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No-Flow State Following Cerebral Ischemia: Role of Increase in Potassium Concentration in Brain Interstitial Fluid

No-Flow State Following Cerebral Ischemia: Role of Increase in Potassium Concentration in Brain... Abstract Rats were subjected to total cerebral ischemia by occluding outflow from the heart. In control experiments and following different periods of ischemia, potassium concentration was measured in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It rose to 19.4 mEq/liter following 16 minutes of ischemia. Changes in cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) were also assessed by measuring the cerebral perfusion rate (CPR). Following two minutes of ischemia, CVR was decreased to half control value. After 8 and 16 minutes of ischemia, CVR was markedly increased, and "no-flow" state was approached after 16 minutes of ischemia. The CVR increased concomitantly with increase in potassium concentration in cisternal CSF. We suggest that the increase in CVR following cerebral ischemia is due to increase in potassium concentration in brain extracellular fluid and is part of a vicious circle that leads to brain death. References 1. Wahl M, Deetjen P, Thurau K, et al: Micropuncture evaluation of the importance of perivascular pH for the arteriolar diameter on the brain surface . Pfluegers Arch 316:152-163, 1970.Crossref 2. Cameron IR, Segal MB: The effect on pial arteriole diameter of local changes in potassium concentration . Eur Neurol 6:100-106, 1971-1972.Crossref 3. Kuschinsky W, Wahl M, Basse O, et al: Perivascular potassium and pH as determinants of local pial arterial diameter in cats . Circ Res 31:240-247, 1972.Crossref 4. rñ N, Sykovâ E, Ujec E, et al: Changes of extracellular potassium concentration induced by neuronal activity in the spinal cord of the cat . J Physiol 238:1-15, 1974. 5. Ames A, Wright RL, Kowada M, et al: Cerebral ischemia: II. The no-reflow phenomenon . Am J Pathol 52:437-453, 1968. 6. Chiang J, Kowada M, Ames A, et al: Cerebral ischemia: III. Vascular changes . Am J Pathol 52:455-476, 1968. 7. Keatinge WR: Electrical and mechanical responses of vascular smooth muscle to vasodilator agents and vasoactive polypeptides . Circ Res 18:641-649, 1966.Crossref 8. Konold P, Gebert G, Brecht K: The effect of potassium on the tone of isolated arteries . Pfluegers Arch 301:283-291, 1968.Crossref 9. Baldy-Moulinier M: Cerebral blood flow and membrane ionic pump . Eur Neurol 6:107-113, 1971-1972.Crossref 10. Freeman DJ, Daniel EE: Calcium movement in vascular smooth muscle and its detection using lanthanum as a tool . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 51:900-913, 1974.Crossref 11. Holloway ET, Bohr DF: Reactivity of vascular smooth muscle in hypertensive rats . Circ Res 33:678-685, 1973.Crossref 12. Siggård-Andersen O, Brain SB: Semiautomatic pipetting of ultramicro volumes of samples and reagent . Am J Clin Pathol 48:502-509, 1967. 13. Fischer EG, Ames A: Studies on mechanisms of impairment of cerebral circulation following ischemia: Effect of hemodilution and perfusion pressure . Stroke 3:358-342, 1972. 14. Hossman V, Hossman K-A: Return of neuronal functions after prolonged cardiac arrest . Brain Res 60:423-438, 1973.Crossref 15. Kogure K, Scheinberg P, Reinmuth OM, et al: Mechanisms of cerebral vasodilation in hypoxia . J Appl Physiol 29:223-229, 1970. 16. Ponte J, Purves MJ: The role of the carotid body chemoreceptors and carotid sinus baroreceptors in the control of cerebral blood vessels . J Physiol 237:315-340, 1974. 17. Eklöf B, Lassen NA, Nilsson L, et al: Blood flow and metabolic rate for oxygen in the cerebral cortex of the rat . Acta Physiol Scand 88:587-589, 1973.Crossref 18. Norris JW, Pappius HM: Cerebral water and electrolytes . Arch Neurol 23:248-258, 1970.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

No-Flow State Following Cerebral Ischemia: Role of Increase in Potassium Concentration in Brain Interstitial Fluid

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1975 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1975.00490480047005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Rats were subjected to total cerebral ischemia by occluding outflow from the heart. In control experiments and following different periods of ischemia, potassium concentration was measured in cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It rose to 19.4 mEq/liter following 16 minutes of ischemia. Changes in cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) were also assessed by measuring the cerebral perfusion rate (CPR). Following two minutes of ischemia, CVR was decreased to half control value. After 8 and 16 minutes of ischemia, CVR was markedly increased, and "no-flow" state was approached after 16 minutes of ischemia. The CVR increased concomitantly with increase in potassium concentration in cisternal CSF. We suggest that the increase in CVR following cerebral ischemia is due to increase in potassium concentration in brain extracellular fluid and is part of a vicious circle that leads to brain death. References 1. Wahl M, Deetjen P, Thurau K, et al: Micropuncture evaluation of the importance of perivascular pH for the arteriolar diameter on the brain surface . Pfluegers Arch 316:152-163, 1970.Crossref 2. Cameron IR, Segal MB: The effect on pial arteriole diameter of local changes in potassium concentration . Eur Neurol 6:100-106, 1971-1972.Crossref 3. Kuschinsky W, Wahl M, Basse O, et al: Perivascular potassium and pH as determinants of local pial arterial diameter in cats . Circ Res 31:240-247, 1972.Crossref 4. rñ N, Sykovâ E, Ujec E, et al: Changes of extracellular potassium concentration induced by neuronal activity in the spinal cord of the cat . J Physiol 238:1-15, 1974. 5. Ames A, Wright RL, Kowada M, et al: Cerebral ischemia: II. The no-reflow phenomenon . Am J Pathol 52:437-453, 1968. 6. Chiang J, Kowada M, Ames A, et al: Cerebral ischemia: III. Vascular changes . Am J Pathol 52:455-476, 1968. 7. Keatinge WR: Electrical and mechanical responses of vascular smooth muscle to vasodilator agents and vasoactive polypeptides . Circ Res 18:641-649, 1966.Crossref 8. Konold P, Gebert G, Brecht K: The effect of potassium on the tone of isolated arteries . Pfluegers Arch 301:283-291, 1968.Crossref 9. Baldy-Moulinier M: Cerebral blood flow and membrane ionic pump . Eur Neurol 6:107-113, 1971-1972.Crossref 10. Freeman DJ, Daniel EE: Calcium movement in vascular smooth muscle and its detection using lanthanum as a tool . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 51:900-913, 1974.Crossref 11. Holloway ET, Bohr DF: Reactivity of vascular smooth muscle in hypertensive rats . Circ Res 33:678-685, 1973.Crossref 12. Siggård-Andersen O, Brain SB: Semiautomatic pipetting of ultramicro volumes of samples and reagent . Am J Clin Pathol 48:502-509, 1967. 13. Fischer EG, Ames A: Studies on mechanisms of impairment of cerebral circulation following ischemia: Effect of hemodilution and perfusion pressure . Stroke 3:358-342, 1972. 14. Hossman V, Hossman K-A: Return of neuronal functions after prolonged cardiac arrest . Brain Res 60:423-438, 1973.Crossref 15. Kogure K, Scheinberg P, Reinmuth OM, et al: Mechanisms of cerebral vasodilation in hypoxia . J Appl Physiol 29:223-229, 1970. 16. Ponte J, Purves MJ: The role of the carotid body chemoreceptors and carotid sinus baroreceptors in the control of cerebral blood vessels . J Physiol 237:315-340, 1974. 17. Eklöf B, Lassen NA, Nilsson L, et al: Blood flow and metabolic rate for oxygen in the cerebral cortex of the rat . Acta Physiol Scand 88:587-589, 1973.Crossref 18. Norris JW, Pappius HM: Cerebral water and electrolytes . Arch Neurol 23:248-258, 1970.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1975

References