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Neurologic Techniques and Rorschach Test in Detecting Brain Pathology: A Study of Comparative Validities

Neurologic Techniques and Rorschach Test in Detecting Brain Pathology: A Study of Comparative... Abstract This paper presents the results of comparing the validity of the Rorschach test with the. validities of individual neurologic procedures in distinguishing between patients with and those without lesions of the central nervous system. In the process of collecting data on the cross validation of the Rorschach test and its applicability to central nervous system pathology reported in a previous paper,1 we also obtained data on standard neurologic procedures. The method employed to obtain criterion groups in the cross-validation study was designed so as to provide samples as representative as possible of everyday diagnostic cases in hospital neurology. The method was suggested by Piotrowski4 about 15 years ago: The best control for the cerebral group would seem to be one composed of patients who had been seriously considered to have cerebral lesions and in whom the possibility of cerebral lesions was excluded after a longer period of observation. References 1. Dr. Henry Newman and Dr. Lewis A. Roberts served as judges in this investigation. 2. We acknowledge that the foramen magnum is an arbitrary anatomical dividing line, but, in view of the current limited knowledge of behavioral correlates of the central nervous system, such a point of demarcation is, in our opinion, a reasonable one. 3. Reference 2, p. 413. 4. Where there were complaints of more than one symptom, the primary symptom which brought the patient to seek hospitalization was used for tabulation. 5. Several legitimate objections may be presented to this arbitrary method of analyzing positive and negative results of the neurologic examinations. For example, a positive sign on the neurologic examination may or may not be related to central nervous system pathology rostral to the foramen magnum. Also, it is recognized that these signs have varying degrees of reliability, and that wide differences are shown among the examiners themselves, as well as between examinations by one examiner. Perhaps the foramen magnum as an anatomical cut-off line is not valid for studying the neurologic examination in the way we have. Yet, the question still remains: Which division? Spinal cord and brain vs. peripheral nerves? Even with this division there may be some positive neurologic signs whose interpretation cannot differentiate any more reliably than the division used in this study. 6. Manometric: Under 200 mm. of water for recumbent position. Gross: Fluid must be clear and colorless. Microscopic: Less than 6 white blood cells per cubic millimeter. Biochemical: Protein less than 40 mg/100 cc. Serologic: Negative reaction. 7. Prof. Robert C. Tryon, of the University of California, assisted in the analysis of the data. 8. Fisher, J.; Gonda, T. A., and Little, K. B.: The Rorschach and Central Nervous System Pathology: A Cross-Validation Study , Am. J. Psychiat. 3:487-492, 1955. 9. Guilford, J. P.: Psychometric Methods , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936. 10. Piotrowski, Z. A.: On the Rorschach Method and Its Application in Organic Disturbances of the Central Nervous System , Rorschach Res. Exchange 1:23-40, 1936.Crossref 11. Piotrowski, Z. A.: Positive and Negative Rorschach Organic Reactions , Rorschach Res. Exchange 4:147-151, 1940.Crossref 12. Standard Nomenclature of Diseases and Operations , Fourth Edition, Richard J. Plunkett, Editor, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1952. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Neurologic Techniques and Rorschach Test in Detecting Brain Pathology: A Study of Comparative Validities

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1955 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1955.02330140001001
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract This paper presents the results of comparing the validity of the Rorschach test with the. validities of individual neurologic procedures in distinguishing between patients with and those without lesions of the central nervous system. In the process of collecting data on the cross validation of the Rorschach test and its applicability to central nervous system pathology reported in a previous paper,1 we also obtained data on standard neurologic procedures. The method employed to obtain criterion groups in the cross-validation study was designed so as to provide samples as representative as possible of everyday diagnostic cases in hospital neurology. The method was suggested by Piotrowski4 about 15 years ago: The best control for the cerebral group would seem to be one composed of patients who had been seriously considered to have cerebral lesions and in whom the possibility of cerebral lesions was excluded after a longer period of observation. References 1. Dr. Henry Newman and Dr. Lewis A. Roberts served as judges in this investigation. 2. We acknowledge that the foramen magnum is an arbitrary anatomical dividing line, but, in view of the current limited knowledge of behavioral correlates of the central nervous system, such a point of demarcation is, in our opinion, a reasonable one. 3. Reference 2, p. 413. 4. Where there were complaints of more than one symptom, the primary symptom which brought the patient to seek hospitalization was used for tabulation. 5. Several legitimate objections may be presented to this arbitrary method of analyzing positive and negative results of the neurologic examinations. For example, a positive sign on the neurologic examination may or may not be related to central nervous system pathology rostral to the foramen magnum. Also, it is recognized that these signs have varying degrees of reliability, and that wide differences are shown among the examiners themselves, as well as between examinations by one examiner. Perhaps the foramen magnum as an anatomical cut-off line is not valid for studying the neurologic examination in the way we have. Yet, the question still remains: Which division? Spinal cord and brain vs. peripheral nerves? Even with this division there may be some positive neurologic signs whose interpretation cannot differentiate any more reliably than the division used in this study. 6. Manometric: Under 200 mm. of water for recumbent position. Gross: Fluid must be clear and colorless. Microscopic: Less than 6 white blood cells per cubic millimeter. Biochemical: Protein less than 40 mg/100 cc. Serologic: Negative reaction. 7. Prof. Robert C. Tryon, of the University of California, assisted in the analysis of the data. 8. Fisher, J.; Gonda, T. A., and Little, K. B.: The Rorschach and Central Nervous System Pathology: A Cross-Validation Study , Am. J. Psychiat. 3:487-492, 1955. 9. Guilford, J. P.: Psychometric Methods , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1936. 10. Piotrowski, Z. A.: On the Rorschach Method and Its Application in Organic Disturbances of the Central Nervous System , Rorschach Res. Exchange 1:23-40, 1936.Crossref 11. Piotrowski, Z. A.: Positive and Negative Rorschach Organic Reactions , Rorschach Res. Exchange 4:147-151, 1940.Crossref 12. Standard Nomenclature of Diseases and Operations , Fourth Edition, Richard J. Plunkett, Editor, Philadelphia, The Blakiston Company, 1952.

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1955

References