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National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on Hypertension and Chronic Renal Failure

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on Hypertension and Chronic... Abstract End-stage renal disease attributed to hypertension has increased annually for the last decade and will probably worsen through the year 2000. Patients with diabetic nephropathy and patients with hypertensive renal disease account for most new cases annually. Evidence reveals that all levels of untreated hypertension are associated with potentially declining renal function. Data from the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program and other studies show that antihypertensive treatment can prevent progressive renal failure. An ablation model demonstrates glomerular hyperfiltration as a possible mechanism for progressive renal failure. Human data on the renal effects of antihypertensive agents are limited and inconsistent. Despite the limitations, the Working Group on Hypertension and Chronic Renal Failure concludes that controlled hypertension to less than 140/90 mm Hg reduces the incidence of end-stage renal disease. Patients with established renal impairment may benefit from individualized treatment to 130/85 mm Hg or less. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1280-1287) References 1. US Renal Data System. USRDS 1989 Annual Data Report . Bethesda, Md: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; (August) 1989. 2. Health Care Financing Administration, Office of Research and Demonstrations. End-Stage Renal Disease, 1985: Health Care Financing Research Report . Baltimore, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1987. 3. Eggers PW. Projections of the end stage renal disease population to the year 2000 . In: Challenges for Public Health Statistics in the 1990s: Proceedings of the 1989 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics . Hyattsville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics; 1989:121-126. 4. Parving HH, Andersen AR, Smidt UM, Svendsen PA. Early aggressive antihypertensive treatment reduces rate of decline in kidney function in diabetic nephropathy . Lancet. 1983;1:1175-1179.Crossref 5. Parving HH, Hommel E. High blood pressure is a major factor in progression of diabetic nephropathy . J Diabetic Complications. 1988;2:92-95.Crossref 6. Schottstaedt MF, Sokolow M. The natural history and course of hypertension with papilledema (malignant hypertension) . Am Heart J. 1953;45:331-362.Crossref 7. Kincaid-Smith P, McMichael J, Murphy EA. The clinical course and pathology of hypertension with papilloedema (malignant hypertension) . Q J Med. 1958;27:117-153. 8. McCormack LJ, Beland JE, Schneckloth RE, Corcoran AC. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on the evolution of the renal lesions in malignant nephrosclerosis . Am J Pathol. 1958;34:1011-1021. 9. Mandani BH, Lim VS, Mahurkar SD, Katz AI, Dunea G. Recovery from prolonged renal failure in patients with accelerated hypertension . N Engl J Med. 1974;291:1343-1344.Crossref 10. Woods JW, Blythe WB. Management of malignant hypertension complicated by renal insufficiency . N Engl J Med. 1976;277:57-61.Crossref 11. Battey LL Jr, Feiner JM, Hall WD. Clinical manifestations of 104 patients with diastolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg . Emory Univ J Med. 1988;2:102-105. 12. Eggers PW, Connerton R, McMullan M. The Medicare experience with end-stage renal disease: trends in incidence, prevalence, and survival . Health Care Financing Rev. 1984;5:69-88. 13. Magee JH, Unger AM, Richardson DW. Changes in renal function associated with drug or placebo therapy of human hypertension . Am J Med. 1964;36:795-804.Crossref 14. Luke RG. Nephrosclerosis . In: Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW, eds. Diseases of the Kidney . 4th ed. Boston, Mass: Little Brown & Co; 1988;2:1573-1595. 15. Meyrier A, Buchet P, Simon P, Fernet M, Rainfray M, Callard P. Atheromatous renal disease . Am J Med. 1988;85:139-146.Crossref 16. Harrington JT, Sommers SC, Kassirer JP. Atheromatous emboli with progressive renal failure: renal arteriography as the probable inciting factor . Ann Intern Med. 1968;68:152-160.Crossref 17. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: weekly clinicopathological exercises . N Engl J Med. 1967;276:1368-1377. Case 25-1967.Crossref 18. Retan JW, Miller RE. Microembolic complications of atherosclerosis: literature review and report of a patient . Arch Intern Med. 1966;118:534-545.Crossref 19. Bell ET. Renal Diseases . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1950. 20. Moritz AR, Oldt MR. Arteriolar sclerosis in hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals . Am J Pathol. 1937;13:679-728. 21. Kannel WB. An overview of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease . In: Kaplan NM, Stamler J, eds. Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1983:1-19. 22. Shulman NB, Ford CE, Hall WD, et al. Prognostic value of serum creatinine and effect of treatment of hypertension on renal function: results from the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program . Hypertension. 1989;13( (suppl) ):180-193.Crossref 23. Lindeman RD, Tobin JD, Shock NW. Association between blood pressure and the rate of decline in renal function with age . Kidney Int. 1984;26:861-868Crossref 24. Klahr S. The modification of diet in renal disease study . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:864-866.Crossref 25. Klahr S, Levey AS, Sandberg AM, Williams GW. Major results of the feasibility study of the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD Study) . Kidney Int. 1989;35:195. Abstract. 26. Olson JL, Hostetter TH, Rennke HG, Brenner BM, Venkatachalam MA. Altered glomerular permselectivity and progressive sclerosis following extreme ablation of renal mass . Kidney Int. 1982;22:112-126.Crossref 27. Hostetter TH, Olson JL, Rennke HG, Venkatachalam MA, Brenner BM. Hyperfiltration in remnant nephrons: a potentially adverse response to renal ablation . Am J Physiol. 1981;241:F85-F93. 28. Hostetter TH, Rennke HG, Brenner BM. The case for intrarenal hypertension in the initiation and progression of diabetic and other glomerulopathies . Am J Med. 1982;72:375-380.Crossref 29. Brenner BM, Hostetter TH, Humes HD. Molecular basis of proteinuria of glomerular origin . N Engl J Med. 1978;298:826-833.Crossref 30. Anderson S, Rennke HG, Brenner BM. Therapeutic advantage of converting enzyme inhibitors in arresting progressive renal disease associated with systemic hypertension in the rat . J Clin Invest. 1986;77:1993-2000.Crossref 31. Pettinger WA, Lee HC, Reisch J, Mitchell HC. Long-term improvement in renal function after short-term strict blood pressure control in hypertensive nephrosclerosis . Hypertension. 1989;13:766-772.Crossref 32. Rostand SG, Brown G, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Dustan HP. Renal insufficiency in treated essential hypertension . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:684-688.Crossref 33. Brazy PC, Stead WW, Fitzwilliam JF. Progression of renal insufficiency: role of blood pressure . Kidney Int. 1989;35:670-674.Crossref 34. Spitalewitz S, Porush JG, Reiser IW. Minoxidil, nadolol, and a diuretic: once-a-day therapy for resistant hypertension . Arch Intern Med. 1986;146:882-886.Crossref 35. Bauer JH, Reams GP, Lal SM. Renal protective effect of strict blood pressure control with enalapril therapy . Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1397-1400.Crossref 36. Ruilope LM, Miranda B, Morales JM, Rodicio JL, Romero JC, Raij L. Converting enzyme inhibition in chronic renal failure . Am J Kidney Dis. 1989;13:120-126.Crossref 37. Mitchell HC, Graham RM, Pettinger WA. Renal function during long-term treatment of hypertension with minoxidil: comparison of benign and malignant hypertension . Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:676-681.Crossref 38. Whelton PK, Klag MJ. Hypertension as a risk factor for renal disease. Review of clinical and epidemiological evidence . Hypertension. 1989;13( (suppl) ):119-127.Crossref 39. Rudd P, Blaschke TF. Antihypertensive agents and the drug therapy of hypertension . In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1985:784-804. 40. Lowenthal DT, Dickerman D. The use of diuretics in varying degrees of renal impairment: an overview . Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1983;5:297-307.Crossref 41. Weiner IM, Mudge GH. Diuretics and other agents employed in the mobilization of edema fluid . In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1985:892-900. 42. Keeton GR, Morrison S. Effects of frusemide in chronic renal failure . Nephron. 1981;28:169-173.Crossref 43. Allison ME, Kennedy AC. Diuretics in chronic renal disease: a study of high dosage frusemide . Clin Sci. 1971;41:171-187. 44. Ulrych M, Frohlich ED, Dustan HP, Page IH. Immediate hemodynamic effects of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol in normotensive and hypertensive man . Circulation. 1968;37:411-416.Crossref 45. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP, Page IH. The paradox of beta-adrenergic blockade in hypertension . Circulation. 1968;37:417-423.Crossref 46. Nishiyama K, Nishiyama A, Pfeffer MA, Frohlich ED. Systemic and regional blood flow distribution in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive young rats subjected to lifetime beta-adrenergic receptor blockade . Blood Vessels. 1978;15:333-347. 47. Dreslinski GR, Messerli FH, Dunn FG, Suarez DH, Reisin E, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamics, biochemical and reflexive changes produced by atenolol in hypertension . Circulation. 1982;65:1365-1368.Crossref 48. Epstein M, Oster JR. Beta-blockers and the kidney . Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1982;8:237-254. 49. Rasmussen S, Nielsen PE. Blood pressure, body fluid volumes and glomerular filtration rate during treatment with labetalol in essential hypertension . Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;12:349-353.Crossref 50. Thompson FD, Joekes AM, Hussein MM. Monotherapy with labetalol for hypertensive patients with normal and impaired renal function . Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979;8( (suppl 2) ):129S-133S. 51. Pedersen EB, Larsen JS. Effect of propranolol and labetalol on renal haemodynamics at rest and during exercise in essential hypertension . Postgrad Med J. 1980;56( (suppl 2) ):27-32. 52. Dunn FG, Oigman W, Messerli FH, Dreslinski GR, Reisin E, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamic effects of intravenous labetalol in essential hypertension . Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983;33:139-143.Crossref 53. Hollenberg NK, Meggs LG, Williams GH, Katz J, Garnic JD, Harrington DP. Sodium intake and renal responses to captopril in normal man and in essential hypertension . Kidney Int. 1981;20:240-245.Crossref 54. Hollenberg NK. Pharmacologic interruption of the renin-angiotensin system . Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1979;19:559-582.Crossref 55. Kaplan NM, Brenner BM, Laragh JH, eds. New Therapeutic Strategies in Hypertension . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1989;3:255-265, 273-280. Perspectives in Hypertension Series. 56. Reams GP, Bauer JH. Long-term effects of enalapril monotherapy and enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy on blood pressure, renal function, and body fluid composition . J Clin Hypertens. 1986;1:55-63. 57. Franklin SS, Smith RD. Comparison of effects of enalapril plus hydrochlorothiazide versus standard triple therapy on renal function in renovascular hypertension . Am J Med. 1985;79:14-23.Crossref 58. Wenting GJ, Tan-Tjiong HL, Derkx FH, de Bruyn JH, Man int Veld AJ, Schalekamp MA. Splint renal function after captopril in unilateral renal artery stenosis . BMJ. 1984;288:886-890.Crossref 59. Hricik DE, Browning PJ, Kopelman R, Goorno WE, Madias NE, Dzau VJ. Captopril-induced functional renal insufficiency in patients with bilateral renal-artery stenoses or renal-artery stenosis in a solitary kidney . N Engl J Med. 1983;308:373-376.Crossref 60. Silas JH, Klenka Z, Soloman SA, Bone JM. Captopril induced reversible renal failure: a marker of renal artery stenosis affecting a solitary kidney . BMJ. 1983;286:1702-1703.Crossref 61. Mason JC, Hilton PJ. Reversible renal failure due to captopril in a patient with transplant artery stenosis: case report . Hypertension. 1983;5:623-627.Crossref 62. O'Donnell D. Renal failure due to enalapril and captopril in bilateral renal artery stenosis: greater awareness needed . Med J Aust. 1988;148:525-527. 63. Weidmann P, Beretta-Piccoli C, Steffen F, Blumberg A, Reubi FC. Hypertension in terminal renal failure . Kidney Int. 1976;9:294-301.Crossref 64. Kates RE. Calcium antagonists: pharmacokinetic properties . Drugs. 1983;25:113-124.Crossref 65. Braunwald E. Mechanism of action of calcium-channel-blocking agents . N Engl J Med. 1982;307:1618-1627.Crossref 66. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. The renal hemodynamic effects of calcium antagonists . In: Epstein M, Loutzenhiser R, eds. Calcium Antagonists and the Kidney . Philadelphia, Pa: Hanley & Belfus Inc; 1989:33-73. 67. Loutzenhiser R, Epstein M. Calcium antagonists and the kidney . Hosp Pract Off. 1987;22:63-76. 68. Leonetti G, Cuspidi C, Sampieri L, Terzoli L, Zanchetti A. Comparison of cardiovascular, renal, and humoral effects of acute administration of two calcium channel blockers in normotensive and hypertensive subjects . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1982;4( (suppl 3) ):S319-S324.Crossref 69. Ichikawa I, Miele JF, Brenner BM. Reversal of renal cortical actions of angiotensin II by verapamil and manganese . Kidney Int. 1979;16:137-147.Crossref 70. Bolton TB. Mechanisms of action of transmitters and other substances on smooth muscle . Physiol Rev. 1979;59:606-718. 71. Bauer JH, Sunderrajan S, Reams G. Effects of calcium entry blockers on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal function and hemodynamics, salt and water excretion and body fluid composition . Am J Cardiol. 1985;56:62H-67H.Crossref 72. Sunderrajan S, Reams G, Bauer JH. Renal effects of diltiazem in primary hypertension . Hypertension. 1986;8:238-242.Crossref 73. Pedrinelli R, Fouad FM, Tarazi RC, Bravo EL, Textor SC. Nitrendipine, a calcium-entry blocker: renal and humoral effects in human arterial hypertension . Arch Intern Med. 1986;146:62-65.Crossref 74. Kubo SH, Cody RJ, Covit AB, Feldschuh J, Laragh JH. The effects of verapamil on renal blood flow, renal function, and neurohormonal profiles in patients with moderate to severe hypertension . J Clin Hypertens. 1986;3( (suppl) ):38S-46S. 75. Christensen CK, Lederballe-Pedersen O, Mikkelsen E. Renal effects of acute calcium blockade with nifedipine in hypertensive patients receiving beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs . Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1982;32:572-576.Crossref 76. Thananopavarn C, Golub MS, Eggena P, Barrett JD, Sambhi MP. Renal effects of nitrendipine monotherapy in essential hypertension . J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1984;6( (suppl 7) ):S1032-S1036.Crossref 77. Diamond JR, Cheung JY, Fang LS. Nifedipine-induced renal dysfunction: alterations in renal hemodynamics . Am J Med. 1984;77:905-909.Crossref 78. Pozet N, Brazier JL, Aissa AH, et al. Pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in severe renal failure . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983;24:635-638.Crossref 79. Mooy J, Schols M, von Baak M, von Hooff M, Muytjens A, Rahn KH. Pharmacokinetics of verapamil in patients with renal failure . Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1985;28:405-410.Crossref 80. Kaplan NM. Clinical Hypertension . 4th ed. Baltimore, Md: Williams & Wilkins; 1986;209-210. 81. 1988 Joint National Committee. The 1988 report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure . Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:1023-1038.Crossref 82. Zanchetti A, Amery A, Berglund G, et al. How much should blood pressure be lowered? The problem of the J-shaped curve . J Hypertens. 1989;7( (suppl 6) ):S338-S348Crossref 83. Keane WF, Anderson S, Aurell M, de Zeeuw D, Narins RG, Povar G. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and progressive renal insufficiency: current experience and future directions . Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:503-516.Crossref 84. Abraham PA, Opsahl JA, Halstenson CE, Keane WF. Efficacy and renal effects of enalapril therapy for hypertensive patients with chronic renal insufficiency . Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:2358-2362.Crossref 85. Walker WG, Hermann J, Yin DP, Murphy RP, Patz A. Diuretics accelerate diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent subjects . Trans Assoc Am Phys. 1987;100:305-315. 86. Feig PU, Rutan GH. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: the end of end-stage renal disease? Ann Intern Med. 1989;111:451-453.Crossref 87. Working Group on Health Education and High Blood Pressure Control. The Physician's Guide: Improving Adherence Among Hypertensive Patients. Bethesda, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; March 1987. 88. Shulman NB, Martinez B, Brogan D, Carr AA, Miles CG. Financial cost as an obstacle to hypertension therapy . Am J Public Health. 1986;76:1105-1108.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on Hypertension and Chronic Renal Failure

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 151 (7) – Jul 1, 1991

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9926
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10.1001/archinte.1991.00400070058006
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Abstract

Abstract End-stage renal disease attributed to hypertension has increased annually for the last decade and will probably worsen through the year 2000. Patients with diabetic nephropathy and patients with hypertensive renal disease account for most new cases annually. Evidence reveals that all levels of untreated hypertension are associated with potentially declining renal function. Data from the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program and other studies show that antihypertensive treatment can prevent progressive renal failure. An ablation model demonstrates glomerular hyperfiltration as a possible mechanism for progressive renal failure. Human data on the renal effects of antihypertensive agents are limited and inconsistent. Despite the limitations, the Working Group on Hypertension and Chronic Renal Failure concludes that controlled hypertension to less than 140/90 mm Hg reduces the incidence of end-stage renal disease. Patients with established renal impairment may benefit from individualized treatment to 130/85 mm Hg or less. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1280-1287) References 1. US Renal Data System. USRDS 1989 Annual Data Report . Bethesda, Md: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health; (August) 1989. 2. Health Care Financing Administration, Office of Research and Demonstrations. End-Stage Renal Disease, 1985: Health Care Financing Research Report . Baltimore, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1987. 3. Eggers PW. Projections of the end stage renal disease population to the year 2000 . In: Challenges for Public Health Statistics in the 1990s: Proceedings of the 1989 Public Health Conference on Records and Statistics . Hyattsville, Md: US Dept of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, National Center for Health Statistics; 1989:121-126. 4. Parving HH, Andersen AR, Smidt UM, Svendsen PA. Early aggressive antihypertensive treatment reduces rate of decline in kidney function in diabetic nephropathy . Lancet. 1983;1:1175-1179.Crossref 5. Parving HH, Hommel E. High blood pressure is a major factor in progression of diabetic nephropathy . J Diabetic Complications. 1988;2:92-95.Crossref 6. Schottstaedt MF, Sokolow M. The natural history and course of hypertension with papilledema (malignant hypertension) . Am Heart J. 1953;45:331-362.Crossref 7. Kincaid-Smith P, McMichael J, Murphy EA. The clinical course and pathology of hypertension with papilloedema (malignant hypertension) . Q J Med. 1958;27:117-153. 8. McCormack LJ, Beland JE, Schneckloth RE, Corcoran AC. Effects of antihypertensive treatment on the evolution of the renal lesions in malignant nephrosclerosis . Am J Pathol. 1958;34:1011-1021. 9. Mandani BH, Lim VS, Mahurkar SD, Katz AI, Dunea G. Recovery from prolonged renal failure in patients with accelerated hypertension . N Engl J Med. 1974;291:1343-1344.Crossref 10. Woods JW, Blythe WB. Management of malignant hypertension complicated by renal insufficiency . N Engl J Med. 1976;277:57-61.Crossref 11. Battey LL Jr, Feiner JM, Hall WD. Clinical manifestations of 104 patients with diastolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg . Emory Univ J Med. 1988;2:102-105. 12. Eggers PW, Connerton R, McMullan M. The Medicare experience with end-stage renal disease: trends in incidence, prevalence, and survival . Health Care Financing Rev. 1984;5:69-88. 13. Magee JH, Unger AM, Richardson DW. Changes in renal function associated with drug or placebo therapy of human hypertension . Am J Med. 1964;36:795-804.Crossref 14. Luke RG. Nephrosclerosis . In: Schrier RW, Gottschalk CW, eds. Diseases of the Kidney . 4th ed. Boston, Mass: Little Brown & Co; 1988;2:1573-1595. 15. Meyrier A, Buchet P, Simon P, Fernet M, Rainfray M, Callard P. Atheromatous renal disease . Am J Med. 1988;85:139-146.Crossref 16. Harrington JT, Sommers SC, Kassirer JP. Atheromatous emboli with progressive renal failure: renal arteriography as the probable inciting factor . Ann Intern Med. 1968;68:152-160.Crossref 17. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital: weekly clinicopathological exercises . N Engl J Med. 1967;276:1368-1377. Case 25-1967.Crossref 18. Retan JW, Miller RE. Microembolic complications of atherosclerosis: literature review and report of a patient . Arch Intern Med. 1966;118:534-545.Crossref 19. Bell ET. Renal Diseases . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lea & Febiger; 1950. 20. Moritz AR, Oldt MR. Arteriolar sclerosis in hypertensive and non-hypertensive individuals . Am J Pathol. 1937;13:679-728. 21. Kannel WB. An overview of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease . In: Kaplan NM, Stamler J, eds. Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1983:1-19. 22. Shulman NB, Ford CE, Hall WD, et al. Prognostic value of serum creatinine and effect of treatment of hypertension on renal function: results from the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program . Hypertension. 1989;13( (suppl) ):180-193.Crossref 23. Lindeman RD, Tobin JD, Shock NW. Association between blood pressure and the rate of decline in renal function with age . Kidney Int. 1984;26:861-868Crossref 24. Klahr S. The modification of diet in renal disease study . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:864-866.Crossref 25. Klahr S, Levey AS, Sandberg AM, Williams GW. Major results of the feasibility study of the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD Study) . Kidney Int. 1989;35:195. Abstract. 26. Olson JL, Hostetter TH, Rennke HG, Brenner BM, Venkatachalam MA. Altered glomerular permselectivity and progressive sclerosis following extreme ablation of renal mass . Kidney Int. 1982;22:112-126.Crossref 27. Hostetter TH, Olson JL, Rennke HG, Venkatachalam MA, Brenner BM. Hyperfiltration in remnant nephrons: a potentially adverse response to renal ablation . Am J Physiol. 1981;241:F85-F93. 28. Hostetter TH, Rennke HG, Brenner BM. The case for intrarenal hypertension in the initiation and progression of diabetic and other glomerulopathies . Am J Med. 1982;72:375-380.Crossref 29. Brenner BM, Hostetter TH, Humes HD. Molecular basis of proteinuria of glomerular origin . N Engl J Med. 1978;298:826-833.Crossref 30. Anderson S, Rennke HG, Brenner BM. Therapeutic advantage of converting enzyme inhibitors in arresting progressive renal disease associated with systemic hypertension in the rat . J Clin Invest. 1986;77:1993-2000.Crossref 31. Pettinger WA, Lee HC, Reisch J, Mitchell HC. Long-term improvement in renal function after short-term strict blood pressure control in hypertensive nephrosclerosis . Hypertension. 1989;13:766-772.Crossref 32. Rostand SG, Brown G, Kirk KA, Rutsky EA, Dustan HP. Renal insufficiency in treated essential hypertension . N Engl J Med. 1989;320:684-688.Crossref 33. Brazy PC, Stead WW, Fitzwilliam JF. Progression of renal insufficiency: role of blood pressure . Kidney Int. 1989;35:670-674.Crossref 34. Spitalewitz S, Porush JG, Reiser IW. Minoxidil, nadolol, and a diuretic: once-a-day therapy for resistant hypertension . Arch Intern Med. 1986;146:882-886.Crossref 35. Bauer JH, Reams GP, Lal SM. Renal protective effect of strict blood pressure control with enalapril therapy . Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1397-1400.Crossref 36. Ruilope LM, Miranda B, Morales JM, Rodicio JL, Romero JC, Raij L. Converting enzyme inhibition in chronic renal failure . Am J Kidney Dis. 1989;13:120-126.Crossref 37. Mitchell HC, Graham RM, Pettinger WA. Renal function during long-term treatment of hypertension with minoxidil: comparison of benign and malignant hypertension . Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:676-681.Crossref 38. Whelton PK, Klag MJ. Hypertension as a risk factor for renal disease. Review of clinical and epidemiological evidence . Hypertension. 1989;13( (suppl) ):119-127.Crossref 39. Rudd P, Blaschke TF. Antihypertensive agents and the drug therapy of hypertension . In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1985:784-804. 40. Lowenthal DT, Dickerman D. The use of diuretics in varying degrees of renal impairment: an overview . Clin Exp Hypertens A. 1983;5:297-307.Crossref 41. Weiner IM, Mudge GH. Diuretics and other agents employed in the mobilization of edema fluid . In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 7th ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1985:892-900. 42. Keeton GR, Morrison S. Effects of frusemide in chronic renal failure . Nephron. 1981;28:169-173.Crossref 43. Allison ME, Kennedy AC. Diuretics in chronic renal disease: a study of high dosage frusemide . Clin Sci. 1971;41:171-187. 44. Ulrych M, Frohlich ED, Dustan HP, Page IH. Immediate hemodynamic effects of beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol in normotensive and hypertensive man . Circulation. 1968;37:411-416.Crossref 45. Frohlich ED, Tarazi RC, Dustan HP, Page IH. The paradox of beta-adrenergic blockade in hypertension . Circulation. 1968;37:417-423.Crossref 46. Nishiyama K, Nishiyama A, Pfeffer MA, Frohlich ED. Systemic and regional blood flow distribution in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive young rats subjected to lifetime beta-adrenergic receptor blockade . Blood Vessels. 1978;15:333-347. 47. Dreslinski GR, Messerli FH, Dunn FG, Suarez DH, Reisin E, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamics, biochemical and reflexive changes produced by atenolol in hypertension . Circulation. 1982;65:1365-1368.Crossref 48. Epstein M, Oster JR. Beta-blockers and the kidney . Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1982;8:237-254. 49. Rasmussen S, Nielsen PE. Blood pressure, body fluid volumes and glomerular filtration rate during treatment with labetalol in essential hypertension . Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;12:349-353.Crossref 50. Thompson FD, Joekes AM, Hussein MM. Monotherapy with labetalol for hypertensive patients with normal and impaired renal function . Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1979;8( (suppl 2) ):129S-133S. 51. Pedersen EB, Larsen JS. Effect of propranolol and labetalol on renal haemodynamics at rest and during exercise in essential hypertension . Postgrad Med J. 1980;56( (suppl 2) ):27-32. 52. Dunn FG, Oigman W, Messerli FH, Dreslinski GR, Reisin E, Frohlich ED. Hemodynamic effects of intravenous labetalol in essential hypertension . Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983;33:139-143.Crossref 53. Hollenberg NK, Meggs LG, Williams GH, Katz J, Garnic JD, Harrington DP. Sodium intake and renal responses to captopril in normal man and in essential hypertension . Kidney Int. 1981;20:240-245.Crossref 54. Hollenberg NK. Pharmacologic interruption of the renin-angiotensin system . Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 1979;19:559-582.Crossref 55. Kaplan NM, Brenner BM, Laragh JH, eds. New Therapeutic Strategies in Hypertension . New York, NY: Raven Press; 1989;3:255-265, 273-280. Perspectives in Hypertension Series. 56. Reams GP, Bauer JH. Long-term effects of enalapril monotherapy and enalapril/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy on blood pressure, renal function, and body fluid composition . J Clin Hypertens. 1986;1:55-63. 57. Franklin SS, Smith RD. Comparison of effects of enalapril plus hydrochlorothiazide versus standard triple therapy on renal function in renovascular hypertension . Am J Med. 1985;79:14-23.Crossref 58. Wenting GJ, Tan-Tjiong HL, Derkx FH, de Bruyn JH, Man int Veld AJ, Schalekamp MA. Splint renal function after captopril in unilateral renal artery stenosis . BMJ. 1984;288:886-890.Crossref 59. Hricik DE, Browning PJ, Kopelman R, Goorno WE, Madias NE, Dzau VJ. 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Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1991

References

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