invest. Derm. 27:395-403 ( (Dec.) ) 1956.Crossref 30. Allison, J. H., and Bettley, F. R.: Investigations into Cantharidin Blisters Raised on Apparently Normal Skin in Normal and Abnormal Patients , Brit. J. Derm. 70:331-339 ( (Oct.) ) 1958.Crossref 31. Engman, M. F., and MacCardle, R. C.: A Histochemical Study of Neurodermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 42:109-111 ( (July) ) 1940. 32. MacCardle, R. C.; Engman, M. F., Jr., and Engman, M. F.: Spectrographic Analysis of Neurodermatitis Lesions , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 44:429-440 ( (Sept.) ) 1941.Crossref 33. Engman, M. F., and MacCardle, R. C.: A New Approach to the Problem of Disseminated Neurodermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 46:337-347 ( (Sept.) ) 1942.Crossref 34. Sullivan, M., and Evans, V. J.: Nutritional Dermatoses in the Rat: X. A Comparison of Disseminated Neurodermatitis and Experimental Magnesium Deficiency , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 49:33-45 ( (Jan.) ) 1944. 35. Sullivan, M., and Evans, V. J.: Nutritional Dermatoses in the Rat: IX. Evaluation of the Interrelationship of Magnesium Deficiency and Deficiencies of the Vitamin B Complex , J. Nutr. 27:123-136 ( (Feb.) ) 1944. 36. Cameron, G. R.; Carleton, H. M., and Short, R. H. D.: Pathological Changes Induced by Lewisite and Allied Compounds , J. Path. Bact. 58: 411-422 ( (July) ) 1946.Crossref 37. Rosen, K.: Phosphate Metabolism of Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cells , Fed. Proc. 16: 199 ( (March) ) 1957. 38. Burckhardt, W.: Untersuchungen über die Photoaktivität einiger Sulfanilimide , Dermatologica 83:63-69 (No. (6) ) 1951.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Observations on the Biochemical Genesis of Acantholysis

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1961 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1961.01580150105017
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Abstract

Abstract Cantharidin is the vesicating agent of the beetle Canthus vesicatoria. Auspitz described the histopathology of such blisters in 1883,1 and Miescher later confirmed his findings.2 The major changes seen in the epidermis are spongiosis, vesiculation, and acantholysis. In 1926 Borger and Groll stated that cantharides tincture applied to the ears of mice decreased their respiratory rate.3 Little attention was then paid the substance until after 1952, the year of Lever's classic monograph in which he reported acantholysis to be the histologic sine qua non of pemphigus vulgaris.4 The numerous studies of cantharidin acantholysis which followed were facilitated by its successful stereospecific synthesis by Storck et al. in 1951.5 Acantholysis has been produced by other means.6-9 The histologic changes of the cantharidin blister, however, probably more closely resemble sections of pemphigus vulgaris than those produced by other methods. Further, cantharidin is both reliable and simple References 1. Auspitz, H.: Allgemeine Pathologie und Therapie der Haut , in Handbuch der speziellen Pathologie (Ziemssen) , Leipzig, 1883, p. 137. 2. Miescher, G.: Beiträge zur Ekzemfrage: zur Frage der Spezifität der ekzematösen Hautreaktion , Arch. Derm. u. Syph. 173:117-154 ( (Aug.) ) 1936.Crossref 3. Borger, G., and Groll, H.: Die Sauerstoffatmung des Gewebes bei Entzündung und Reizung (Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Entzündung IV.) , Krankheitsforschung 2:220-262, 1926. 4. Lever, W. F.: Pemphigus , Medicine 32:1-123 ( (Feb.) ) 1953.Crossref 5. Storck, G.; von Tamelin, E. E.: Friedman, L., and Burgstahler, A. W.: Cantharidin: A Stereospecific Total Synthesis , J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 73: 4501 ( (Sept.) ) 1951.Crossref 6. Kuske, H.: Perkutane Photosensibilisierung durch pflanzliche Wirkstoff , Dermatologica 82: 273-338 (No. (5) ) 1940.Crossref 7. Naylor, P. F. D.: Experimental Friction Blisters , Brit. J. Derm. 67:327-342 ( (Oct.) ) 1955.Crossref 8. Birmingham, D. J.; Key, M. M.; Tubich, G. E., and Perone, V. B.: Phototoxic Bullae Among Celery Harvesters , Arch. Derm. 83:73-87 ( (Jan.) ) 1961.Crossref 9. Epstein, W. L., and Kligman, A. M.: Some Factors Affecting the Reaction of Allergic Contact Dermatitis , J. Invest. Derm. 33:231-243 ( (Nov.) ) 1959.Crossref 10. Peters, R. A.; Stocken, L. A., and Thompson, R. H. S.: British Anti-Lewisite (BAL) , Nature 156:616-617 ( (Nov. 24) ) 1945.Crossref 11. Stocken, L. A., and Thompson, R. H. S.: British Anti-Lewisite: I. Arsenic Derivatives of Thiol Proteins , Biochem. J. 40:529-535 (No. (4) ) 1946. 12. Thompson, R. H. S.: The Effect of Arsenical Vesicants on the Respiration of Skin , Biochem. J. 40:525-529 (No. (4) ) 1946. 13. Dixon, M., and Needham, D. M.: Biochemical Research on Chemical Warfare Agents , Nature 158:432-438 ( (Sept. 28) ) 1946.Crossref 14. Dixon, M.; Needham, H. M., and Webb, E. C.: Enzymes , London, Longmans, Green & Co., Inc., 1958, pp. 58 and 185. 15. Haas, H. T. A.; Kraushaar, A., and Cordua, C. A.: Reizstoffe und ihre Wirkungsweise , Arch. Exp. Path. Pharmakol. 209:138-164 ( (March) ) 1950. 16. Stoughton, R. B.: Mechanisms of Blister Formation , A.M.A. Arch. Derm. 76:584-590 ( (Nov.) ) 1957.Crossref 17. Herzberg, J. J., and Rohde, R.: Über Mechanismus der Blasenbildung , Dermatologica 118:396-406, 1959.Crossref 18. Beloff, A., and Peters, R. A.: Observations upon Thermal Burns: The Influence of Moderate Temperature Burns upon Proteinase of the Skin , J. Physiol. 103:461-475 ( (March) ) 1945. 19. Miller, R. F., and Stoughton, R. B.: Enzymatic Vesication in Vivo: I. Effects of Papain on Human Skin , J. Invest. Derm. 35:141-150 ( (Sept.) ) 1960.Crossref 20. Wells, G. C., and Babcock, C.: Epidermal Protease , J. Invest. Derm. 21:459-463 ( (Dec.) ) 1953.Crossref 21. Stoughton, R. B.: Enzymatic Cytolysis of Epithelium by Filtrates of Feces from Patients with Ulcerative Colitis , Science 116:37-39 ( (July 11) ) 1952.Crossref 22. Stoughton, R. B., and Novack, N.: Disruption of Tonofibrils and Intercellular Bridges by Disulfide Splitting Agents , J. Invest. Derm. 26: 127-135 ( (Feb.) ) 1956. 23. Steigleder, G. K., and Weakley, D. R.: J. Invest. Derm. to be published. 24. Stoughton, R. B., and Bagatell, F.: The Nature of Cantharidin Acantholysis , J. Invest. Derm. 33:287-292 ( (Nov.) ) 1959.Crossref 25. Hunter, F. E.: Phosphorous Metabolism , Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1951, Vol. 1. 26. Langdon, R. G., and Weakley, D. R.: Preparation and Some Properties of Soluble Glucose-6-Phosphatase , Fed. Proc. 16:208 ( (March) ) 1957. 27. Mills, G. L.: Personal communication to the authors, cited by Allison and Williamson.28 28. Allison, J. H., and Williamson, D. H.: The Abnormal Cantharidin Blister in Atopy: An Explanation of Its Production , Brit. J. Derm. 72: 383-402 ( (Nov.) ) 1960.Crossref 29. Stoughton, R. B.: Disruption of Epithelial Cells by Heat and Specific Chemical Agents , J. Invest. Derm. 27:395-403 ( (Dec.) ) 1956.Crossref 30. Allison, J. H., and Bettley, F. R.: Investigations into Cantharidin Blisters Raised on Apparently Normal Skin in Normal and Abnormal Patients , Brit. J. Derm. 70:331-339 ( (Oct.) ) 1958.Crossref 31. Engman, M. F., and MacCardle, R. C.: A Histochemical Study of Neurodermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 42:109-111 ( (July) ) 1940. 32. MacCardle, R. C.; Engman, M. F., Jr., and Engman, M. F.: Spectrographic Analysis of Neurodermatitis Lesions , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 44:429-440 ( (Sept.) ) 1941.Crossref 33. Engman, M. F., and MacCardle, R. C.: A New Approach to the Problem of Disseminated Neurodermatitis , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 46:337-347 ( (Sept.) ) 1942.Crossref 34. Sullivan, M., and Evans, V. J.: Nutritional Dermatoses in the Rat: X. A Comparison of Disseminated Neurodermatitis and Experimental Magnesium Deficiency , A.M.A. Arch. Dermat. Syph. 49:33-45 ( (Jan.) ) 1944. 35. Sullivan, M., and Evans, V. J.: Nutritional Dermatoses in the Rat: IX. Evaluation of the Interrelationship of Magnesium Deficiency and Deficiencies of the Vitamin B Complex , J. Nutr. 27:123-136 ( (Feb.) ) 1944. 36. Cameron, G. R.; Carleton, H. M., and Short, R. H. D.: Pathological Changes Induced by Lewisite and Allied Compounds , J. Path. Bact. 58: 411-422 ( (July) ) 1946.Crossref 37. Rosen, K.: Phosphate Metabolism of Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cells , Fed. Proc. 16: 199 ( (March) ) 1957. 38. Burckhardt, W.: Untersuchungen über die Photoaktivität einiger Sulfanilimide , Dermatologica 83:63-69 (No. (6) ) 1951.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1961

References