Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

NIGHT VISION: A Comparison of the Scotopic Visual Ratings of Young Japanese and Caucasian Adults Living in Hawaii

NIGHT VISION: A Comparison of the Scotopic Visual Ratings of Young Japanese and Caucasian Adults... Abstract FOR TWO years after the war began residents of the Territory of Hawaii lived under conditions of rigidly enforced nightly blackouts. The maintenance of vital public utilities, hospitals, docks, ship repair yards and scores of other essential activities, however, required that many employees continue their duties during the hours of blackout. It soon became evident that under conditions of absence of or greatly reduced artificial illumination some workers were less able to carry on their usual occupations than were others. The preponderance of those who were so handicapped were of Japanese ancestry. In the capacity of chief of the Light Control Section of the Office of the Military Governor of the Territory of Hawaii and as a practicing ophthalmologist, I had numerous occasions to observe this "racial" trend of inferior scotopic seeing ability. In 1943 I reported this observation to the Headquarters of the Army Air Forces, as I References 1. Hecht, S., and Shlaer, S.: An Adaptometer for Measuring Human Dark Adaptation , J. Optic. Soc. America 28:269, 1936.Crossref 2. Rowland, W. M., and Campbell, P. A. : A Small Light Threshold Meter , A. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Research Report no. 2, Project no. 69, Randolph Field, Texas, Jan. 23, 1943. 3. Luckiesh, M., and Moss, F. K. : The Ability to See Low Contrasts at Night , J. Aeronaut. Sc. 9:1, 1942. 4. Harman, N. B.: Testing Night Vision , Brit. M. J. 1:636, 1941.Crossref 5. Ferree, C. E., and Rand, G.: Visual Acuity at Low Illuminations : Apparatus and Results , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 17:370, 1919. 6. Model L-H, made by General Electric Company. 7. Model 164, manufactured by Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation. 8. Wolfflin, E.: Der Einfluses des Lebensalters auf den Lichtsinn bei Dunkeladaptiertem , Arch. f. Ophth. 61:524, 1905. 9. Helson, H., and Guilford, J. P.: The Relation of Visual Sensitivity to the Amount of Retinal Pigmentation , J. Gen. Psychol. 9:58, 1933.Crossref 10. Matthey, G.: Eine Standardkurve der Dunkeladaptation für klinische Untersuchungen , Arch. f. Ophth. 61:524, 1905. 11. Martin, R. : Lehrbuch der Anthropologie , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1928, vols. 1 and 2. 12. Adachi, B.: Die Orbita und die Hauptmasse des Schädels der Japaner , Ztschr. f. Morphol. u. Anthropol. 7:379, 1904. 13. Rasmussen, O. D.: Incidence of Myopia in China: Data and Theses from Periodical Investigations Covering Thirty Years' Residence and Association with Refracting and Hospital Centers in a Score of the Larger Cities , Brit. J. Ophth. 20:350, 1936.Crossref 14. Jackson, E.: Control of Myopia , Am. J. Ophth. 14:719, 1931. 15. Walker, J. P. S.: Progressive Myopia : A Suggestion Explaining Its Causation and Treatment , Brit. J. Ophth. 16:483, 1932.Crossref 16. Law, F. W.: Calcium and Parathyroid Therapy in Progressive Myopia , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 54:281, 1934. 17. Rutherford, C. W.: Myopia: Etiology and Treatment, Graduate Lecture delivered before the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, 1939. 18. Wilson, R. P.: A Short Slit-Lamp Study on the Corneal Vessels in Egyptian Trachoma , Folia ophth. orient. 1:52, 1932. 19. von Horváth, B.: Hornhaut bei Trachom , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 72:242, 1924. 20. MacCallan, A. F.: The World-Wide Distribution of Trachoma , Brit. J. Ophth. 22:513, 1938.Crossref 21. Enright, J.: Personal communication to the author. 22. Holmes, W. J., and Hamman, G. C.: Causes of Blindness in Hawaii , Arch. Ophth. 25:643 ( (April) ) 1941.Crossref 23. Miller, C. D., and Masunaga, E.: A Study of the Diet of Japanese Sampan Fishermen While at Sea, Proc. Hawaiian Acad. Sc. , Special Publication no. 30 of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1935-1936, p. 8. 24. It is realized that the number of families studied in this group is small. However, it is felt, from similar studies, that the data are sufficiently reliable and representative to warrant analysis and discussion. 25. Miller, C. D.: A Study of the Dietary and Value of Living of Forty-Four Japanese Families in Hawaii , Univ. Hawaii Bull. 18:2 ( (Dec.) ) 1938. 26. Potgieter, M.: Diet and Health in Rural Hawaii, unpublished report. 27. Sherman, H. C.: Chemistry of Food and Nutrition , ed. 5, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1937, p. 532. 28. Knapp, A. A.: Night Blindness, Improvement with Vitamin D, Including Experimental Production of Retinitis Pigmentosa and Its Treatment in Humans with Vitamin D , U. S. Nav. M. Bull. 41:373, 1943. 29. Iseki, K.: An Investigation of Twelve Commercial Samples of KobuEdible Japanese Seaweed for Iodine Content and Vitamins, Thesis, University of Hawaii, 1942. 30. Jamieson, H. L.; Drummond, J. C., and Coward, K. H.: Synthesis of Vitamin A by a Marine Diatom Growing in Pure Culture , Biochem. J. 16:482, 1922. 31. Kofume, K.: Nutritional Condition of Farmers in Japan , Ryoshoku Kenkyu, 1937, no. 129, p. 19. 32. Hara, T.: School Lunches and Nutritional Menus , 205-207, 1936. 33. Morimoto, K.: The Efficiency Standard of Living in Japan , Japanese Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, 1931. 34. Night Blindness , editorial, Lancet 2:807, 1941. 35. Kondo, K.: The Health and Foods of the People , Ryoshoku Kenkyu, 1936, no. 142, p. 2. 36. Sugimoto, K.: Food Problems of the Crisis , Ryoshoku Kenkyu, 1938, no. 143, p. 32. 37. Miller, C. D.: Personal communication to the author. 38. Wald, G.: Carotenoids of the Visual Cycle , J. Gen. Physiol. 19:351, 1935.Crossref 39. Hecht, S.: Rods, Cones and the Chemical Basis of Vision , Physiol. Rev. 17:239, 1937. 40. Heiman, M.: Riboflavin , Arch. Ophth. 28:493 ( (Sept.) ) 1942.Crossref 41. Holmes, W. J.: Night Vision , Arch. Ophth. 30:267 ( (Aug.) ) 1943.Crossref 42. Blindness Test: Pretty Nurse Attracts Students , The Rough Rider (Roosevelt) High School, Honolulu, T. H.) 14:29, 1944. 43. Riddell, W. J. B.: Two Clinical Tests for Night Blindness , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 60:181, 1940. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

NIGHT VISION: A Comparison of the Scotopic Visual Ratings of Young Japanese and Caucasian Adults Living in Hawaii

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 36 (2) – Aug 1, 1946

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/night-vision-a-comparison-of-the-scotopic-visual-ratings-of-young-zF7SqvW8YT
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1946 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1946.00890210146002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract FOR TWO years after the war began residents of the Territory of Hawaii lived under conditions of rigidly enforced nightly blackouts. The maintenance of vital public utilities, hospitals, docks, ship repair yards and scores of other essential activities, however, required that many employees continue their duties during the hours of blackout. It soon became evident that under conditions of absence of or greatly reduced artificial illumination some workers were less able to carry on their usual occupations than were others. The preponderance of those who were so handicapped were of Japanese ancestry. In the capacity of chief of the Light Control Section of the Office of the Military Governor of the Territory of Hawaii and as a practicing ophthalmologist, I had numerous occasions to observe this "racial" trend of inferior scotopic seeing ability. In 1943 I reported this observation to the Headquarters of the Army Air Forces, as I References 1. Hecht, S., and Shlaer, S.: An Adaptometer for Measuring Human Dark Adaptation , J. Optic. Soc. America 28:269, 1936.Crossref 2. Rowland, W. M., and Campbell, P. A. : A Small Light Threshold Meter , A. A. F. School of Aviation Medicine, Research Report no. 2, Project no. 69, Randolph Field, Texas, Jan. 23, 1943. 3. Luckiesh, M., and Moss, F. K. : The Ability to See Low Contrasts at Night , J. Aeronaut. Sc. 9:1, 1942. 4. Harman, N. B.: Testing Night Vision , Brit. M. J. 1:636, 1941.Crossref 5. Ferree, C. E., and Rand, G.: Visual Acuity at Low Illuminations : Apparatus and Results , Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc. 17:370, 1919. 6. Model L-H, made by General Electric Company. 7. Model 164, manufactured by Weston Electrical Instrument Corporation. 8. Wolfflin, E.: Der Einfluses des Lebensalters auf den Lichtsinn bei Dunkeladaptiertem , Arch. f. Ophth. 61:524, 1905. 9. Helson, H., and Guilford, J. P.: The Relation of Visual Sensitivity to the Amount of Retinal Pigmentation , J. Gen. Psychol. 9:58, 1933.Crossref 10. Matthey, G.: Eine Standardkurve der Dunkeladaptation für klinische Untersuchungen , Arch. f. Ophth. 61:524, 1905. 11. Martin, R. : Lehrbuch der Anthropologie , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1928, vols. 1 and 2. 12. Adachi, B.: Die Orbita und die Hauptmasse des Schädels der Japaner , Ztschr. f. Morphol. u. Anthropol. 7:379, 1904. 13. Rasmussen, O. D.: Incidence of Myopia in China: Data and Theses from Periodical Investigations Covering Thirty Years' Residence and Association with Refracting and Hospital Centers in a Score of the Larger Cities , Brit. J. Ophth. 20:350, 1936.Crossref 14. Jackson, E.: Control of Myopia , Am. J. Ophth. 14:719, 1931. 15. Walker, J. P. S.: Progressive Myopia : A Suggestion Explaining Its Causation and Treatment , Brit. J. Ophth. 16:483, 1932.Crossref 16. Law, F. W.: Calcium and Parathyroid Therapy in Progressive Myopia , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 54:281, 1934. 17. Rutherford, C. W.: Myopia: Etiology and Treatment, Graduate Lecture delivered before the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, 1939. 18. Wilson, R. P.: A Short Slit-Lamp Study on the Corneal Vessels in Egyptian Trachoma , Folia ophth. orient. 1:52, 1932. 19. von Horváth, B.: Hornhaut bei Trachom , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 72:242, 1924. 20. MacCallan, A. F.: The World-Wide Distribution of Trachoma , Brit. J. Ophth. 22:513, 1938.Crossref 21. Enright, J.: Personal communication to the author. 22. Holmes, W. J., and Hamman, G. C.: Causes of Blindness in Hawaii , Arch. Ophth. 25:643 ( (April) ) 1941.Crossref 23. Miller, C. D., and Masunaga, E.: A Study of the Diet of Japanese Sampan Fishermen While at Sea, Proc. Hawaiian Acad. Sc. , Special Publication no. 30 of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, 1935-1936, p. 8. 24. It is realized that the number of families studied in this group is small. However, it is felt, from similar studies, that the data are sufficiently reliable and representative to warrant analysis and discussion. 25. Miller, C. D.: A Study of the Dietary and Value of Living of Forty-Four Japanese Families in Hawaii , Univ. Hawaii Bull. 18:2 ( (Dec.) ) 1938. 26. Potgieter, M.: Diet and Health in Rural Hawaii, unpublished report. 27. Sherman, H. C.: Chemistry of Food and Nutrition , ed. 5, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1937, p. 532. 28. Knapp, A. A.: Night Blindness, Improvement with Vitamin D, Including Experimental Production of Retinitis Pigmentosa and Its Treatment in Humans with Vitamin D , U. S. Nav. M. Bull. 41:373, 1943. 29. Iseki, K.: An Investigation of Twelve Commercial Samples of KobuEdible Japanese Seaweed for Iodine Content and Vitamins, Thesis, University of Hawaii, 1942. 30. Jamieson, H. L.; Drummond, J. C., and Coward, K. H.: Synthesis of Vitamin A by a Marine Diatom Growing in Pure Culture , Biochem. J. 16:482, 1922. 31. Kofume, K.: Nutritional Condition of Farmers in Japan , Ryoshoku Kenkyu, 1937, no. 129, p. 19. 32. Hara, T.: School Lunches and Nutritional Menus , 205-207, 1936. 33. Morimoto, K.: The Efficiency Standard of Living in Japan , Japanese Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations, 1931. 34. Night Blindness , editorial, Lancet 2:807, 1941. 35. Kondo, K.: The Health and Foods of the People , Ryoshoku Kenkyu, 1936, no. 142, p. 2. 36. Sugimoto, K.: Food Problems of the Crisis , Ryoshoku Kenkyu, 1938, no. 143, p. 32. 37. Miller, C. D.: Personal communication to the author. 38. Wald, G.: Carotenoids of the Visual Cycle , J. Gen. Physiol. 19:351, 1935.Crossref 39. Hecht, S.: Rods, Cones and the Chemical Basis of Vision , Physiol. Rev. 17:239, 1937. 40. Heiman, M.: Riboflavin , Arch. Ophth. 28:493 ( (Sept.) ) 1942.Crossref 41. Holmes, W. J.: Night Vision , Arch. Ophth. 30:267 ( (Aug.) ) 1943.Crossref 42. Blindness Test: Pretty Nurse Attracts Students , The Rough Rider (Roosevelt) High School, Honolulu, T. H.) 14:29, 1944. 43. Riddell, W. J. B.: Two Clinical Tests for Night Blindness , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 60:181, 1940.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1946

References