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Multiple Sclerosis and Nutrition

Multiple Sclerosis and Nutrition Abstract Demonstration of similarities in geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) and component of diet would strengthen a consideration that diet plays a causal role in MS. Prevalence of MS in many countries was correlated with average daily per capita consumption of fats and oils, protein, and calories, including calories of animal origin. Of these dietary factors, only calories of animal origin and fats and oils correlated significantly with MS prevalence. When the latter two were combined (animal-fats), a significant correlation with MS prevalence of.70 resulted, suggesting that increased consumption of animal-fat may be associated with MS. Experimental and clinical observations relating diet to increased adhesiveness of formed blood elements, to biochemical alteration of central myelin, and to impaired delayed hypersensitivity are plausible mechanisms linking risk of MS to high animal-fat consumption. References 1. Swank RL: Physiologic basis for multiple sclerosis . Int Forum 1:44-46, 1953. 2. Shatin R: Multiple sclerosis and geography: New interpretation of epidemiological observations . Neurology 14:338-344, 1964.Crossref 3. Sobotka H, Christoff N, Baker H: Elevated vitamin levels in cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 98:534-536, 1958.Crossref 4. Statistical Yearbook. New York, Statistical Office of the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1951, 1961, 1971. 5. den Hartog C, Buzina K, Fidanza F, et al (eds): Dietary Studies and Epidemiology of Heart Diseases . The Hague, Voorlichting op Voedingsgebied, 1968. 6. Leibowitz U, Alter M: Multiple Sclerosis: Clues to Its Cause . Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co, 1973. 7. Alter M, Loewenson R, Harshe M: The geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis: An examination of mathematical models . J Chronic Dis 26:755-767, 1973.Crossref 8. Millar JHD: Multiple Sclerosis: A Disease Acquired in Childhood . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1971. 9. Percy AK, Nobrega FT, Okazaki H, et al: Multiple sclerosis in Rochester, Minn: A 60-year appraisal . Arch Neurol 25:105-111, 1971.Crossref 10. Swank RL, Lerstad O, Strøm A, et al: Multiple sclerosis in rural Norway: Its geographic and occupational incidence in relation to nutrition . N Engl J Med 246:721-728, 1952.Crossref 11. Swank RL: Multiple sclerosis: A correlation of its incidence with dietary fat . Am J Med Sci 220:421-430, 1950.Crossref 12. Swank RL: Multiple sclerosis: Twenty years on low fat diet . Arch Neurol 23:460-474, 1970.Crossref 13. Millar JHD, Zilkha KJ, Langman MJS, et al: Double-blind trial of linoleate supplementation of the diet in multiple sclerosis . Br Med J 1:765-768, 1973.Crossref 14. Swank RL: Effect of high fat feedings on viscosity of the blood . Science 120:427-428, 1954.Crossref 15. Cullen CF, Swank RL: Intravascular aggregation and adhesiveness of the blood elements associated with alimentary lipemia and injections of large molecular substances: Effect on blood-brain barrier . Circulation 9:335-346, 1954.Crossref 16. Persson I: Thrombocyte agglutination in disseminated sclerosis and other neurological diseases . Confin Neurol 18:405-416, 1958.Crossref 17. Wright HP, Thompson RHS, Zilkha KJ: Platelet adhesiveness in multiple sclerosis . Lancet 2:1109-1110, 1965.Crossref 18. Thienes CH: The chylomicron index in youth and old age, and in disease . Psychosomatics 8:8-11, 1967.Crossref 19. Courville CB: Multiple sclerosis as an incidental complication of a disorder of lipid metabolism: I. Close resemblance of the lesions resulting from fat embolism to the plaques of multiple sclerosis . Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 24:60-76, 1959. 20. Lumsden CE: An outline of the pathology of multiple sclerosis , in McAlpine D, Lumsden CE, Acheson ED (eds): Multiple Sclerosis: A Reappraisal , ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1972, pp 314-321. 21. Fog T: On the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis . Acta Neurol Psychiatr Scand , suppl 74, pp 22-31, 1951. 22. Davison AN, Peters A: Myelination . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1970. 23. Yakovlev PI, Lecours AR: The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation of the brain , in Minkowski A (ed): Regional Development of the Brain in Early Life . Oxford, England, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1967, pp 3-70. 24. Rouser G, Kritchevsky G, Yamamoto A, et al: Lipids in the nervous system of different species as a function of age: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, purified whole cell preparations, and subcellular particulates: Regulatory mechanisms and membrane structure , in Paoletti R, Kritchevsky D (eds): Advances in Lipid Research . New York, Academic Press, 1972, vol 10, pp 261-360. 25. Oldfield E: Are cell membranes fluid? Science 180:982-983, 1973.Crossref 26. Fishman MA, Madyastha P, Prensky AL: The effect of undernutrition on the development of myelin in the rat central nervous system . Lipids 6:458-465, 1971.Crossref 27. Dobbing J: The influence of early nutrition on the development and myelination of the brain . Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 159:503-509, 1964.Crossref 28. Culley WJ, Mertz ET: Effect of restricted food intake on growth and composition of preweanling rat brain . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 118:233-235, 1965.Crossref 29. Benton JW, Moser HW, Dodge PR, et al: Modification of the schedule of myelination in the rat by early nutritional deprivation . Pediatrics 38:801-807, 1966. 30. Chase HP, Dorsey J, McKhann GM: The effect of malnutrition on the synthesis of a myelin lipid . Pediatrics 40:551-559, 1967. 31. Galli C, White HB Jr, Paoletti R: Brain lipid modifications induced by essential fatty acid deficiency in growing male and female rats . J Neurochem 17:347-355, 1970.Crossref 32. Witting LA, Harvey CC, Century B, et al: Dietary alterations of fatty acids of erythrocytes and mitochondria of brain and liver . J Lipid Res 2:412-418, 1961. 33. Mohrhauer H, Holman RT: Alteration of the fatty acid composition of brain lipids by varying levels of dietary essential fatty acids . J Neurochem 10:523-530, 1963.Crossref 34. Bernsohn J, Stephanides LM: Aetiology of multiple sclerosis . Nature 215:821-823, 1967.Crossref 35. Davison AN: Biosynthesis of the myelin sheath, in Ciba Foundation Symposium: Lipids, Malnutrition and the Developing Brain. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1972, pp 73-90. 36. Winick M: Nutrition and nerve cell growth . Fed Proc 29:1510-1515, 1970. 37. Wellby M, O'Halloran MW, Wellby ML: Maternal diet and lipid composition of breast milk . Lancet 2:458-459, 1973.Crossref 38. Berry RJ: Genetical factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis . Acta Neurol Scand 45:459-483, 1969.Crossref 39. Thompson RHS: A biochemical approach to the problem of multiple sclerosis . Proc R Soc Med 59:269-276, 1966. 40. Suzuki K, Kamoshita S, Eto Y, et al: Myelin in multiple sclerosis: Composition of myelin from normal-appearing white matter . Arch Neurol 28:293-297, 1974.Crossref 41. Palo J, Wikstöm J, Kivalo E: Epidemiology of nutritional muscular dystrophy and multiple sclerosis . Lancet 2:848, 1973.Crossref 42. Tappel AL: Lipid peroxidation damage to cell components . Fed Proc 32:1870-1874, 1973. 43. Cuzner ML, Davison AN: Changes in cerebral lysosomal enzyme activity and lipids in multiple sclerosis . J Neurol Sci 19:29-36, 1973.Crossref 44. Adams CWM, Leibowitz SG: Research on Multiple Sclerosis . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1972, p 99. 45. Holman RT: The ratio of trienoic:tetraenoic acids in tissue lipids as a measure of essential fatty acid requirement . J Nutr 70:405-410, 1960. 46. Schneider HA, Lee JM, Olitsky PK: Effect of nutrition on the production of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in mice . J Exp Med 105:319-334, 1957.Crossref 47. Woodruff JF: The influence of quantitated post-weaning undernutrition on coxsackievirus B3 infection of adult mice: II. Alteration of host defense mechanisms . J Infect Dis 121:164-181, 1970.Crossref 48. Woodruff JF, Kilbourne ED: The influence of quantitated post-weaning undernutrition on coxsackievirus B3 infection of adult mice: I. Viral persistence and increased severity of lesions . J Infect Dis 121:137-163, 1970.Crossref 49. Woodruff JF, Woodruff JJ: Modification of severe coxsackievirus B3 infection in marasmic mice by transfer of immune lymphoid cells . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:2108-2111, 1971.Crossref 50. Frank JA, Kumagai LF, Dougherty TF: Studies on the rates of involution and reconstitution of lymphatic tissue . Endocrinology 52:656-668, 1953.Crossref 51. Jose DG: The cancer connection with immunity and nutrition . Nutr Today 8:4-9, 1973.Crossref 52. Jose DG, Good RA: Immune resistance and malnutrition . Lancet 1:314, 1972.Crossref 53. Harland PSEG, Brown RE: Tuberculin sensitivity following B.C.G. vaccination in undernourished children . East Afr Med J 42:233-238, 1965. 54. Brown RE, Katz M: Antigenic stimulation in undernourished children . East Afr Med J 42:221-232, 1965. 55. Smythe PM, Schonland M, Brereton-Stiles GG, et al: Thymolymphatic deficiency and depression of cell-mediated immunity in proteincalorie malnutrition . Lancet 2:939-944, 1971.Crossref 56. Hendrickse RG: Interactions of nutrition and infection: Experience in Nigeria , in Wolstenholme GEW, O'Connor M (eds): Nutrition and Infection: Ciba Foundation Study Group 31 . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1967, pp 98-111. 57. Field EJ: A rational prophylactic therapy for multiple sclerosis? Lancet 2:1080, 1973.Crossref 58. Lumsden CE: The clinical immunology of multiple sclerosis , in McAlpine D, Lumsden CE, Acheson ED: Multiple Sclerosis: A Reappraisal , ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1972, pp 512-621 59. Paterson PY: Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis as immunologic diseases: A critique , in Wolfgram F, Ellison GW, Stevens JG, et al (eds): Multiple Sclerosis: Immunology, Virology, and Ultrastructure . New York, Academic Press, 1972, pp 539-567. 60. Davis LE, Hersh EM, Curtis JE, et al: Immune status of patients with multiple sclerosis: Analysis of primary and established immune responses in 24 patients . Neurology 22:989-997, 1972.Crossref 61. Miller H, Ridley A, Schapira K: Multiple sclerosis: A note on social incidence . Br Med J 2:343-345, 1960.Crossref 62. Beebe GW, Kurtzke JF, Kurland LT, et al: Studies on the natural history of multiple sclerosis: III. Epidemiologic analysis of the Army experience in World War II . Neurology 17:1-17, 1967.Crossref 63. Antonovsky A, Leibowitz U, Medalie JM, et al: Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in Israel: III. Multiple sclerosis and socio-economic status . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 30:1-7, 1967.Crossref 64. Russell WR: Multiple sclerosis: Occupation and social group at onset . Lancet 2:832-834, 1971.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Multiple Sclerosis and Nutrition

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1974 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-9942
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1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1974.00490400081010
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Abstract

Abstract Demonstration of similarities in geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) and component of diet would strengthen a consideration that diet plays a causal role in MS. Prevalence of MS in many countries was correlated with average daily per capita consumption of fats and oils, protein, and calories, including calories of animal origin. Of these dietary factors, only calories of animal origin and fats and oils correlated significantly with MS prevalence. When the latter two were combined (animal-fats), a significant correlation with MS prevalence of.70 resulted, suggesting that increased consumption of animal-fat may be associated with MS. Experimental and clinical observations relating diet to increased adhesiveness of formed blood elements, to biochemical alteration of central myelin, and to impaired delayed hypersensitivity are plausible mechanisms linking risk of MS to high animal-fat consumption. References 1. Swank RL: Physiologic basis for multiple sclerosis . Int Forum 1:44-46, 1953. 2. Shatin R: Multiple sclerosis and geography: New interpretation of epidemiological observations . Neurology 14:338-344, 1964.Crossref 3. Sobotka H, Christoff N, Baker H: Elevated vitamin levels in cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 98:534-536, 1958.Crossref 4. Statistical Yearbook. New York, Statistical Office of the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 1951, 1961, 1971. 5. den Hartog C, Buzina K, Fidanza F, et al (eds): Dietary Studies and Epidemiology of Heart Diseases . The Hague, Voorlichting op Voedingsgebied, 1968. 6. Leibowitz U, Alter M: Multiple Sclerosis: Clues to Its Cause . Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co, 1973. 7. Alter M, Loewenson R, Harshe M: The geographic distribution of multiple sclerosis: An examination of mathematical models . J Chronic Dis 26:755-767, 1973.Crossref 8. Millar JHD: Multiple Sclerosis: A Disease Acquired in Childhood . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1971. 9. Percy AK, Nobrega FT, Okazaki H, et al: Multiple sclerosis in Rochester, Minn: A 60-year appraisal . Arch Neurol 25:105-111, 1971.Crossref 10. Swank RL, Lerstad O, Strøm A, et al: Multiple sclerosis in rural Norway: Its geographic and occupational incidence in relation to nutrition . N Engl J Med 246:721-728, 1952.Crossref 11. Swank RL: Multiple sclerosis: A correlation of its incidence with dietary fat . Am J Med Sci 220:421-430, 1950.Crossref 12. Swank RL: Multiple sclerosis: Twenty years on low fat diet . Arch Neurol 23:460-474, 1970.Crossref 13. Millar JHD, Zilkha KJ, Langman MJS, et al: Double-blind trial of linoleate supplementation of the diet in multiple sclerosis . Br Med J 1:765-768, 1973.Crossref 14. Swank RL: Effect of high fat feedings on viscosity of the blood . Science 120:427-428, 1954.Crossref 15. Cullen CF, Swank RL: Intravascular aggregation and adhesiveness of the blood elements associated with alimentary lipemia and injections of large molecular substances: Effect on blood-brain barrier . Circulation 9:335-346, 1954.Crossref 16. Persson I: Thrombocyte agglutination in disseminated sclerosis and other neurological diseases . Confin Neurol 18:405-416, 1958.Crossref 17. Wright HP, Thompson RHS, Zilkha KJ: Platelet adhesiveness in multiple sclerosis . Lancet 2:1109-1110, 1965.Crossref 18. Thienes CH: The chylomicron index in youth and old age, and in disease . Psychosomatics 8:8-11, 1967.Crossref 19. Courville CB: Multiple sclerosis as an incidental complication of a disorder of lipid metabolism: I. Close resemblance of the lesions resulting from fat embolism to the plaques of multiple sclerosis . Bull Los Angeles Neurol Soc 24:60-76, 1959. 20. Lumsden CE: An outline of the pathology of multiple sclerosis , in McAlpine D, Lumsden CE, Acheson ED (eds): Multiple Sclerosis: A Reappraisal , ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1972, pp 314-321. 21. Fog T: On the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis . Acta Neurol Psychiatr Scand , suppl 74, pp 22-31, 1951. 22. Davison AN, Peters A: Myelination . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1970. 23. Yakovlev PI, Lecours AR: The myelogenetic cycles of regional maturation of the brain , in Minkowski A (ed): Regional Development of the Brain in Early Life . Oxford, England, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1967, pp 3-70. 24. Rouser G, Kritchevsky G, Yamamoto A, et al: Lipids in the nervous system of different species as a function of age: Brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve, purified whole cell preparations, and subcellular particulates: Regulatory mechanisms and membrane structure , in Paoletti R, Kritchevsky D (eds): Advances in Lipid Research . New York, Academic Press, 1972, vol 10, pp 261-360. 25. Oldfield E: Are cell membranes fluid? Science 180:982-983, 1973.Crossref 26. Fishman MA, Madyastha P, Prensky AL: The effect of undernutrition on the development of myelin in the rat central nervous system . Lipids 6:458-465, 1971.Crossref 27. Dobbing J: The influence of early nutrition on the development and myelination of the brain . Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 159:503-509, 1964.Crossref 28. Culley WJ, Mertz ET: Effect of restricted food intake on growth and composition of preweanling rat brain . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 118:233-235, 1965.Crossref 29. Benton JW, Moser HW, Dodge PR, et al: Modification of the schedule of myelination in the rat by early nutritional deprivation . Pediatrics 38:801-807, 1966. 30. Chase HP, Dorsey J, McKhann GM: The effect of malnutrition on the synthesis of a myelin lipid . Pediatrics 40:551-559, 1967. 31. Galli C, White HB Jr, Paoletti R: Brain lipid modifications induced by essential fatty acid deficiency in growing male and female rats . J Neurochem 17:347-355, 1970.Crossref 32. Witting LA, Harvey CC, Century B, et al: Dietary alterations of fatty acids of erythrocytes and mitochondria of brain and liver . J Lipid Res 2:412-418, 1961. 33. Mohrhauer H, Holman RT: Alteration of the fatty acid composition of brain lipids by varying levels of dietary essential fatty acids . J Neurochem 10:523-530, 1963.Crossref 34. Bernsohn J, Stephanides LM: Aetiology of multiple sclerosis . Nature 215:821-823, 1967.Crossref 35. Davison AN: Biosynthesis of the myelin sheath, in Ciba Foundation Symposium: Lipids, Malnutrition and the Developing Brain. Amsterdam, Excerpta Medica Foundation, 1972, pp 73-90. 36. Winick M: Nutrition and nerve cell growth . Fed Proc 29:1510-1515, 1970. 37. Wellby M, O'Halloran MW, Wellby ML: Maternal diet and lipid composition of breast milk . Lancet 2:458-459, 1973.Crossref 38. Berry RJ: Genetical factors in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis . Acta Neurol Scand 45:459-483, 1969.Crossref 39. Thompson RHS: A biochemical approach to the problem of multiple sclerosis . Proc R Soc Med 59:269-276, 1966. 40. Suzuki K, Kamoshita S, Eto Y, et al: Myelin in multiple sclerosis: Composition of myelin from normal-appearing white matter . Arch Neurol 28:293-297, 1974.Crossref 41. Palo J, Wikstöm J, Kivalo E: Epidemiology of nutritional muscular dystrophy and multiple sclerosis . Lancet 2:848, 1973.Crossref 42. Tappel AL: Lipid peroxidation damage to cell components . Fed Proc 32:1870-1874, 1973. 43. Cuzner ML, Davison AN: Changes in cerebral lysosomal enzyme activity and lipids in multiple sclerosis . J Neurol Sci 19:29-36, 1973.Crossref 44. Adams CWM, Leibowitz SG: Research on Multiple Sclerosis . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publisher, 1972, p 99. 45. Holman RT: The ratio of trienoic:tetraenoic acids in tissue lipids as a measure of essential fatty acid requirement . J Nutr 70:405-410, 1960. 46. Schneider HA, Lee JM, Olitsky PK: Effect of nutrition on the production of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in mice . J Exp Med 105:319-334, 1957.Crossref 47. Woodruff JF: The influence of quantitated post-weaning undernutrition on coxsackievirus B3 infection of adult mice: II. Alteration of host defense mechanisms . J Infect Dis 121:164-181, 1970.Crossref 48. Woodruff JF, Kilbourne ED: The influence of quantitated post-weaning undernutrition on coxsackievirus B3 infection of adult mice: I. Viral persistence and increased severity of lesions . J Infect Dis 121:137-163, 1970.Crossref 49. Woodruff JF, Woodruff JJ: Modification of severe coxsackievirus B3 infection in marasmic mice by transfer of immune lymphoid cells . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 68:2108-2111, 1971.Crossref 50. Frank JA, Kumagai LF, Dougherty TF: Studies on the rates of involution and reconstitution of lymphatic tissue . Endocrinology 52:656-668, 1953.Crossref 51. Jose DG: The cancer connection with immunity and nutrition . Nutr Today 8:4-9, 1973.Crossref 52. Jose DG, Good RA: Immune resistance and malnutrition . Lancet 1:314, 1972.Crossref 53. Harland PSEG, Brown RE: Tuberculin sensitivity following B.C.G. vaccination in undernourished children . East Afr Med J 42:233-238, 1965. 54. Brown RE, Katz M: Antigenic stimulation in undernourished children . East Afr Med J 42:221-232, 1965. 55. Smythe PM, Schonland M, Brereton-Stiles GG, et al: Thymolymphatic deficiency and depression of cell-mediated immunity in proteincalorie malnutrition . Lancet 2:939-944, 1971.Crossref 56. Hendrickse RG: Interactions of nutrition and infection: Experience in Nigeria , in Wolstenholme GEW, O'Connor M (eds): Nutrition and Infection: Ciba Foundation Study Group 31 . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1967, pp 98-111. 57. Field EJ: A rational prophylactic therapy for multiple sclerosis? Lancet 2:1080, 1973.Crossref 58. Lumsden CE: The clinical immunology of multiple sclerosis , in McAlpine D, Lumsden CE, Acheson ED: Multiple Sclerosis: A Reappraisal , ed 2. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins, 1972, pp 512-621 59. Paterson PY: Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis as immunologic diseases: A critique , in Wolfgram F, Ellison GW, Stevens JG, et al (eds): Multiple Sclerosis: Immunology, Virology, and Ultrastructure . New York, Academic Press, 1972, pp 539-567. 60. Davis LE, Hersh EM, Curtis JE, et al: Immune status of patients with multiple sclerosis: Analysis of primary and established immune responses in 24 patients . Neurology 22:989-997, 1972.Crossref 61. Miller H, Ridley A, Schapira K: Multiple sclerosis: A note on social incidence . Br Med J 2:343-345, 1960.Crossref 62. Beebe GW, Kurtzke JF, Kurland LT, et al: Studies on the natural history of multiple sclerosis: III. Epidemiologic analysis of the Army experience in World War II . Neurology 17:1-17, 1967.Crossref 63. Antonovsky A, Leibowitz U, Medalie JM, et al: Epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis in Israel: III. Multiple sclerosis and socio-economic status . J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 30:1-7, 1967.Crossref 64. Russell WR: Multiple sclerosis: Occupation and social group at onset . Lancet 2:832-834, 1971.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1974

References