Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

NYSTAGMUS: AN APPRAISAL AND A CLASSIFICATION

NYSTAGMUS: AN APPRAISAL AND A CLASSIFICATION Abstract Nystagmus is a common sign in diseases of the nervous system, and it is also observed in diseases of the eye and of the inner ear. It may, however, be a normal phenomenon in certain circumstances, or it may be elicited experimentally or as part of the clinical examination. There are many varieties of nystagmus, and the manifestation should not be considered as an entity. In order to evaluate the significance of the presence of nystagmus in any individual instance, one must understand the underlying mechanisms and the mode of production of the phenomenon. Nystagmus, or, as it is sometimes called, talantropia,1 may be defined as an involuntary oscillation or trembling of the eyeball. The term "rhythmic" is often included in the definition, but nonrhythmic varieties may be seen. Certain observers object to the inclusion of the adjective "involuntary," as nystagmus of volitional origin has been described. Nystagmus is References 1. Peter, L. C.: The Extra-Ocular Muscles: A Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular Motility , ed. 3, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1941, p. 293. 2. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1939, vol. 1, p. 630. 3. Spiegel, E. A., and Sommer, I.: Neurology of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1944, p. 104. 4. Brickner, R. M.: Oscillopsia: A New Symptom Commonly Occurring in Multiple Sclerosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 36:586 ( (Sept.) ) 1936. 5. Ohm, J.: Ein neuer Nystagmograph , Klin. Wchnschr. 4:1286 ( (June 25) ) 1925 6. Die Hebelnystagmographie: Ihre Geschichte, Fehler, Leistungen und Vervollkommung , Arch. f. Ophth. 120:235, 1928. 7. Meyers, I. L.: Electronystagmography: A Graphic Study of Action Currents in Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 21:901 ( (April) ) 1929. 8. Fenn, W. O., and Hursh, J. B.: Movements of the Eyes When the Lids Are Closed , Am. J. Physiol. 118:8 ( (Jan.) ) 1937. 9. Smith, K. U.; Kappauf, W. E., and Bojar, S.: The Function of the Visual Cortex in Optic Nystagmus at Different Velocities of Movement in the Visual Field , J. Gen. Psychol. 22:341 ( (April) ) 1940. 10. Perlman, H. B., and Case, T. J.: Nystagmus: Some Observations Based on Electrical Method for Recording Eye Movements , Laryngoscope 49:217 ( (March) ) 1939. 11. Dodge, R.: A Mirror-Recorder for Photographing the Compensatory Movements of Closed Eyes , J. Exper. Psychol. 4:165 ( (June) ) 1921. 12. Dodge, R., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Optic Nystagmus: I. Technical Introduction, with Observations in a Case with Central Scotoma in the Right Eye and External Rectus Palsy in the Left Eye , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:812 ( (Oct.) ) 1928. 13. Fox, J. C., Jr., and Dodge, R.: Optic Nystagmus: II. Variations in Nystagmographic Records of Eye Movements , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 22:55 ( (July) ) 1929. 14. Linthicum, F. H.: Nystagmography: A Method for the Graphic Recording of Nystagmus During and After Turning and of Caloric Nystagmus , Arch. Otolaryng. 32:464 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 15. Peter,1 p. 300. 16. McNally, W. J.: Nystagmus, Graduate Lecture, Course no. 326, American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology. 17. Fox, J. C., and Holmes, G.: Optic Nystagmus and Its Value in the Localization of Cerebral Lesions , Brain 49:333 ( (Sept.) ) 1926. 18. McIntyre, A. K.: The Quick Component of Nystagmus , J. Physiol. 97:8 ( (Nov. 14) ) 1939. 19. Meyers, I. L.: Nystagmus: Neuro-Otologic Studies Concerning Its Seat of Origin , Am. J. M. Sc. 169:742 ( (May) ) 1925. 20. Wilson, J. G., and Pike, F. H.: The Mechanism of Labyrinthine Nystagmus and Its Modifications by Lesions in the Cerebellum and the Cerebrum , Arch. Int. Med. 15:31 ( (Jan.) ) 1915. 21. Ivy, A. C.: Experimental Studies on the Brain Stem: II. Comparative Study of the Relation of the Cerebral Cortex to Vestibular Nystagmus , J. Comp. Neurol. 31:1 ( (Oct.) ) 1919. 22. Duke-Elder,2 p. 631. 23. Spiegel and Sommer,3 p. 77. 24. Lorente de Nó, R.: The Regulation of Eye Positions and Movements Induced by the Labyrinth , Laryngoscope 42:233 ( (April) ) 1932. 25. German, W. J., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Observations Following Unilateral Lobectomies , A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 13:378, 1932. 26. Walsh, F. B.: Certain Abnormalities of Ocular Movements: Their Importance in General and Neurologic Diagnosis , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 19:253 ( (April) ) 1943. 27. Spiegel and Sommer,3 p. 411. 28. Fox, J. C., Jr.: Nystagmus , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 1:224 ( (March) ) 1929. 29. Dodge, R.; Travis, R. C., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Optic Nystagmus: III. Characteristics of the Slow Phase , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 24:21 ( (July) ) 1930. 30. Fox, J. C., Jr.: Disorders of Optic Nystagmus Due to Cerebral Tumors , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:1007 ( (Nov.) ) 1932. 31. Smith, K. U.: The Effect of Partial and Complete Decortication upon the Extinction of Optic Nystagmus , J. Gen. Psychol. 25:3 ( (July) ) 1941. 32. Scala, N. P., and Spiegel, E. A.: Subcortical (Passive) Optokinetic Nystagmus in Lesions of the Midbrain and of the Vestibular Nuclei , Confinia neurol. 3:53, 1940. 33. Snell, A. C.: The Optokinetoscope , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 44:396, 1939. 34. Favill, J.: The Relationship of Eye Muscles to Semicircular Canal Currents in Rotationally Induced Nystagmus , Chicago, Privately Printed, 1936 35. An Explanation of the Mechanism of Induced Rotary and Vertical Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 13: 479 ( (April) ) 1925 36. The Twenty-Six Normally Possible Forms of Rotationally Induced Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 19: 318 ( (Feb.) ) 1928. 37. Bárány, R.: The Relationship Between Semicircular Canals and the Eye Muscles: The Central Mechanism in Vestibular Nystagmus, in Transactions of the Ninth Otological Congress, 1912, pp. 592-595. 38. Quix, F. H.: The Function of the Vestibular Organ and the Clinical Examination of the Otolith Apparatus , J. Laryng. & Otol. 40:425 ( (July) ) 39. 493 (Aug.) 1925. 40. Duke-Elder,2 p. 633. 41. Mygind, S. H.: How Does Caloric Nystagmus Arise? J. Laryng. & Otol. 40:444 ( (July) ) 1925. 42. Fischer, J., and Wolfson, L. E.: The Inner Ear, Including Otoneurology, Otosurgery, and Problems in Modern Warfare , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1943, p. 86. 43. De Kleyn, A.: Some Remarks on Vestibular Nystagmus , Confinia neurol. 2:257, 1939. 44. Fitzgerald, G., and Hallpike, C. S.: Studies in Human Vestibular Function: I. Observations on the Directional Preponderance ("Nystagmusbereitschaft") of Caloric Nystagmus Resulting from Cerebral Lesions , Brain 65:115 ( (June) ) 1942. 45. Wilson and Pike.15 46. Ivy.16 47. Halstead, W.; Yacorzynski, G., and Fearing, F.: Further Evidence of Cerebellar Influence in the Habituation of After-Nystagmus in Pigeons , Am. J. Physiol. 120:350 ( (Oct.) ) 1937. 48. Yacorzynski, G. K.; Halstead, W., and Fearing, F.: Relationship Between the Experimental Reduction of Vestibular Nystagmus and Equilibrium , J. Psychol. 11:161 ( (Jan.) ) 1941. 49. Kisch, B.: A New Method to Produce Nystagmus , Exper. Med. & Surg. 1:169 ( (May) ) 1943. 50. Spicer, W. T. H., in Discussion on Nystagmus , Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. (Sects. Neurol., Ophth. & Otol.) 7:20, 1913-1914. 51. Smith, H. C., and Riesenman, F. R.: Unusual Forms of Nystagmus, with a Review of the Literature , Arch. Ophth. 33:13 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 52. Duke-Elder,2 p. 639. 53. Spiegel and Sommer,3 p. 105. 54. Duke-Elder,2 p. 636. 55. Duke-Elder,2 p. 638. 56. Peter,1 p. 307. 57. Spiegel, E. A., and Scala, N. P.: The Significance of Nystagmus in Differential Diagnosis, with Special Reference to Vertical Nystagmus , Tr. Am. Therap. Soc. 42:60, 1942. 58. Fisher, L., and Glaser, M. A.: New Vestibular Complexes for Localization of Brain Lesions , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 21:876 ( (April) ) 1929. 59. Spiegel, E. A., and Scala, N. P.: Vertical Nystagmus Produced by Peripheral Labyrinthine Lesions , Arch. Otolaryng. 40:160 ( (Sept.) ) 1944. 60. Rea, R. L.: Neuro-Ophthalmology , ed. 2, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1941, p. 67. 61. Harris, W.: Ataxic Nystagmus: A Pathognomonic Sign in Disseminated Sclerosis , Brit. J. Ophth. 28:40 ( (Jan.) ) 1944. 62. Allen, M.: Primary Hereditary Nystagmus: Case Study with Genealogy , J. Hered. 33:454 ( (Dec.) ) 1942. 63. Smith and Riesenman.39b 64. Unsworth, A. C.: A Discussion of Ocular Malingering in the Armed Services , Am. J. Ophth. 28: 148 ( (Feb.) ) 1945. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

NYSTAGMUS: AN APPRAISAL AND A CLASSIFICATION

Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 55 (1) – Jan 1, 1946

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/nystagmus-an-appraisal-and-a-classification-O3SpLGX4wt
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1946 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1946.02300120053003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Nystagmus is a common sign in diseases of the nervous system, and it is also observed in diseases of the eye and of the inner ear. It may, however, be a normal phenomenon in certain circumstances, or it may be elicited experimentally or as part of the clinical examination. There are many varieties of nystagmus, and the manifestation should not be considered as an entity. In order to evaluate the significance of the presence of nystagmus in any individual instance, one must understand the underlying mechanisms and the mode of production of the phenomenon. Nystagmus, or, as it is sometimes called, talantropia,1 may be defined as an involuntary oscillation or trembling of the eyeball. The term "rhythmic" is often included in the definition, but nonrhythmic varieties may be seen. Certain observers object to the inclusion of the adjective "involuntary," as nystagmus of volitional origin has been described. Nystagmus is References 1. Peter, L. C.: The Extra-Ocular Muscles: A Clinical Study of Normal and Abnormal Ocular Motility , ed. 3, Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1941, p. 293. 2. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1939, vol. 1, p. 630. 3. Spiegel, E. A., and Sommer, I.: Neurology of the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1944, p. 104. 4. Brickner, R. M.: Oscillopsia: A New Symptom Commonly Occurring in Multiple Sclerosis , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 36:586 ( (Sept.) ) 1936. 5. Ohm, J.: Ein neuer Nystagmograph , Klin. Wchnschr. 4:1286 ( (June 25) ) 1925 6. Die Hebelnystagmographie: Ihre Geschichte, Fehler, Leistungen und Vervollkommung , Arch. f. Ophth. 120:235, 1928. 7. Meyers, I. L.: Electronystagmography: A Graphic Study of Action Currents in Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 21:901 ( (April) ) 1929. 8. Fenn, W. O., and Hursh, J. B.: Movements of the Eyes When the Lids Are Closed , Am. J. Physiol. 118:8 ( (Jan.) ) 1937. 9. Smith, K. U.; Kappauf, W. E., and Bojar, S.: The Function of the Visual Cortex in Optic Nystagmus at Different Velocities of Movement in the Visual Field , J. Gen. Psychol. 22:341 ( (April) ) 1940. 10. Perlman, H. B., and Case, T. J.: Nystagmus: Some Observations Based on Electrical Method for Recording Eye Movements , Laryngoscope 49:217 ( (March) ) 1939. 11. Dodge, R.: A Mirror-Recorder for Photographing the Compensatory Movements of Closed Eyes , J. Exper. Psychol. 4:165 ( (June) ) 1921. 12. Dodge, R., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Optic Nystagmus: I. Technical Introduction, with Observations in a Case with Central Scotoma in the Right Eye and External Rectus Palsy in the Left Eye , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 20:812 ( (Oct.) ) 1928. 13. Fox, J. C., Jr., and Dodge, R.: Optic Nystagmus: II. Variations in Nystagmographic Records of Eye Movements , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 22:55 ( (July) ) 1929. 14. Linthicum, F. H.: Nystagmography: A Method for the Graphic Recording of Nystagmus During and After Turning and of Caloric Nystagmus , Arch. Otolaryng. 32:464 ( (Sept.) ) 1940. 15. Peter,1 p. 300. 16. McNally, W. J.: Nystagmus, Graduate Lecture, Course no. 326, American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology. 17. Fox, J. C., and Holmes, G.: Optic Nystagmus and Its Value in the Localization of Cerebral Lesions , Brain 49:333 ( (Sept.) ) 1926. 18. McIntyre, A. K.: The Quick Component of Nystagmus , J. Physiol. 97:8 ( (Nov. 14) ) 1939. 19. Meyers, I. L.: Nystagmus: Neuro-Otologic Studies Concerning Its Seat of Origin , Am. J. M. Sc. 169:742 ( (May) ) 1925. 20. Wilson, J. G., and Pike, F. H.: The Mechanism of Labyrinthine Nystagmus and Its Modifications by Lesions in the Cerebellum and the Cerebrum , Arch. Int. Med. 15:31 ( (Jan.) ) 1915. 21. Ivy, A. C.: Experimental Studies on the Brain Stem: II. Comparative Study of the Relation of the Cerebral Cortex to Vestibular Nystagmus , J. Comp. Neurol. 31:1 ( (Oct.) ) 1919. 22. Duke-Elder,2 p. 631. 23. Spiegel and Sommer,3 p. 77. 24. Lorente de Nó, R.: The Regulation of Eye Positions and Movements Induced by the Labyrinth , Laryngoscope 42:233 ( (April) ) 1932. 25. German, W. J., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Observations Following Unilateral Lobectomies , A. Research Nerv. & Ment. Dis., Proc. 13:378, 1932. 26. Walsh, F. B.: Certain Abnormalities of Ocular Movements: Their Importance in General and Neurologic Diagnosis , Bull. New York Acad. Med. 19:253 ( (April) ) 1943. 27. Spiegel and Sommer,3 p. 411. 28. Fox, J. C., Jr.: Nystagmus , Yale J. Biol. & Med. 1:224 ( (March) ) 1929. 29. Dodge, R.; Travis, R. C., and Fox, J. C., Jr.: Optic Nystagmus: III. Characteristics of the Slow Phase , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 24:21 ( (July) ) 1930. 30. Fox, J. C., Jr.: Disorders of Optic Nystagmus Due to Cerebral Tumors , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:1007 ( (Nov.) ) 1932. 31. Smith, K. U.: The Effect of Partial and Complete Decortication upon the Extinction of Optic Nystagmus , J. Gen. Psychol. 25:3 ( (July) ) 1941. 32. Scala, N. P., and Spiegel, E. A.: Subcortical (Passive) Optokinetic Nystagmus in Lesions of the Midbrain and of the Vestibular Nuclei , Confinia neurol. 3:53, 1940. 33. Snell, A. C.: The Optokinetoscope , Tr. Am. Acad. Ophth. 44:396, 1939. 34. Favill, J.: The Relationship of Eye Muscles to Semicircular Canal Currents in Rotationally Induced Nystagmus , Chicago, Privately Printed, 1936 35. An Explanation of the Mechanism of Induced Rotary and Vertical Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 13: 479 ( (April) ) 1925 36. The Twenty-Six Normally Possible Forms of Rotationally Induced Nystagmus , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 19: 318 ( (Feb.) ) 1928. 37. Bárány, R.: The Relationship Between Semicircular Canals and the Eye Muscles: The Central Mechanism in Vestibular Nystagmus, in Transactions of the Ninth Otological Congress, 1912, pp. 592-595. 38. Quix, F. H.: The Function of the Vestibular Organ and the Clinical Examination of the Otolith Apparatus , J. Laryng. & Otol. 40:425 ( (July) ) 39. 493 (Aug.) 1925. 40. Duke-Elder,2 p. 633. 41. Mygind, S. H.: How Does Caloric Nystagmus Arise? J. Laryng. & Otol. 40:444 ( (July) ) 1925. 42. Fischer, J., and Wolfson, L. E.: The Inner Ear, Including Otoneurology, Otosurgery, and Problems in Modern Warfare , New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1943, p. 86. 43. De Kleyn, A.: Some Remarks on Vestibular Nystagmus , Confinia neurol. 2:257, 1939. 44. Fitzgerald, G., and Hallpike, C. S.: Studies in Human Vestibular Function: I. Observations on the Directional Preponderance ("Nystagmusbereitschaft") of Caloric Nystagmus Resulting from Cerebral Lesions , Brain 65:115 ( (June) ) 1942. 45. Wilson and Pike.15 46. Ivy.16 47. Halstead, W.; Yacorzynski, G., and Fearing, F.: Further Evidence of Cerebellar Influence in the Habituation of After-Nystagmus in Pigeons , Am. J. Physiol. 120:350 ( (Oct.) ) 1937. 48. Yacorzynski, G. K.; Halstead, W., and Fearing, F.: Relationship Between the Experimental Reduction of Vestibular Nystagmus and Equilibrium , J. Psychol. 11:161 ( (Jan.) ) 1941. 49. Kisch, B.: A New Method to Produce Nystagmus , Exper. Med. & Surg. 1:169 ( (May) ) 1943. 50. Spicer, W. T. H., in Discussion on Nystagmus , Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. (Sects. Neurol., Ophth. & Otol.) 7:20, 1913-1914. 51. Smith, H. C., and Riesenman, F. R.: Unusual Forms of Nystagmus, with a Review of the Literature , Arch. Ophth. 33:13 ( (Jan.) ) 1945. 52. Duke-Elder,2 p. 639. 53. Spiegel and Sommer,3 p. 105. 54. Duke-Elder,2 p. 636. 55. Duke-Elder,2 p. 638. 56. Peter,1 p. 307. 57. Spiegel, E. A., and Scala, N. P.: The Significance of Nystagmus in Differential Diagnosis, with Special Reference to Vertical Nystagmus , Tr. Am. Therap. Soc. 42:60, 1942. 58. Fisher, L., and Glaser, M. A.: New Vestibular Complexes for Localization of Brain Lesions , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 21:876 ( (April) ) 1929. 59. Spiegel, E. A., and Scala, N. P.: Vertical Nystagmus Produced by Peripheral Labyrinthine Lesions , Arch. Otolaryng. 40:160 ( (Sept.) ) 1944. 60. Rea, R. L.: Neuro-Ophthalmology , ed. 2, St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1941, p. 67. 61. Harris, W.: Ataxic Nystagmus: A Pathognomonic Sign in Disseminated Sclerosis , Brit. J. Ophth. 28:40 ( (Jan.) ) 1944. 62. Allen, M.: Primary Hereditary Nystagmus: Case Study with Genealogy , J. Hered. 33:454 ( (Dec.) ) 1942. 63. Smith and Riesenman.39b 64. Unsworth, A. C.: A Discussion of Ocular Malingering in the Armed Services , Am. J. Ophth. 28: 148 ( (Feb.) ) 1945.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jan 1, 1946

References