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MUSCLE TONUS: A CRITICAL REVIEW BASED ON WORK PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROLOGICAL CONGRESS, BERN, SWITZERLAND, 1931

MUSCLE TONUS: A CRITICAL REVIEW BASED ON WORK PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROLOGICAL... Abstract The second morning (Tuesday, Aug. 29, 1931) of the International Neurological Congress was devoted to the tonus of skeletal muscle, the papers being presented by authorities on the subject who were especially invited by the program committee to contribute to the symposium. The chairman (an obvious and perfect choice) was Sir Charles Sherrington, whose remarks helped to bring some order out of the chaos of ideas presented. ANATOMY The first paper was by Ranson (professor of neurology at Northwestern University Medical School), the title being "Nuclei and Fiber Tracts Concerned in the Postural Reaction Elicited by Stimulation of the Mesencephalic Tegmentum." His abstract states that stimulation of the mesencephalic tegmentum produces a definite postural reaction-bending of the spine with concavity to the side stimulated, turning of the head to that side, flexion of the ipsolateral forelimb and extension of the contralateral forelimb. This reaction was elicited by stimulation of the References 1. Throughout the first part of this paper the words "tone" and "tonus" are used in the usual loose sense found in medical and physiologic literature. This is because the words are so generally accepted that to eliminate them without a thorough discussion is impossible. Such a discussion will be found at the end of the paper. 2. Papez, J. W.: Comparative Neurology , New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1929. 3. Morgan, L. O.: The Corpus Striatum: A Study of Secondary Degenerations Following Lesions in Man and of Symptoms and Acute Degenerations Following Experimental Lesionsin Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 18:495 ( (Oct.) ) 1927. 4. Tower, Sarah S.: J. Comp. Neurol. 53:177, 1931. 5. Tower, Sarah S.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 48:115, 1931. 6. Wilkinson, H. J.: J. Comp. Neurol. 51:129, 1930 7. M. J. Australia 2:768, 1929. 8. Jacobson, E.: Am. J. Physiol. 96:115, 1931. 9. Cobb, S., in discussion of Hunt, J. Ramsay: Static and Kinetic Components of Efferent Nervous System: Their Function and Symptomatology , J. A. M. A. 78:1661 ( (May 27) ) 1922. 10. Walshe, F. M. R.: M. Sc. 12:437, 1925. 11. Hinsey, J. C.: J. Comp. Neurol. 44:87, 1927. 12. Hines, M., and Tower, S. S.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 42:264, 1928. 13. deBoer, S.: Ztschr. f. Biol. 61:239, 1915. 14. Langelaan, J. W.: Brain 38:235, 1915 15. 45:434, 1922. 16. Cobb, Stanley: Physiol. Rev. 5:518, 1925. 17. Fulton, John F.: Muscular Contraction and the Reflex Control of Movement , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1926. 18. Newton, Francis C.: Am. J. Physiol. 71:1, 1924. 19. Baetjer, A. M.: Am. J. Physiol. 93:41, 1930. 20. Loewi, O.: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 214:678, 1926. 21. Loewi, O.: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 143:201, 1922. 22. Cannon, W. B.: Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage , New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1929. 23. Cannon, W. B., and Bacq, Z. M.: Am. J. Physiol. 96:392, 1931. 24. Altenburger, H.: Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 132:490, 1931. 25. van Rijnberk, G.: Ergebn. d. Physiol. 31:719, 1931. 26. Walshe, F. M. R.: Brain 50:377, 1927.Crossref 27. Weisenburg, T. H.: Brain 50:357, 1927.Crossref 28. Holmes, Gordon: Brain 50:385, 1927. 29. Ingvar, S.: Folia neurobiol. 11:205, 1918. 30. Fulton, J. F.; Liddell, E. G. T., and Rioch, M.: The Relation of the Cerebrum to the Cerebellum , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , this issue, p. 542. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

MUSCLE TONUS: A CRITICAL REVIEW BASED ON WORK PRESENTED AT THE INTERNATIONAL NEUROLOGICAL CONGRESS, BERN, SWITZERLAND, 1931

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1932 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1932.02240030181010
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Abstract

Abstract The second morning (Tuesday, Aug. 29, 1931) of the International Neurological Congress was devoted to the tonus of skeletal muscle, the papers being presented by authorities on the subject who were especially invited by the program committee to contribute to the symposium. The chairman (an obvious and perfect choice) was Sir Charles Sherrington, whose remarks helped to bring some order out of the chaos of ideas presented. ANATOMY The first paper was by Ranson (professor of neurology at Northwestern University Medical School), the title being "Nuclei and Fiber Tracts Concerned in the Postural Reaction Elicited by Stimulation of the Mesencephalic Tegmentum." His abstract states that stimulation of the mesencephalic tegmentum produces a definite postural reaction-bending of the spine with concavity to the side stimulated, turning of the head to that side, flexion of the ipsolateral forelimb and extension of the contralateral forelimb. This reaction was elicited by stimulation of the References 1. Throughout the first part of this paper the words "tone" and "tonus" are used in the usual loose sense found in medical and physiologic literature. This is because the words are so generally accepted that to eliminate them without a thorough discussion is impossible. Such a discussion will be found at the end of the paper. 2. Papez, J. W.: Comparative Neurology , New York, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1929. 3. Morgan, L. O.: The Corpus Striatum: A Study of Secondary Degenerations Following Lesions in Man and of Symptoms and Acute Degenerations Following Experimental Lesionsin Cats , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 18:495 ( (Oct.) ) 1927. 4. Tower, Sarah S.: J. Comp. Neurol. 53:177, 1931. 5. Tower, Sarah S.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 48:115, 1931. 6. Wilkinson, H. J.: J. Comp. Neurol. 51:129, 1930 7. M. J. Australia 2:768, 1929. 8. Jacobson, E.: Am. J. Physiol. 96:115, 1931. 9. Cobb, S., in discussion of Hunt, J. Ramsay: Static and Kinetic Components of Efferent Nervous System: Their Function and Symptomatology , J. A. M. A. 78:1661 ( (May 27) ) 1922. 10. Walshe, F. M. R.: M. Sc. 12:437, 1925. 11. Hinsey, J. C.: J. Comp. Neurol. 44:87, 1927. 12. Hines, M., and Tower, S. S.: Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 42:264, 1928. 13. deBoer, S.: Ztschr. f. Biol. 61:239, 1915. 14. Langelaan, J. W.: Brain 38:235, 1915 15. 45:434, 1922. 16. Cobb, Stanley: Physiol. Rev. 5:518, 1925. 17. Fulton, John F.: Muscular Contraction and the Reflex Control of Movement , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1926. 18. Newton, Francis C.: Am. J. Physiol. 71:1, 1924. 19. Baetjer, A. M.: Am. J. Physiol. 93:41, 1930. 20. Loewi, O.: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 214:678, 1926. 21. Loewi, O.: Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 143:201, 1922. 22. Cannon, W. B.: Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage , New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1929. 23. Cannon, W. B., and Bacq, Z. M.: Am. J. Physiol. 96:392, 1931. 24. Altenburger, H.: Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 132:490, 1931. 25. van Rijnberk, G.: Ergebn. d. Physiol. 31:719, 1931. 26. Walshe, F. M. R.: Brain 50:377, 1927.Crossref 27. Weisenburg, T. H.: Brain 50:357, 1927.Crossref 28. Holmes, Gordon: Brain 50:385, 1927. 29. Ingvar, S.: Folia neurobiol. 11:205, 1918. 30. Fulton, J. F.; Liddell, E. G. T., and Rioch, M.: The Relation of the Cerebrum to the Cerebellum , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , this issue, p. 542.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1932

References