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MUSCLE TONE IN MAN

MUSCLE TONE IN MAN Abstract Von Uexküll1 has discovered that Mollusca have two types of muscle, a motor muscle which closes the shell and another which holds, with enormous power and without output of energy, the previously closed shell. He could demonstrate different organs for these two functions also in other organisms of a lower order. He differentiates these two functions as motor and locking (Sperr—) functions. Von Uexküll believes that in other animals, in which only one motor organ can be demonstrated, both functions are united in this organ. In Sipunculus, the muscle not only can shorten and lengthen but also keeps a certain level of tone at the same time, which can be varied independently. Certainly these are two functions of a single organ but it is doubtful whether they can be identified with the motor and the "locking" function of the shell muscle. This has been taken for granted, however, by References 1. Von Uexküll: Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1921. 2. Cobb, S.: Review on Tonus of Skeletal Muscle , Physiol. Rev. 5:518 ( (Oct.) ) 1925. 3. Fulton, I. F.: Muscular Contraction and the Reflex Control of Movement , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1927. 4. Wertheim-Salomonson: Verhandl. kon. Akad. Amsterdam 17:885, 1915. 5. Gildemeister, M.: Ztschr. f. Biol. 163:183, 1914. 6. Liddell, E. G. T., and Sherrington, C.: Reflexes in Response to Stretch (Myotatic Reflexes) , Proc. Roy. Soc. , 1925, no. (27) 7. Further Observations on Myotatic Reflexes , Liddell Proc. Roy. Soc. 1925 (27) 8. Spiegel: Der Tonus der Skelettmuskulatur , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1927. 9. Sherrington, C.: On Plastic Tonus and Proprioceptive Reflexes , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. , 1909, no. (2) 10. Postural Activity of Muscle and Nerve , Brain , no. (38) 11. The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, Sullivan Memorial Lectures, 1923. 12. Samojloff and Kisseleff: Die Verkürzung und Verlängerungsreaktion des Knieextensors der decerebrierten Katze , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 218:268, 1927.Crossref 13. Strümpell, A.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. 54:207, 1916Crossref 14. Neurol. Zentrabl. , 1920, p. 2. 15. Foerster, O.: Zur Analyse und Pathophysiologie der striären Bewegungsstörungen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 73:1, 1921Crossref 16. Schlaffe und spastische Lähmung , Handb. der normalen u. pathol. Physiol. , vol. 10. 17. Lewy, F. H.: Die Lehre von Tonus und Bewegung , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1923. 18. Mayer, C., and John, E.: Zur Symptomatologie des Parkinsonischen Formenkreises , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 65:62, 1921.Crossref 19. Gamper, E.: Klinische und theoretische Bemerkungen zu den postencephalitischen Rigorzuständen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 86:37, 1923Crossref 20. Bemerkungen zu der Arbeit von Schaltenbrand: "Enthirmungsstarre," Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. , vol. 104. 21. Filimonoff, I. N.: Klinische Beiträge zum Tonusproblem , Ztschr. f. d. ges.. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 96:386, 1925.Crossref 22. All the moving parts are of duraluminum, and the joints are ball-bearing in order to minimize the effects of inertia and friction. 23. Bazett, H. C., and Penfield, W. G.: A Study of the Sherrington Decerebrate Animal in the Chronic as Well as the Acute Condition , Brain 45:185, 1922.Crossref 24. Beritoff, I. S.: On the Mode of Origination of Labyrinthine and Cervical Tonic Reflexes and on Their Part in the Reflex Reactions of the Decerebrate Preparation , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 9:199, 1915. 25. Girndt, O.: Physiologische Beobachtungen an Thalamuskatzen: II , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 213:427, 1926.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Surgery American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1929 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0004-0010
eISSN
1538-3644
DOI
10.1001/archsurg.1929.01140130976065
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Von Uexküll1 has discovered that Mollusca have two types of muscle, a motor muscle which closes the shell and another which holds, with enormous power and without output of energy, the previously closed shell. He could demonstrate different organs for these two functions also in other organisms of a lower order. He differentiates these two functions as motor and locking (Sperr—) functions. Von Uexküll believes that in other animals, in which only one motor organ can be demonstrated, both functions are united in this organ. In Sipunculus, the muscle not only can shorten and lengthen but also keeps a certain level of tone at the same time, which can be varied independently. Certainly these are two functions of a single organ but it is doubtful whether they can be identified with the motor and the "locking" function of the shell muscle. This has been taken for granted, however, by References 1. Von Uexküll: Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1921. 2. Cobb, S.: Review on Tonus of Skeletal Muscle , Physiol. Rev. 5:518 ( (Oct.) ) 1925. 3. Fulton, I. F.: Muscular Contraction and the Reflex Control of Movement , Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1927. 4. Wertheim-Salomonson: Verhandl. kon. Akad. Amsterdam 17:885, 1915. 5. Gildemeister, M.: Ztschr. f. Biol. 163:183, 1914. 6. Liddell, E. G. T., and Sherrington, C.: Reflexes in Response to Stretch (Myotatic Reflexes) , Proc. Roy. Soc. , 1925, no. (27) 7. Further Observations on Myotatic Reflexes , Liddell Proc. Roy. Soc. 1925 (27) 8. Spiegel: Der Tonus der Skelettmuskulatur , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1927. 9. Sherrington, C.: On Plastic Tonus and Proprioceptive Reflexes , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. , 1909, no. (2) 10. Postural Activity of Muscle and Nerve , Brain , no. (38) 11. The Integrative Action of the Nervous System, Sullivan Memorial Lectures, 1923. 12. Samojloff and Kisseleff: Die Verkürzung und Verlängerungsreaktion des Knieextensors der decerebrierten Katze , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 218:268, 1927.Crossref 13. Strümpell, A.: Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. 54:207, 1916Crossref 14. Neurol. Zentrabl. , 1920, p. 2. 15. Foerster, O.: Zur Analyse und Pathophysiologie der striären Bewegungsstörungen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 73:1, 1921Crossref 16. Schlaffe und spastische Lähmung , Handb. der normalen u. pathol. Physiol. , vol. 10. 17. Lewy, F. H.: Die Lehre von Tonus und Bewegung , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1923. 18. Mayer, C., and John, E.: Zur Symptomatologie des Parkinsonischen Formenkreises , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 65:62, 1921.Crossref 19. Gamper, E.: Klinische und theoretische Bemerkungen zu den postencephalitischen Rigorzuständen , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 86:37, 1923Crossref 20. Bemerkungen zu der Arbeit von Schaltenbrand: "Enthirmungsstarre," Deutsche Ztschr. f. Nervenh. , vol. 104. 21. Filimonoff, I. N.: Klinische Beiträge zum Tonusproblem , Ztschr. f. d. ges.. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 96:386, 1925.Crossref 22. All the moving parts are of duraluminum, and the joints are ball-bearing in order to minimize the effects of inertia and friction. 23. Bazett, H. C., and Penfield, W. G.: A Study of the Sherrington Decerebrate Animal in the Chronic as Well as the Acute Condition , Brain 45:185, 1922.Crossref 24. Beritoff, I. S.: On the Mode of Origination of Labyrinthine and Cervical Tonic Reflexes and on Their Part in the Reflex Reactions of the Decerebrate Preparation , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 9:199, 1915. 25. Girndt, O.: Physiologische Beobachtungen an Thalamuskatzen: II , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 213:427, 1926.Crossref

Journal

Archives of SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1929

References