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Muscle Fiber Types: How Many and What Kind?

Muscle Fiber Types: How Many and What Kind? Abstract STUDIES on normal and pathological striated muscle are increasingly clouded by inconsistencies in the definition of fiber types and lack of correlation between different systems of nomenclature. The purpose of the present communication is to point out some of the problems involved in the classification of fibers and to add new information of value in the analysis of human biopsy material. The histochemical reaction for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and the pH lability of this reaction is used to characterize the various types of fibers. Material and Methods Muscle was obtained by biopsy in man, rat, and rabbit. Gastrocnemius and soleus were investigated in the animals. The human biopsies were taken from the biceps. The methods used for histochemical analysis have been given elsewhere.1 In summary, unfixed frozen material was sectioned at 10μ thickness in the cryostat and the following histochemical reactions were carried out: (1) reduced diphosphopyridine References 1. Engel WK, Brooke MH: Muscle biopsy as a clinical diagnostic aid , in Fields WS (ed): Neurologic Diagnostic Techniques . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 90-146. 2. Farber E, Sternberg WH, Dunlap CD: Histochemical localization of specific oxidative enzymes . J Histochem Cytochem 4:254-263, 1956.Crossref 3. Seligman AM, Rutenberg A: The histochemical demonstration of succinic dehydrogenase . Science 113:317-320, 1951.Crossref 4. Takeuchi T: Histochemical demonstration of phosphorylase . J Histochem Cytochem 4:84-90, 1956.Crossref 5. Lillie RD: Histopathologic Technic and Practical Histochemistry . New York, Blakiston Co, 1954, p 120. 6. Padykula HA, Herman E: The specificity of the histochemical method of adenosine triphosphatase . J Histochem Cytochem 3:170-195, 1955.Crossref 7. Guth L, Samaha FJ: Qualitative differences between actomyosin ATP-ase of slow and fast mammalian muscle . Exp Neurol 25:138-163, 1969.Crossref 8. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK: Some comments on the histochemical characterization of muscle adenosine triphosphatase . J Histochem Cytochem 17:431-432, 1969.Crossref 9. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK: Three myosin ATPase systems . J Histochem Cytochem , to be published. 10. Padykula HA, Ganthier GF: Morphological and cytochemical characteristics of fiber types in normal mammalian skeletal muscle , in Milhorat AT (ed): Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy . New York, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967, pp 117-128. 11. Stein JM, Padykula HA: Histochemical classification of individual muscle fibers of the rat . Amer J Anat 110:103-115, 1962.Crossref 12. Edgerton VR, Gerchman L, Carrow R: Histochemical changes in rat sekletal muscle after exercise . Exp Neurol 24:110-123, 1969.Crossref 13. Sreter FA, Seidel JC, Gergely J: Studies on myosin from red and white skeletal muscle of the rabbit: I. ATP-ase activity . J Biol Chem 241:5772-5776, 1966. 14. Knoll P: Ueber protoplasmaarme and protoplasmareiche Muskulatur . Denkschr Akad Wis 58:633-674, 1891. 15. Krüger P: Ueber einen möglichen Zusammenhang zwischen Struktur, Funktion und chemischer Beschaffenheit der Muskeln . Biol Zbl 49:616-638, 1929. 16. Close R: Dynamic properties of fast and slow skeletal muscles of mammals , in Milhorat AT (ed): Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy . New York, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967, pp 142-149. 17. Dubowitz V: A comparative histochemical study of oxidative enzyme and phosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle . Histochemie 2:105-117, 1960.Crossref 18. Engel WK: The essentiality of histo- and cytochemical studies in the investigation of neuromuscular disease . Neurology 12:778-784, 1962.Crossref 19. Romanul FCA: Enzymes in muscle: I. Histochemical studies of enzymes in individual muscle fibers . Arch Neurol 11:355-368, 1964.Crossref 20. Robbins N, Karpati G, Engel WK: Histochemical and contractile properties in the cross innervated guinea pig soleus muscle . Arch Neurol 20:318-329, 1969.Crossref 21. Engel WK: Selective and nonselective susceptibility of muscle fiber types . Arch Neurol 22:97-117, 1970.Crossref 22. Dubowitz V: Developing and Diseased Muscle . London, Spastics International Medical Publications in association with Heinemann Medical Books, 1968. 23. Brooke MH, Engel WK: The histographic analysis of human muscle biopsies with regard to fiber types: I. Adult male and female . Neurology 19:221-233, 1969.Crossref 24. Brooke MH, Engel WK: The histographic analysis of human muscle biopsies with regard to fiber types: II. Diseases of the upper and lower motor neuron . Neurology 19:378-393, 1969.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Muscle Fiber Types: How Many and What Kind?

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1970 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1970.00480280083010
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract STUDIES on normal and pathological striated muscle are increasingly clouded by inconsistencies in the definition of fiber types and lack of correlation between different systems of nomenclature. The purpose of the present communication is to point out some of the problems involved in the classification of fibers and to add new information of value in the analysis of human biopsy material. The histochemical reaction for myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and the pH lability of this reaction is used to characterize the various types of fibers. Material and Methods Muscle was obtained by biopsy in man, rat, and rabbit. Gastrocnemius and soleus were investigated in the animals. The human biopsies were taken from the biceps. The methods used for histochemical analysis have been given elsewhere.1 In summary, unfixed frozen material was sectioned at 10μ thickness in the cryostat and the following histochemical reactions were carried out: (1) reduced diphosphopyridine References 1. Engel WK, Brooke MH: Muscle biopsy as a clinical diagnostic aid , in Fields WS (ed): Neurologic Diagnostic Techniques . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1966, pp 90-146. 2. Farber E, Sternberg WH, Dunlap CD: Histochemical localization of specific oxidative enzymes . J Histochem Cytochem 4:254-263, 1956.Crossref 3. Seligman AM, Rutenberg A: The histochemical demonstration of succinic dehydrogenase . Science 113:317-320, 1951.Crossref 4. Takeuchi T: Histochemical demonstration of phosphorylase . J Histochem Cytochem 4:84-90, 1956.Crossref 5. Lillie RD: Histopathologic Technic and Practical Histochemistry . New York, Blakiston Co, 1954, p 120. 6. Padykula HA, Herman E: The specificity of the histochemical method of adenosine triphosphatase . J Histochem Cytochem 3:170-195, 1955.Crossref 7. Guth L, Samaha FJ: Qualitative differences between actomyosin ATP-ase of slow and fast mammalian muscle . Exp Neurol 25:138-163, 1969.Crossref 8. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK: Some comments on the histochemical characterization of muscle adenosine triphosphatase . J Histochem Cytochem 17:431-432, 1969.Crossref 9. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK: Three myosin ATPase systems . J Histochem Cytochem , to be published. 10. Padykula HA, Ganthier GF: Morphological and cytochemical characteristics of fiber types in normal mammalian skeletal muscle , in Milhorat AT (ed): Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy . New York, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967, pp 117-128. 11. Stein JM, Padykula HA: Histochemical classification of individual muscle fibers of the rat . Amer J Anat 110:103-115, 1962.Crossref 12. Edgerton VR, Gerchman L, Carrow R: Histochemical changes in rat sekletal muscle after exercise . Exp Neurol 24:110-123, 1969.Crossref 13. Sreter FA, Seidel JC, Gergely J: Studies on myosin from red and white skeletal muscle of the rabbit: I. ATP-ase activity . J Biol Chem 241:5772-5776, 1966. 14. Knoll P: Ueber protoplasmaarme and protoplasmareiche Muskulatur . Denkschr Akad Wis 58:633-674, 1891. 15. Krüger P: Ueber einen möglichen Zusammenhang zwischen Struktur, Funktion und chemischer Beschaffenheit der Muskeln . Biol Zbl 49:616-638, 1929. 16. Close R: Dynamic properties of fast and slow skeletal muscles of mammals , in Milhorat AT (ed): Exploratory Concepts in Muscular Dystrophy . New York, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1967, pp 142-149. 17. Dubowitz V: A comparative histochemical study of oxidative enzyme and phosphorylase activity in skeletal muscle . Histochemie 2:105-117, 1960.Crossref 18. Engel WK: The essentiality of histo- and cytochemical studies in the investigation of neuromuscular disease . Neurology 12:778-784, 1962.Crossref 19. Romanul FCA: Enzymes in muscle: I. Histochemical studies of enzymes in individual muscle fibers . Arch Neurol 11:355-368, 1964.Crossref 20. Robbins N, Karpati G, Engel WK: Histochemical and contractile properties in the cross innervated guinea pig soleus muscle . Arch Neurol 20:318-329, 1969.Crossref 21. Engel WK: Selective and nonselective susceptibility of muscle fiber types . Arch Neurol 22:97-117, 1970.Crossref 22. Dubowitz V: Developing and Diseased Muscle . London, Spastics International Medical Publications in association with Heinemann Medical Books, 1968. 23. Brooke MH, Engel WK: The histographic analysis of human muscle biopsies with regard to fiber types: I. Adult male and female . Neurology 19:221-233, 1969.Crossref 24. Brooke MH, Engel WK: The histographic analysis of human muscle biopsies with regard to fiber types: II. Diseases of the upper and lower motor neuron . Neurology 19:378-393, 1969.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1970

References