Abstract Until quite recently, most pediatric teaching on early child development has centered around the ages and stages observations of Gesell and his colleagues and the psychoanalytic theories of early emotional development. In 1964, Bloom's review of longitudinal studies refocused attention on the importance of the first five years of life for the social and cognitive development of the child1 and in the past few years, knowledge about early child development has been increasing at a rapid rate. The following is a review of some recent studies which have important implications for the practice of pediatrics. Social Development The identification by Thomas et al of significant behavioral characteristics of infants and children that are unrelated to parental child rearing practices is of major importance.2 Fussy infants with irregular patterns of eating, sleeping, and elimination, intense negative reactions to new situations, and slow adaptability were found to be particularly difficult References 1. Bloom BS: Stability and Change in Human Characteristics . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1964. 2. Thomas A, Chess S, Birch H: Temperament and Behavior Disorders in Children . New York, New York University Press, 1968. 3. Chamberlin RW: Early recognition and modification of vicious circle parent-child relationships . Clin Pediatr 6:469-479, 1967.Crossref 4. Brazelton TB: Infants and Mothers: Differences in Development . New York, Dell Publishing Co, 1969. 5. Chess S, Thomas A, Birch H: Your Child is a Person . New York, Viking Press, 1965. 6. Carey WB: A simplified method for measuring infant temperament . J Pediatr 77:188-194, 1970.Crossref 7. Allen F, et al: Effects of social reinforcement on isolate behavior of a nursery school child . Child Dev 35:511-518, 1964. 8. Brown P, Elliott R: Control of aggression in a nursery school class . Exp Child Psychol 2:103-107, 1965.Crossref 9. Wahler R, et al: Mothers as behavior therapists for their own children . Behav Res Ther 3:113-124, 1965.Crossref 10. Bijou S: Behavior modification in the mentally retarded . Pediatr Clin North Am 15:969-987, 1968. 11. Friedman D, Hansen H: Family therapy in pediatrics . Clin Pediatr 7:665-669, 1968.Crossref 12. Klaus M, et al: Maternal attachment: Importance of the first post-partum days . N Engl J Med 286:460-463, 1972.Crossref 13. Klaus M, Kennell J: Mothers separated from their newborn infants . Pediatr Clin North Am 17:1015-1037, 1970. 14. Schaeffer E: Parents as educators: Evidence from cross-sectional longitudinal and intervention research . Young Child 27:227-239, 1972. 15. Moore T: Language and intelligence: A longitudinal study of the first eight years: II. Environmental correlates of mental growth . Hum Dev 11:1-24, 1968.Crossref 16. Werner E, Bierman J, French F: The Children of Kauai . Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 1971. 17. Levenstein P: Cognitive growth in preschoolers through verbal interaction with mothers . Am J Orthopsychiatry 40:426-432, 1970.Crossref 18. Gutelius M, et al: Promising results from a cognitive stimulation program in infancy . Clin Pediatr 11:585-593, 1972.Crossref 19. Scarr-Salapatek S, Williams M: The effects of early stimulation on low birth weight infants . Child Dev 44:94-101, 1973.Crossref 20. Richmond JB: Child development: A basic science for pediatrics . Pediatrics 39:649-658, 1967.
American Journal of Diseases of Children – American Medical Association
Published: Nov 1, 1973