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Model Psychoses Induced by LSD-25 in Normals: II. Rorschach Test Findings

Model Psychoses Induced by LSD-25 in Normals: II. Rorschach Test Findings Abstract In a previous article1 the widespread changes in psychic function induced by d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) in 25 normal subjects were described in detail, with special attention to the emotional reaction of the subject to such disturbances in perception as may derange his ability to test reality. The available literature was reviewed, and theories aimed at explaining the working mechanism of this drug were commented upon. In the course of this study it was found that 14 of the 25 subjects developed feelings of persecution. Since this particular delusional trend is easily recognized, special reference was made to the sequential arrangement of those perceptual anomalies which gradually appeared to promote paranoid thinking. When dealing with an acute exogenous toxic psychotic-like reaction, the dissolution of the familiar frames of reference against which reality is ordinarily tested immediately raises the important question whether or not a trend that progresses toward References 1. In making judgments on this dimension, the general level of apparent sexual adjustment was considered. Included were (1) ability of the subject readily to see appropriate sexual percepts in the "usual" blot areas, (2) a relaxed, undefensive attitude about giving such responses, and (3) ability to give reasonably good alternate concepts pointing to satisfactory integration. Higher (i. e., "pathological") ratings were assigned where subjects (1) avoided the so-called sexual areas in the blots, and could not respond adequately even when pressed; (2) tended to fuse or confuse male and female figures or sex organs; (3) gave disturbed (i. e., violent, explosive, or manifestly anxious) responses to the "sexual" blot areas; (4) made comments about sex or the corresponding blot areas reflecting emotional discomfort or distress; (5) registered a noticeable decline in form level in discussing either sexual topics or the "sex" areas in the ink blots; (6) gave bizarre, confused, homosexual-type, infantile, or other unusual responses to the blot areas, or (7) responded with a relatively high number of sexual responses, suggestive of preoccupation or overconcern. 2. For example, a rating of 3.0 on the first evaluation and one of 2.0 on the second would yield a mean rating of 2.5. Since it was not always possible to make the discrimination in terms of whole numbers, many of the ratings were 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5. The averaging of these decimals is what accounts for ratings like 1.7, 3.8, etc. 3. It is, of course, possible that the discernibly higher ratings in this category may not stand up well to finer metric tools, but may be a function of cultural attitudes toward sex that everyone in the population shares. It is also possible that Rorschach workers, in general, may be overly sensitized to sexual problems. 4. Bercel, N. A.; Travis, L. E.; Olinger, L. B.; Dreikurs, E., and Polos, M. G.: Psychophysiological Investigations in Model Psychoses Induced by LSD-25 in Normals: I. Psychophysiological Investigations, with Special Reference to Mechanism of the Paranoid Reaction , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , this issue, p. 588. 5. Stoll, W. A.: Rorschach-Versuche unter Lysergsäure-Diäthylamid-Wirkung , Rorschachiana 1:249, 1952. 6. Gastaut, H.; Ferrer, S., and Castells, C.: Action de la diéthylamide de l'acide d-lysergique (LSD 25) sur les fonctions psychiques et l'électroencéphalogramme , Confinia neurol. 13:102, 1953.Crossref 7. DeShon, H. J.; Rinkel, M., and Solomon, H. C.: Mental Changes Experimentally Produced by L. S. D. (d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Tartrate) , Psychiatric Quart. 26:33, 1952.Crossref 8. Zeichner, A. M.: Psychosexual Identification in Paranoid Schizophrenia , J. Project. Techniques 19:67, 1955.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

Model Psychoses Induced by LSD-25 in Normals: II. Rorschach Test Findings

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1956 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0096-6886
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1956.02330240050004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract In a previous article1 the widespread changes in psychic function induced by d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) in 25 normal subjects were described in detail, with special attention to the emotional reaction of the subject to such disturbances in perception as may derange his ability to test reality. The available literature was reviewed, and theories aimed at explaining the working mechanism of this drug were commented upon. In the course of this study it was found that 14 of the 25 subjects developed feelings of persecution. Since this particular delusional trend is easily recognized, special reference was made to the sequential arrangement of those perceptual anomalies which gradually appeared to promote paranoid thinking. When dealing with an acute exogenous toxic psychotic-like reaction, the dissolution of the familiar frames of reference against which reality is ordinarily tested immediately raises the important question whether or not a trend that progresses toward References 1. In making judgments on this dimension, the general level of apparent sexual adjustment was considered. Included were (1) ability of the subject readily to see appropriate sexual percepts in the "usual" blot areas, (2) a relaxed, undefensive attitude about giving such responses, and (3) ability to give reasonably good alternate concepts pointing to satisfactory integration. Higher (i. e., "pathological") ratings were assigned where subjects (1) avoided the so-called sexual areas in the blots, and could not respond adequately even when pressed; (2) tended to fuse or confuse male and female figures or sex organs; (3) gave disturbed (i. e., violent, explosive, or manifestly anxious) responses to the "sexual" blot areas; (4) made comments about sex or the corresponding blot areas reflecting emotional discomfort or distress; (5) registered a noticeable decline in form level in discussing either sexual topics or the "sex" areas in the ink blots; (6) gave bizarre, confused, homosexual-type, infantile, or other unusual responses to the blot areas, or (7) responded with a relatively high number of sexual responses, suggestive of preoccupation or overconcern. 2. For example, a rating of 3.0 on the first evaluation and one of 2.0 on the second would yield a mean rating of 2.5. Since it was not always possible to make the discrimination in terms of whole numbers, many of the ratings were 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5. The averaging of these decimals is what accounts for ratings like 1.7, 3.8, etc. 3. It is, of course, possible that the discernibly higher ratings in this category may not stand up well to finer metric tools, but may be a function of cultural attitudes toward sex that everyone in the population shares. It is also possible that Rorschach workers, in general, may be overly sensitized to sexual problems. 4. Bercel, N. A.; Travis, L. E.; Olinger, L. B.; Dreikurs, E., and Polos, M. G.: Psychophysiological Investigations in Model Psychoses Induced by LSD-25 in Normals: I. Psychophysiological Investigations, with Special Reference to Mechanism of the Paranoid Reaction , A. M. A. Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. , this issue, p. 588. 5. Stoll, W. A.: Rorschach-Versuche unter Lysergsäure-Diäthylamid-Wirkung , Rorschachiana 1:249, 1952. 6. Gastaut, H.; Ferrer, S., and Castells, C.: Action de la diéthylamide de l'acide d-lysergique (LSD 25) sur les fonctions psychiques et l'électroencéphalogramme , Confinia neurol. 13:102, 1953.Crossref 7. DeShon, H. J.; Rinkel, M., and Solomon, H. C.: Mental Changes Experimentally Produced by L. S. D. (d-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Tartrate) , Psychiatric Quart. 26:33, 1952.Crossref 8. Zeichner, A. M.: Psychosexual Identification in Paranoid Schizophrenia , J. Project. Techniques 19:67, 1955.Crossref

Journal

A.M.A. Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1956

References