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Myocardial Infarction With Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries

Myocardial Infarction With Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries Abstract More than 30 years ago, when the techniques and indications for coronary arteriography were being defined, the entity of myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries (MINC) was first reported.1-12 These first reports already noted that the few patients with MINC tended to be different from the much larger group of individuals with myocardial necrosis and coronary atherosclerosis.13-32 Since these early case reports and subsequent small collected series, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiologic features of acute myocardial infarction. This review seeks to reexamine MINC in light of this new information. References 1. Gross H, Sternberg WH. Myocardial infarction without significant lesions of coronary arteries . Arch Intern Med . 1939;64:249.Crossref 2. Friedberg CK, Horn H. Acute myocardial infarction not due to coronary artery occlusion . JAMA . 1939;112:1675-1679.Crossref 3. Likoff W, Segal BL, Kasparian H. Paradox of normal selective coronary arteriograms in patients considered to have unmistakable coronary heart disease . N Engl J Med . 1967;276:1063-1066.Crossref 4. Miller RD, Burdell MD, Edwards JE. Myocardial infarction with and without acute coronary occlusion . Arch Intern Med . 1951;88:597-604.Crossref 5. Glancy DL, Marcus ML, Epstein SE. Myocardial infarction in young women with normal coronary arteriograms . Circulation . 1971;44:495-502.Crossref 6. Bruschke AVG, Bruyneel KJJ, Bloch A, van Herpen G. Acute myocardial infarction without obstructive coronary artery disease demonstrated by selective cinearteriography . Br Heart J . 1971;33:585-594.Crossref 7. Kimbris D, Segal BL, Munir M, Katz M, Likoff W. Myocardial infarction in patients with normal patent coronary arteries as visualized by cinearteriography . Am J Cardiol . 1972;29:724-728.Crossref 8. Campeau L. Myocardial infarction with normal selective coronary arteriograms . Am Heart J . 1970; 79:139-141.Crossref 9. Dear HD, Russell RO, Jones WB, Reeves TJ. Myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary occlusion . Am J Cardiol . 1971;28:718-721.Crossref 10. O'Reilly RJ, Spellberg RD. Rapid resolution of coronary arterial emboli . Ann Intern Med . 1974; 81:348.Crossref 11. Sidd JJ, Kemp HG, Gorlin R. Acute myocardial infarction in a nineteen-year-old student in the absence of coronary obstructive disease . N Engl J Med . 1970;282:1306-1307.Crossref 12. Cheng TO, Bashour T, Singh BK, Kelser GA. Myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary arteriosclerosis . Am J Cardiol . 1972;30:680-682.Crossref 13. Ciraulo DA. Recurrent myocardial infarction and angina in a woman with normal coronary angiograms . Am J Cardiol . 1975;35:923-926.Crossref 14. Sasse L, Wagner R, Murray FE. Transmural myocardial infarction during pregnancy . Am J Cardiol . 1975;35:448-452.Crossref 15. Green LH, Cohen SI, Kurland G. Fatal myocardial infarction in marathon racing . Ann Intern Med . 1976;84:704-706.Crossref 16. El-Maraghi NRH, Sealey BJ. Recurrent myocardial infarction in a young man due to coronary arterial spasm demonstrated at autopsy . Circulation . 1980;61:199-207.Crossref 17. Klein LS, Simpson RJ Jr, Stern R, Hayward JC, Foster JR. Myocardial infarction following administration of sublingual ergotamine . Chest . 1982; 82:375-376.Crossref 18. Fernandez MS, Pichard AD, Marchant E, Lindsay J Jr. Acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries . Clin Cardiol . 1983;6:553-559.Crossref 19. Vincent GM, Anderson JL, Marshall HW. Coronary spasm producing coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1983;309:220-223.Crossref 20. Conti CR. Coronary artery spasm and myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1983;309:238-239.Crossref 21. Ross R, Kay R, Ambrose J, Herman MV. Coronary thrombosis in the absence of angiographically evident obstructive coronary disease . Chest . 1983;84:768-770. 22. Sipila R, Viitasalo K, Heikkila J. Hypothyroidism, Raynaud's phenomenon, and acute myocardial infarction in a young woman . Clin Cardiol . 1983; 6:304-306.Crossref 23. Hackworthy RA, Richmond DR, Kelly DT. Acute myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1984;54:1135-1136.Crossref 24. Roberts DJ, Isner JM, Deckelbaum LI, Konstam MA, Salem DN. Acute myocardial infarction, normal coronary arteries and catheter-induced spasm . Am J Cardiol . 1986;58:361-362. 25. Chelmowski MK, Keelan MH Jr. Hyperventilation and myocardial infarction . Chest . 1988;93: 1095-1096.Crossref 26. Khan AH, Haywood LJ. Myocardial infarction in nine patients with radiologically patent coronary arteries . N Engl J Med . 1974;291:427-431.Crossref 27. Eslami B, Russell RO Jr, Bailey MT, Oberman A, Tieszen RL, Rackley CE. Acute myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary arterial obstruction . Ala J Med Sci . 1975;12:322-328. 28. Thompson SI, Vieweg VR, Alpert JS, Hagan AD. Incidence and age distribution of patients with myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriograms . Cath Cardiovasc Diagn . 1977;3:1-9.Crossref 29. Rosenblatt A, Selzer A. The nature and clinical features of myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteriogram . Circulation . 1977;55:578-580.Crossref 30. Betriu A, Pare JC, Sanz GA, et al. Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1981;48:28-32.Crossref 31. Legrand V, Deliege M, Henrard L, Boland J, Kulbertus H. Patients with myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriogram . Chest . 1982;82:678-685.Crossref 32. Raymond R, Lynch J, Underwood D, Leatherman J, Razavi M. Myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriography . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1988;11:471-477.Crossref 33. Amin M, Gabelman G, Karpel J, Buttrick P. Acute myocardial infarction and chest pain syndromes after cocaine use . Am J Cardiol . 1990;66:1434-1437.Crossref 34. Rod JL, Zucker RP. Acute myocardial infarction shortly after cocaine inhalation . Am J Cardiol . 1987;59:161.Crossref 35. Aimmerman FH, Gustafson GM, Kemp HG Jr. Recurrent myocardial infarction associated with cocaine abuse in a young man with normal coronary arteries . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1987;9:964-968.Crossref 36. Smith HW III, Liberman HA, Brody SL, Battey LL, Donohue BC, Morris DC. Acute myocardial infarction temporally related to cocaine use . Ann Intern Med . 1987;107:13-18.Crossref 37. Cregler LL, Mark H. Relation of acute myocardial infarction to cocaine abuse . Am J Cardiol . 1985;56:794.Crossref 38. Steele P, Rainwater J, Vogel R. Abnormal platelet survival time in men with myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriogram . Am J Cardiol . 1978;41:60.Crossref 39. Tschoepe D, Schultheiss HP, Kolarov P, et al. Platelet membrane activation markers are predictive for increased risk of acute ischemic events after PTCA . Circulation . 1993;88:37-42.Crossref 40. Verheugt FWA, Wouter ten Cate J, Sturk A, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator activity and inhibition in acute myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1987;59:1075-1079.Crossref 41. Penny WJ, Colvin BT, Brooks N. Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries and factor XII deficiency . Br Heart J . 1985;53:230-234.Crossref 42. Ferenchick GS, Adelman S. Myocardial infarction associated with anabolic steroid use in a previously healthy 37-year-old weight lifter . Am Heart J . 1992;124:507-508.Crossref 43. McNutt RA, Ferenchick GS, Kirlin PC, Hamlin JN. Acute myocardial infarction in a 22-year-old world class weight lifter using anabolic steroids . Am J Cardiol . 1988;62:164.Crossref 44. Miller D, Waters D, Warnica W, Szlachcic J, Kreeft J, Theroux P. Is variant angina the coronary manifestation of a generalized vasospastic disorder? N Engl J Med . 1981;304:763.Crossref 45. Shepherd JT, Vanhoutte PM. Mechanisms responsible for coronary vasospasm . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1986;8:50A-54A.Crossref 46. Dalen JE, Ockene IS, Alpert JS. Coronary spasm, coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction . Am Heart J . 1982;104:1119-1124.Crossref 47. Kirshenbaum HD, Ockene IS, Alpert JS. The spectrum of coronary artery spasm: the variable variant . JAMA . 1981;246:354-359.Crossref 48. Oliva PB, Breckinridge JC. Arteriographic evidence of coronary arterial spasm in acute myocardial infarction . Circulation . 1977;56:366-374.Crossref 49. DeWood MA, Spores J, Notske R, et al. Prevalence of total coronary occlusion during the early hours of transmural myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1980;303:897.Crossref 50. Lange RL, Reid MS, Tresch DD, Keelan MH, Bernhard VM, Coolidge G. Nonatheromatous ischemic heart disease following withdrawal from chronic industrial nitroglycerine exposure . Circulation . 1972;46:666.Crossref 51. Gertz SD, Pasternak RC, Gotsman MS, Blaumanis OR, Nelson E. MI with normal coronaries . Circulation . 1977;56:128-129. 52. Lerman A, Burnett JC Jr. Intact and altered endothelium in regulation of vasomotion . Circulation . 1992;86( (suppl III) ):III-12—III-19.Crossref 53. Vanhoutte PM, Shimokawa H. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor and coronary vasospasm . Circulation . 1989;80:1-9.Crossref 54. Vane JR, Anggard EE, Botting RM. Regulatory functions of the vascular endothelium . N Engl J Med . 1990;323:27-36.Crossref 55. Taddei S, Virdis A, Mattei P, Salvetti A. Vasodilation to acetylcholine in primary and secondary forms of human hypertension . Hypertension . 1993; 21:929-933.Crossref 56. Toyo-oka T, Aizawa T, Suzuki N, et al. Increased plasma level of endothelin-1 and coronary spasm induction in patients with vasospastic angina pectoris . Circulation . 1991;83:476-483.Crossref 57. Matsuyama K, Yasue H, Okumura K, et al. Increased plasma level of endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity during coronary spasm in patients with coronary spastic angina . Am J Cardiol . 1991;68:991-995.Crossref 58. Sakata K, Hoshino T, Yoshida H, et al. Circadianfluctuations of tissue plasminogen activator antigen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigens in vasospastic angina . Am Heart J . 1992;124:854-860.Crossref 59. Oshima S, Ogawa H, Yasue H, Okumura K, Matsuyama K, Miyagi H. Increased plasma fibrinopeptide A levels during attacks induced by hyperventilation in patients with coronary vasospastic angina . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1989;14:150-154.Crossref 60. Irie T, Imaizumi T, Matuguchi T, et al. Increased fibrinopeptide A during anginal attacks in patients with variant angina . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1989; 14:589-594.Crossref 61. Yasue H, Horio Y, Nakamura N, et al. Induction of coronary artery spasm by acetylcholine in patients with variant angina . Circulation . 1986;74:955-963.Crossref 62. Becker RC, Giulani M, Alpert JS. Nocturnal diaphoresis and coronary artery spasm . Cleve Clin J Med . 1987;54:511-518. 63. Becker RC, Alpert JS. Variant angina pectoris . Chest . 1987;92:963-965.Crossref 64. Chierchia S. The role of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the pathogenesis of coronary spasm . Clin Cardiol . 1983;6:496-500.Crossref 65. Chesler E, Matisonn RE, Lakier JB, Pocock WA, Obel IWP, Barlow JB. Acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries . Circulation . 1976;54:203-209.Crossref 66. Ramos SG, Montenegro AP, Felix PR, Kazava DK, Rossi MA. Occlusive thrombosis in myocardial bridging . Am Heart J . 1993;125:1771-1773.Crossref 67. Regan TJ, Wu CF, Weisse AB, Mosschos CB, Ahmed SS, Lyons MM. Acute myocardial infarction in toxic cardiomyopathy without coronary obstruction . Circulation . 1975;51:453-461.Crossref 68. Cannon RO III, Camici PG, Epstein SE. Pathophysiological dilemma of syndrome X . Circulation . 1992;85:883-892.Crossref 69. Butman SM. What would I want to know if my dad had a heart attack? good sense versus dollars and cents . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1991;18:1220-1222.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Myocardial Infarction With Angiographically Normal Coronary Arteries

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 154 (3) – Feb 14, 1994

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1994 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1994.00420030055006
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Abstract

Abstract More than 30 years ago, when the techniques and indications for coronary arteriography were being defined, the entity of myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries (MINC) was first reported.1-12 These first reports already noted that the few patients with MINC tended to be different from the much larger group of individuals with myocardial necrosis and coronary atherosclerosis.13-32 Since these early case reports and subsequent small collected series, there have been significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiologic features of acute myocardial infarction. This review seeks to reexamine MINC in light of this new information. References 1. Gross H, Sternberg WH. Myocardial infarction without significant lesions of coronary arteries . Arch Intern Med . 1939;64:249.Crossref 2. Friedberg CK, Horn H. Acute myocardial infarction not due to coronary artery occlusion . JAMA . 1939;112:1675-1679.Crossref 3. Likoff W, Segal BL, Kasparian H. Paradox of normal selective coronary arteriograms in patients considered to have unmistakable coronary heart disease . N Engl J Med . 1967;276:1063-1066.Crossref 4. Miller RD, Burdell MD, Edwards JE. Myocardial infarction with and without acute coronary occlusion . Arch Intern Med . 1951;88:597-604.Crossref 5. Glancy DL, Marcus ML, Epstein SE. Myocardial infarction in young women with normal coronary arteriograms . Circulation . 1971;44:495-502.Crossref 6. Bruschke AVG, Bruyneel KJJ, Bloch A, van Herpen G. Acute myocardial infarction without obstructive coronary artery disease demonstrated by selective cinearteriography . Br Heart J . 1971;33:585-594.Crossref 7. Kimbris D, Segal BL, Munir M, Katz M, Likoff W. Myocardial infarction in patients with normal patent coronary arteries as visualized by cinearteriography . Am J Cardiol . 1972;29:724-728.Crossref 8. Campeau L. Myocardial infarction with normal selective coronary arteriograms . Am Heart J . 1970; 79:139-141.Crossref 9. Dear HD, Russell RO, Jones WB, Reeves TJ. Myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary occlusion . Am J Cardiol . 1971;28:718-721.Crossref 10. O'Reilly RJ, Spellberg RD. Rapid resolution of coronary arterial emboli . Ann Intern Med . 1974; 81:348.Crossref 11. Sidd JJ, Kemp HG, Gorlin R. Acute myocardial infarction in a nineteen-year-old student in the absence of coronary obstructive disease . N Engl J Med . 1970;282:1306-1307.Crossref 12. Cheng TO, Bashour T, Singh BK, Kelser GA. Myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary arteriosclerosis . Am J Cardiol . 1972;30:680-682.Crossref 13. Ciraulo DA. Recurrent myocardial infarction and angina in a woman with normal coronary angiograms . Am J Cardiol . 1975;35:923-926.Crossref 14. Sasse L, Wagner R, Murray FE. Transmural myocardial infarction during pregnancy . Am J Cardiol . 1975;35:448-452.Crossref 15. Green LH, Cohen SI, Kurland G. Fatal myocardial infarction in marathon racing . Ann Intern Med . 1976;84:704-706.Crossref 16. El-Maraghi NRH, Sealey BJ. Recurrent myocardial infarction in a young man due to coronary arterial spasm demonstrated at autopsy . Circulation . 1980;61:199-207.Crossref 17. Klein LS, Simpson RJ Jr, Stern R, Hayward JC, Foster JR. Myocardial infarction following administration of sublingual ergotamine . Chest . 1982; 82:375-376.Crossref 18. Fernandez MS, Pichard AD, Marchant E, Lindsay J Jr. Acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries . Clin Cardiol . 1983;6:553-559.Crossref 19. Vincent GM, Anderson JL, Marshall HW. Coronary spasm producing coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1983;309:220-223.Crossref 20. Conti CR. Coronary artery spasm and myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1983;309:238-239.Crossref 21. Ross R, Kay R, Ambrose J, Herman MV. Coronary thrombosis in the absence of angiographically evident obstructive coronary disease . Chest . 1983;84:768-770. 22. Sipila R, Viitasalo K, Heikkila J. Hypothyroidism, Raynaud's phenomenon, and acute myocardial infarction in a young woman . Clin Cardiol . 1983; 6:304-306.Crossref 23. Hackworthy RA, Richmond DR, Kelly DT. Acute myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1984;54:1135-1136.Crossref 24. Roberts DJ, Isner JM, Deckelbaum LI, Konstam MA, Salem DN. Acute myocardial infarction, normal coronary arteries and catheter-induced spasm . Am J Cardiol . 1986;58:361-362. 25. Chelmowski MK, Keelan MH Jr. Hyperventilation and myocardial infarction . Chest . 1988;93: 1095-1096.Crossref 26. Khan AH, Haywood LJ. Myocardial infarction in nine patients with radiologically patent coronary arteries . N Engl J Med . 1974;291:427-431.Crossref 27. Eslami B, Russell RO Jr, Bailey MT, Oberman A, Tieszen RL, Rackley CE. Acute myocardial infarction in the absence of coronary arterial obstruction . Ala J Med Sci . 1975;12:322-328. 28. Thompson SI, Vieweg VR, Alpert JS, Hagan AD. Incidence and age distribution of patients with myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriograms . Cath Cardiovasc Diagn . 1977;3:1-9.Crossref 29. Rosenblatt A, Selzer A. The nature and clinical features of myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteriogram . Circulation . 1977;55:578-580.Crossref 30. Betriu A, Pare JC, Sanz GA, et al. Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1981;48:28-32.Crossref 31. Legrand V, Deliege M, Henrard L, Boland J, Kulbertus H. Patients with myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriogram . Chest . 1982;82:678-685.Crossref 32. Raymond R, Lynch J, Underwood D, Leatherman J, Razavi M. Myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriography . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1988;11:471-477.Crossref 33. Amin M, Gabelman G, Karpel J, Buttrick P. Acute myocardial infarction and chest pain syndromes after cocaine use . Am J Cardiol . 1990;66:1434-1437.Crossref 34. Rod JL, Zucker RP. Acute myocardial infarction shortly after cocaine inhalation . Am J Cardiol . 1987;59:161.Crossref 35. Aimmerman FH, Gustafson GM, Kemp HG Jr. Recurrent myocardial infarction associated with cocaine abuse in a young man with normal coronary arteries . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1987;9:964-968.Crossref 36. Smith HW III, Liberman HA, Brody SL, Battey LL, Donohue BC, Morris DC. Acute myocardial infarction temporally related to cocaine use . Ann Intern Med . 1987;107:13-18.Crossref 37. Cregler LL, Mark H. Relation of acute myocardial infarction to cocaine abuse . Am J Cardiol . 1985;56:794.Crossref 38. Steele P, Rainwater J, Vogel R. Abnormal platelet survival time in men with myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteriogram . Am J Cardiol . 1978;41:60.Crossref 39. Tschoepe D, Schultheiss HP, Kolarov P, et al. Platelet membrane activation markers are predictive for increased risk of acute ischemic events after PTCA . Circulation . 1993;88:37-42.Crossref 40. Verheugt FWA, Wouter ten Cate J, Sturk A, et al. Tissue plasminogen activator activity and inhibition in acute myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries . Am J Cardiol . 1987;59:1075-1079.Crossref 41. Penny WJ, Colvin BT, Brooks N. Myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries and factor XII deficiency . Br Heart J . 1985;53:230-234.Crossref 42. Ferenchick GS, Adelman S. Myocardial infarction associated with anabolic steroid use in a previously healthy 37-year-old weight lifter . Am Heart J . 1992;124:507-508.Crossref 43. McNutt RA, Ferenchick GS, Kirlin PC, Hamlin JN. Acute myocardial infarction in a 22-year-old world class weight lifter using anabolic steroids . Am J Cardiol . 1988;62:164.Crossref 44. Miller D, Waters D, Warnica W, Szlachcic J, Kreeft J, Theroux P. Is variant angina the coronary manifestation of a generalized vasospastic disorder? N Engl J Med . 1981;304:763.Crossref 45. Shepherd JT, Vanhoutte PM. Mechanisms responsible for coronary vasospasm . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1986;8:50A-54A.Crossref 46. Dalen JE, Ockene IS, Alpert JS. Coronary spasm, coronary thrombosis and myocardial infarction . Am Heart J . 1982;104:1119-1124.Crossref 47. Kirshenbaum HD, Ockene IS, Alpert JS. The spectrum of coronary artery spasm: the variable variant . JAMA . 1981;246:354-359.Crossref 48. Oliva PB, Breckinridge JC. Arteriographic evidence of coronary arterial spasm in acute myocardial infarction . Circulation . 1977;56:366-374.Crossref 49. DeWood MA, Spores J, Notske R, et al. Prevalence of total coronary occlusion during the early hours of transmural myocardial infarction . N Engl J Med . 1980;303:897.Crossref 50. Lange RL, Reid MS, Tresch DD, Keelan MH, Bernhard VM, Coolidge G. Nonatheromatous ischemic heart disease following withdrawal from chronic industrial nitroglycerine exposure . Circulation . 1972;46:666.Crossref 51. Gertz SD, Pasternak RC, Gotsman MS, Blaumanis OR, Nelson E. MI with normal coronaries . Circulation . 1977;56:128-129. 52. Lerman A, Burnett JC Jr. Intact and altered endothelium in regulation of vasomotion . Circulation . 1992;86( (suppl III) ):III-12—III-19.Crossref 53. Vanhoutte PM, Shimokawa H. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor and coronary vasospasm . Circulation . 1989;80:1-9.Crossref 54. Vane JR, Anggard EE, Botting RM. Regulatory functions of the vascular endothelium . N Engl J Med . 1990;323:27-36.Crossref 55. Taddei S, Virdis A, Mattei P, Salvetti A. Vasodilation to acetylcholine in primary and secondary forms of human hypertension . Hypertension . 1993; 21:929-933.Crossref 56. Toyo-oka T, Aizawa T, Suzuki N, et al. Increased plasma level of endothelin-1 and coronary spasm induction in patients with vasospastic angina pectoris . Circulation . 1991;83:476-483.Crossref 57. Matsuyama K, Yasue H, Okumura K, et al. Increased plasma level of endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity during coronary spasm in patients with coronary spastic angina . Am J Cardiol . 1991;68:991-995.Crossref 58. Sakata K, Hoshino T, Yoshida H, et al. Circadianfluctuations of tissue plasminogen activator antigen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigens in vasospastic angina . Am Heart J . 1992;124:854-860.Crossref 59. Oshima S, Ogawa H, Yasue H, Okumura K, Matsuyama K, Miyagi H. Increased plasma fibrinopeptide A levels during attacks induced by hyperventilation in patients with coronary vasospastic angina . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1989;14:150-154.Crossref 60. Irie T, Imaizumi T, Matuguchi T, et al. Increased fibrinopeptide A during anginal attacks in patients with variant angina . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1989; 14:589-594.Crossref 61. Yasue H, Horio Y, Nakamura N, et al. Induction of coronary artery spasm by acetylcholine in patients with variant angina . Circulation . 1986;74:955-963.Crossref 62. Becker RC, Giulani M, Alpert JS. Nocturnal diaphoresis and coronary artery spasm . Cleve Clin J Med . 1987;54:511-518. 63. Becker RC, Alpert JS. Variant angina pectoris . Chest . 1987;92:963-965.Crossref 64. Chierchia S. The role of alpha-adrenergic receptors in the pathogenesis of coronary spasm . Clin Cardiol . 1983;6:496-500.Crossref 65. Chesler E, Matisonn RE, Lakier JB, Pocock WA, Obel IWP, Barlow JB. Acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries . Circulation . 1976;54:203-209.Crossref 66. Ramos SG, Montenegro AP, Felix PR, Kazava DK, Rossi MA. Occlusive thrombosis in myocardial bridging . Am Heart J . 1993;125:1771-1773.Crossref 67. Regan TJ, Wu CF, Weisse AB, Mosschos CB, Ahmed SS, Lyons MM. Acute myocardial infarction in toxic cardiomyopathy without coronary obstruction . Circulation . 1975;51:453-461.Crossref 68. Cannon RO III, Camici PG, Epstein SE. Pathophysiological dilemma of syndrome X . Circulation . 1992;85:883-892.Crossref 69. Butman SM. What would I want to know if my dad had a heart attack? good sense versus dollars and cents . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1991;18:1220-1222.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 14, 1994

References