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NATURE OF THE FILTRABLE AGENT OF TRACHOMA

NATURE OF THE FILTRABLE AGENT OF TRACHOMA Abstract It is now generally agreed that none of the bacteria which have been found on the trachomatous conjunctiva are concerned etiologically in the disease. In 1912 Nicolle, Blaizot and Cuénod1 concluded, on the basis of two filtration experiments in which they had employed modified Berkefeld V filters, that the agent of trachoma was filtrable. In the first experiment a bacteria-free filtrate of trachomatous material produced a disease typical of experimental trachoma in a Macacus inuus (Barbary ape) which was proved to be trachoma by transfer to a blind human eye. In the second experiment a bacteria-free filtrate proved infectious for a chimpanzee. Confirmation of the filtrability of the agent of trachoma has come from the experiments of Thygeson and Proctor2 with baboons, Thygeson, Proctor and Richards3 with a human volunteer and Julianelle, Morris and Harrison4 with Macacus rhesus monkeys. These investi- gators have found References 1. Nicolle, C.; Blaizot, L., and Cuénod, A.: Le magot, animal réactif du trachome: Filtrabilité du virus; pouvoir infectant des larmes , Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. 155:241, 1912. 2. Thygeson, P., and Proctor, F. I.: Filtrability of Trachoma Virus , Arch. Ophth. 13:1018 ( (June) ) 1935.Crossref 3. Thygeson, P.; Proctor, F. I., and Richards, P.: Etiologic Significance of the Elementary Body in Trachoma , Am. J. Ophth. 18:811, 1935. 4. Julianelle, L. A.; Morris, M. C., and Harrison, R. W.: Studies on the Infectivity of Trachoma: Further Observations on the Filterability of the Infectious Agent , Am. J. Ophth. 20:890, 1937. 5. Halberstädter, L., and von Prowazek, S.: Ueber Zelleinschlüsse parasitärer Natur bei Trachom , Arb. a. d. k. Gsndhtsamte. 26:1, 1907. 6. Axenfeld, T.: Die Aetiologie des Trachoms , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1914. 7. Lindner, K., in Berens, C.: The Eye and Its Diseases , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1936, p. 437. 8. Taborisky, J.: Die Prowazek-Halberstädterschen Körperchen und ihre klinische Bedeutung , Arch. f. Ophth. 124:455, 1930. 9. Rötth, A.: The Microbic Etiology of Trachoma, abstracted , Rev. internat. du trachome 15:31, 1938. 10. Bengtson, I. A., and Rolufs, L. S.: Observations on Epithelial-Cell Inclusions of Early Uncomplicated Trachoma , Am. J. Ophth. 19:229, 1936. 11. Rice, C. E.: The Carbohydrate Matrix of the Epithelial-Cell Inclusion in Trachoma , Am. J. Ophth. 19:1, 1936. 12. Thygeson, P.: The Matrix of the Epithelial Cell Inclusion of Trachoma , Am. J. Path. 14:455, 1938. 13. Gebb, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Beziehungen zwischen Einschlussblennorrhoe und Trachom , Ztschr. f. Augenh. 31:475, 1914. 14. Botteri, A.: Klinische, experimentelle und mikroskopische Studien über Trachom, Einschlussblennorrhoe und Frühjahrskatarrh , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 50:653, 1912. 15. Thygeson, P.: The Etiology of Inclusion Blennorrhea , Am. J. Ophth. 17: 1019, 1934. 16. Thygeson, P., and Mengert, W. F.: The Virus of Inclusion Conjunctivitis: Further Observations , Arch. Ophth. 15:377 ( (March) ) 1936.Crossref 17. Tilden, E. B., and Gifford, S. R.: Filtration Experiments with the Virus of Inclusion Blennorrhea , Arch. Ophth. 16:51 ( (July) ) 1936.Crossref 18. Julianelle, L. A.: Personal communication to the authors. 19. Thygeson, P.: Unpublished data. 20. Wilson, R. P., in Eleventh Annual Report of the Giza Memorial Ophthalmic Laboratory , Cairo, Schindler's Press, 1937, p. 117. 21. Thygeson, P.: Inoculation of Human Conjunctiva with Trachomatous Materials , Am. J. Ophth. 16:409, 1933. 22. Julianelle, L. A.; Harrison, R. W., and Morris, M. C.: The Probable Nature of the Infectious Agent of Trachoma , J. Exper. Med. 65:735, 1937.Crossref 23. Michàil, D., and Vanceà, P.: Some Experimental Facts in Trachoma , Rev. internat. du trachome 9:33, 1932. 24. Loe, F.: Sulfanilamide Treatment of Trachoma: Preliminary Report, to be published. 25. Jackson, C.: The Microscopic Diagnosis of Heartwater , in Seventeenth Report of the Director of Veterinary Services and Animal Industry , Union of South Africa, August 1931, p. 161. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

NATURE OF THE FILTRABLE AGENT OF TRACHOMA

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1938 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1938.00850220041002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract It is now generally agreed that none of the bacteria which have been found on the trachomatous conjunctiva are concerned etiologically in the disease. In 1912 Nicolle, Blaizot and Cuénod1 concluded, on the basis of two filtration experiments in which they had employed modified Berkefeld V filters, that the agent of trachoma was filtrable. In the first experiment a bacteria-free filtrate of trachomatous material produced a disease typical of experimental trachoma in a Macacus inuus (Barbary ape) which was proved to be trachoma by transfer to a blind human eye. In the second experiment a bacteria-free filtrate proved infectious for a chimpanzee. Confirmation of the filtrability of the agent of trachoma has come from the experiments of Thygeson and Proctor2 with baboons, Thygeson, Proctor and Richards3 with a human volunteer and Julianelle, Morris and Harrison4 with Macacus rhesus monkeys. These investi- gators have found References 1. Nicolle, C.; Blaizot, L., and Cuénod, A.: Le magot, animal réactif du trachome: Filtrabilité du virus; pouvoir infectant des larmes , Compt. rend. Acad. d. sc. 155:241, 1912. 2. Thygeson, P., and Proctor, F. I.: Filtrability of Trachoma Virus , Arch. Ophth. 13:1018 ( (June) ) 1935.Crossref 3. Thygeson, P.; Proctor, F. I., and Richards, P.: Etiologic Significance of the Elementary Body in Trachoma , Am. J. Ophth. 18:811, 1935. 4. Julianelle, L. A.; Morris, M. C., and Harrison, R. W.: Studies on the Infectivity of Trachoma: Further Observations on the Filterability of the Infectious Agent , Am. J. Ophth. 20:890, 1937. 5. Halberstädter, L., and von Prowazek, S.: Ueber Zelleinschlüsse parasitärer Natur bei Trachom , Arb. a. d. k. Gsndhtsamte. 26:1, 1907. 6. Axenfeld, T.: Die Aetiologie des Trachoms , Jena, Gustav Fischer, 1914. 7. Lindner, K., in Berens, C.: The Eye and Its Diseases , Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1936, p. 437. 8. Taborisky, J.: Die Prowazek-Halberstädterschen Körperchen und ihre klinische Bedeutung , Arch. f. Ophth. 124:455, 1930. 9. Rötth, A.: The Microbic Etiology of Trachoma, abstracted , Rev. internat. du trachome 15:31, 1938. 10. Bengtson, I. A., and Rolufs, L. S.: Observations on Epithelial-Cell Inclusions of Early Uncomplicated Trachoma , Am. J. Ophth. 19:229, 1936. 11. Rice, C. E.: The Carbohydrate Matrix of the Epithelial-Cell Inclusion in Trachoma , Am. J. Ophth. 19:1, 1936. 12. Thygeson, P.: The Matrix of the Epithelial Cell Inclusion of Trachoma , Am. J. Path. 14:455, 1938. 13. Gebb, H.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Beziehungen zwischen Einschlussblennorrhoe und Trachom , Ztschr. f. Augenh. 31:475, 1914. 14. Botteri, A.: Klinische, experimentelle und mikroskopische Studien über Trachom, Einschlussblennorrhoe und Frühjahrskatarrh , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 50:653, 1912. 15. Thygeson, P.: The Etiology of Inclusion Blennorrhea , Am. J. Ophth. 17: 1019, 1934. 16. Thygeson, P., and Mengert, W. F.: The Virus of Inclusion Conjunctivitis: Further Observations , Arch. Ophth. 15:377 ( (March) ) 1936.Crossref 17. Tilden, E. B., and Gifford, S. R.: Filtration Experiments with the Virus of Inclusion Blennorrhea , Arch. Ophth. 16:51 ( (July) ) 1936.Crossref 18. Julianelle, L. A.: Personal communication to the authors. 19. Thygeson, P.: Unpublished data. 20. Wilson, R. P., in Eleventh Annual Report of the Giza Memorial Ophthalmic Laboratory , Cairo, Schindler's Press, 1937, p. 117. 21. Thygeson, P.: Inoculation of Human Conjunctiva with Trachomatous Materials , Am. J. Ophth. 16:409, 1933. 22. Julianelle, L. A.; Harrison, R. W., and Morris, M. C.: The Probable Nature of the Infectious Agent of Trachoma , J. Exper. Med. 65:735, 1937.Crossref 23. Michàil, D., and Vanceà, P.: Some Experimental Facts in Trachoma , Rev. internat. du trachome 9:33, 1932. 24. Loe, F.: Sulfanilamide Treatment of Trachoma: Preliminary Report, to be published. 25. Jackson, C.: The Microscopic Diagnosis of Heartwater , in Seventeenth Report of the Director of Veterinary Services and Animal Industry , Union of South Africa, August 1931, p. 161.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1938

References

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