Abstract • Generally, clinicians assessing mental status interpret patients' nonverbal behavior in terms of its discharge, expressive, interactional, or neurological properties. The present study addresses the conceptualization of hand movement behavior as related to central cognitive processes, and attempts to identify encoding-related motor behavior by comparing the hand movements of subordinate bilingual subjects in situations of dominant- and nondominant-language and low- and high-imagery verbalization. Compared to the parallel dominant-language situation, subjects verbalizing in their nondominant language produced more speech-primacy and groping hand movements. Also, in comparison with the verbalization about a high-imagery topic, when the subjects encoded a low-imagery topic they displayed more pointing movements. Unless they are aware of these movements, clinicians evaluating bilingual patients may interpret an increase in encoding-related motor activity as reflecting psychopathology. Apart from this psychodiagnostic significance, hypothetical implications of these findings for the study of aphasia and information processing mechanisms are discussed. References 1. Marcos LR, Goldgerg E, Feazell, et al: The use of sodium amytal interviews in a short-term community-oriented inpatient unit . Dis Nerv Syst 38:283-286, 1977. 2. Freud S: The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud . London, Hogarth, 1953, vol 3, pp 3-122. 3. Reich W: Character Analysis . London, Vision Press Ltd, 1958. 4. Allport GW, Vernon P: Studies in Expressive Movement . New York, Macmillan Co, 1933. 5. Birdwhistell RL: Introduction to Kinesics . Louisville, Ky, University of Louisville, 1952. 6. Scheflen AE: The significance of posture in communication systems . Psychiatry 27:316-331, 1964. 7. Watzlawick P, Beavin JH, Jackson DD: Pragmatics of Human Communication . New York, WW Norton & Co Inc, 1967. 8. Efron D: Gesture and Environment . New York, King's Crown, 1941. 9. Dittman A, Llewellyn LG: Body movement and speech rhythm in social conversation . J Pers Soc Psychol 11:98-106, 1969.Crossref 10. Ekman P: Communications through nonverbal behavior: A source of information about an interpersonal relationship , in Tomkins SS, Izard CE (eds): Affect, Cognition and Personality . New York, Springer Press, 1965. 11. Freedman N, Blass T, Rifkin A, et al: Body movements and the verbal encoding of aggressive affect . J Pers Soc Psychol 79:239-258, 1972. 12. Grand S, Freedman N, Steingart I: A study of the representation of objects in schizophrenia . J Am Psychoanal Assoc 21:399-434, 1973.Crossref 13. Mahl G: Gestures and body movements in interviews , in Schlien J (ed): Research in Psychotherapy . Washington, DC, American Psychological Association Inc, 1968, vol 3. 14. Marcos LR: The emotional correlates of smiling and laughter: A preliminary research study . Am J Psychoanal 34:33-41, 1974.Crossref 15. Dittman AT: The body movement-speech rhythm relationship as a cue to speech encoding , in Siegman AW, Pope B (eds): Studies in Dyadic Communication . New York, Pergamon Press, 1972. 16. Freedman N, O'Hanlon J, Oltman P, et al: The imprint of psychological differentiation on kinetic behavior in varying communicative contexts . J Abnorm Psychol 79:239-258, 1972.Crossref 17. Paivio A: Imagery and Verbal Processes . New York, Holt Rinehart & Winston Inc, 1971. 18. Marcos LR: Bilinguals in psychotherapy: Language as an emotional barrier . Am J Psychother 30:553-560, 1976. 19. Marcos LR, Alpert M, Urcuyo L, et al: The effect of interview language on the evaluation of psychopathology in Spanish-American schizophrenic patients . Am J Psychiatry 130:549-553, 1973. 20. Marcos LR, Urcuyo L, Kesselman M, et al: The language barrier in evaluating Spanish-American patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 29:655-659, 1973.Crossref 21. Grand S, Marcos LR, Freedman N, et al: Relation of psychopathology and bilingualism to kinetic aspects of interview behavior in schizophrenia . J Abnorm Psychol 86:492-500, 1977.Crossref 22. Wechsler D: The Measurement of Adult Intelligence . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1958. 23. Freedman N: The analysis of movement behavior during the clinical interview , in Siegman A, Pope B (eds): Studies in Dyadic Communication . New York, Pergamon Press, 1972. 24. Paivio A, Yuille JC, Madigan SA: Concreteness, imagery, and meaningfulness values for 925 nouns . J Exp Psychol Mon Suppl 76:1-25, 1968.Crossref 25. Winer BJ: Statistical Principles in Experimental Design . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc, 1971. 26. Brain WR: Speech Disorders . London, Butterworth & Co, 1961.
Archives of General Psychiatry – American Medical Association
Published: Aug 1, 1979