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MODE OF ACTION OF BRILLIANT VITAL RED IN EPILEPSY

MODE OF ACTION OF BRILLIANT VITAL RED IN EPILEPSY Abstract In a previous paper1 evidence was presented which tends to support the hypothesis that epilepsy is closely related to a disturbance in the metabolism of the vital lipids cholesterol and lecithin. The biochemical effects of these lipids and the known facts concerning epilepsy which contribute to this conception were reviewed. Parenteral injections of cholesterol were found to have a protective effect on white mice with experimental epilepsy induced by cocaine hydrochloride. Furthermore, it was observed that the convulsive effects were later in onset in the mice protected by cholesterol than they were in the groups used as controls. This was interpreted as indicating a delayed absorption of the convulsive agent. The protective effect, likewise, was explained on this basis. The results of the study were thus interpreted as consistent with the theory that the vital lipids play a significant role in the permeability of cell membranes and, through this References 1. Aird, R. B., and Gurchot, C.: Protective Effect of Cholesterol in Experimental Epilepsy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 42:491 ( (Sept.) ) 1939. 2. Cobb, S.; Cohen, M. E., and Ney, J.: Brilliant Vital Red as an Anticonvulsant , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 85:438-441, 1937 3. Anticonvulsive Action of Vital Dyes , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 40:1156-1177 ( (Dec.) ) 1938. 4. The chemical formula for brilliant vital red is tolidine + 1 mol of β-naphthylamine-3,6-disulfonic acid + 1 mol of β-naphthylamine-6-monosulfonic acid.2 5. Evans, H. M., and Scott, K. J.: On the Differential Reaction to Vital Dyes Exhibited by the Two Great Groups of Connective-Tissue Cells , Publication 273, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1919, pp. 1-55. 6. Evans, H. M., and Schulemann, W.: The Action of Vital Stains Belonging to the Benzidine Group , Science 39:443-454, 1914. 7. MacCurdy, J. T., and Evans, H. M.: Experimentelle Läsionen des Central-nervensystems, untersucht mit Hilfe der vitalen Färbung , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 49:1695, 1912. 8. Evans, H. M.: The Physiology of Endothelium , Anat. Rec. 8:99-101, 1914. 9. The spectrographic studies were made in collaboration with Louis Strait, Ph.D., of the department of physics, University of California. 10. Merritt, H. H., and Putnam, T. J.: A New Series of Anticonvulsant Drugs Tested by Experiments on Animals , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 39:1003-1015 ( (May) ) 1938. 11. These studies were made in collaboration with Charles Gurchot, Ph.D., of the department of pharmacology, University of California Medical School. 12. These studies were made in collaboration with Louis Strait, Ph.D., of the department of physics, University of California. 13. Feinberg, I.: Weitere Mittheilungen zur physiologischen Cocainwirkung , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 24:166-168, 1887. 14. Morita, S.: Untersuchungen an grosshirnlösen Kaninchen: I. Das Verhalten der Blutzuckerkonzentration , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 78:188-207, 1915. 15. Dandy, W., and Blackfan, K. D.: Internal Hydrocephalus: An Experimental, Clinical and Pathological Study , Am. J. Dis. Child. 8:406-482 ( (Dec.) ) 1914 16. Internal Hydrocephalus: Second Paper , Dandy Am. J. Dis. Child. 14:424-443 ( (Dec.) ) 1917. 17. The spectrographic studies were made in collaboration with Louis Strait, Ph.D., of the department of physics, University of California. 18. Castille, A.: Ultra-Violet Absorption Spectrum of the Alkaloids of the Tropeine Group , Bull. Acad. roy. de méd. de belgique 5:193-200, 1925. 19. Harrison, G. R.: Instruments and Methods Used for Measuring Spectral Light Intensities , J. Optic. Soc. America 19:267-315, 1929. 20. Ducrot, R., and Gautrelet, J.: Le liquide céphalo-rachidien au cours de l'ictére expérimental , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 58:160-161, 1905 21. Présence des pigments biliaires dans le liquide céphalo-rachidien aprés suppression physiologique des plexus choiroïdes , Ducrot Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 58:161-162, 1905. 22. Stern, L.: Le liquide céphalo-rachidien au point de vue de ses rapports avec la circulation sanguine et avec les éléments nerveux de l'axe cérébrospinal , Schweiz. Arch. f. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 8:215-232, 1921. 23. Stern, L., and Gautier, R.: Recherches sur le liquide céphalo-rachidien: I. Les rapports entre le liquide céphalo-rachidien et la circulation sanguine , Arch. internat. de physiol. 17:138-191, 1921 24. II. Les rapports entre le liquide céphalo-rachidien et les éléments nerveux de l'axe cérébrospinal , Stern Arch. internat. de physiol. 17:391-448, 1922. 25. McVicar, C. S., and Ross, H.: The Sodium and Potassium Content of Blood Serum in Various Diseases and of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in Proved and Suspected Syphilis , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 9:87-91, 1923. 26. Dailey, M. E.: The Equilibrium Between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Plasma: The Distribution of Sodium Between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Serum , J. Biol. Chem. 93:5-15, 1931. 27. Lawrence, E. O.: Radioactive Sodium Produced by Deuton Bombardment , Phys. Rev. 46:746, 1934.Crossref 28. Lawrence, E. O., and Cooksey, D.: On the Apparatus for the Multiple Acceleration of Light Ions to High Speeds , Phys. Rev. 50: 1131-1140, 1936.Crossref 29. Hamilton, J. G.: The Rates of Absorption of Radio-Sodium in Normal Human Subjects , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 23:521-527, 1937.Crossref 30. The studies on radioactive sodium were made in collaboration with Mr. Waldo Cohn, of the department of biochemistry, University of California Medical School. 31. Stern.18 32. Stern and Gautier.19 33. Schmorl, G.: Untersuchungen über Icterus neonatorum , Zentralbl. f. Gynäk. 26:1049-1051, 1902. 34. Cestan, R.; Riser, and Pérès, M.: Physio-pathologie des ventricules cérébraux dans la syphilis nerveuse , Ann. de méd. 15:201-222, 1924. 35. Stern, L.: Modification fonctionnelle de la barrière hémato-encéphalique dans quelques conditions pathologiques , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 53:502, 1923. 36. Heilig, R., and Hoff, H.: Menstruation und Liquor , Klin. Wchnschr. 3: 2049-2051, 1924.Crossref 37. Benda, R.: Das reticulo-endotheliale System in der Schwangerschaft: Eine experimentell-klinische Studie , Berlin, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1927. 38. Petersen, W. F., and Milles, G.: The Relation of Menstruation to the Permeability of the Skin Capillaries and the Autonomic Tonus of the Skin Vessels , Arch. Int. Med. 38:730-735 ( (Dec.) ) 1926.Crossref 39. Petersen, W. F., and Müller, E. F.: Ueber Aenderungen in der Permeabilität nach Insulin , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 54:415-438, 1927.Crossref 40. Stern, L.; Kassil, G. N., and Lokschina, E. S.: Effet de l'anaphylaxie sur le fonctionnement de la barrière hémato-encéphalique , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 99:451-452, 1928. 41. Redlich, E.; Pötzl, O., and Hess, L.: Untersuchungen über das Verhalten des Liquor cerebrospinalis bei der Epilepsie , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 2:715-725, 1910.Crossref 42. Katzenelbogen, S.: Examination of the Function of the Barrier Between Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid , in The Cerebrospinal Fluid and Its Relation to the Blood , Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1935, chap. 16. 43. Trevisanello, C.: Untersuchungen über das Blutserum und die Cerebrospinalflüssigkeit von Epileptikern , Centralbl. f. Bakt. (Abt. 1) 69:163-166, 1913. 44. Speransky, A.: La congélation des tissus: Procédé d'obtention de l'auto-neurotoxine et d'autres autotoxines cellulaires , Ann. Inst. Pasteur 40:213-231, 1926 45. L'influence du liquide céphalo-rachidien sur l'évolution des processus physiologiques et pathologiques du cerveau , Speransky Ann. Inst. Pasteur 40:755-786, 1926. 46. Buscaino, V. M., and Longo, V.: Ricerche sperimentali sulla tossicita del sangue degli epilettici: Dati neurologici , Riv. di pat. nerv. 48:682-685, 1936. 47. Barbour, H. G., and Abel, J. J.: Tetanic Convulsions in Frogs Produced by Acid Fuchsin, and Their Relation to the Problem of Inhibition in the Central Nervous System , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 2:167-199, 1910. 48. Abel, J. J.: On the Action of Drugs and the Function of the Anterior Lymph Hearts in Cardiectomized Frogs , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 3:581-608, 1912. 49. Sauerbruch, F.: Experimentelle Studien über die Entstehung der Epilepsie , Verhandl. d. deutsch. Gesellsch. f. Chir. 42:144-149, 1913. 50. Rachmanow, A.: Beiträge zur vitalen Färbung des Zentralnervensystems , Folia neuro-biol. 7:750-771, 1913. 51. Syz, H. C.: On the Entrance of Convulsant Dyes into the Substance of the Brain and Spinal Cord After an Injury to These Structures , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 21:263-290, 1923. 52. Dandy, W. E., and Elman, R.: Studies in Experimental Epilepsy , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 36:40-49, 1925. 53. Mendel, W.: Versuche über das Eindringen intravenös injizierten Trypanblaus in das künstlich verletzte Grosshirn , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 117:148-162, 1928.Crossref 54. MacCurdy and Evans.6 55. Spiegel, E., and Spiegel-Adolf, M.: Physiochemical Mechanisms in Convulsive Reactivity , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 34:799-800, 1936 56. Fundamental Effects of Epileptogenous Agents upon the Central Nervous System , Am. J. Psychiat. 92:1145-1168, 1936. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry American Medical Association

MODE OF ACTION OF BRILLIANT VITAL RED IN EPILEPSY

Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry , Volume 42 (4) – Oct 1, 1939

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1939 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6754
DOI
10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270220116007
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Abstract

Abstract In a previous paper1 evidence was presented which tends to support the hypothesis that epilepsy is closely related to a disturbance in the metabolism of the vital lipids cholesterol and lecithin. The biochemical effects of these lipids and the known facts concerning epilepsy which contribute to this conception were reviewed. Parenteral injections of cholesterol were found to have a protective effect on white mice with experimental epilepsy induced by cocaine hydrochloride. Furthermore, it was observed that the convulsive effects were later in onset in the mice protected by cholesterol than they were in the groups used as controls. This was interpreted as indicating a delayed absorption of the convulsive agent. The protective effect, likewise, was explained on this basis. The results of the study were thus interpreted as consistent with the theory that the vital lipids play a significant role in the permeability of cell membranes and, through this References 1. Aird, R. B., and Gurchot, C.: Protective Effect of Cholesterol in Experimental Epilepsy , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 42:491 ( (Sept.) ) 1939. 2. Cobb, S.; Cohen, M. E., and Ney, J.: Brilliant Vital Red as an Anticonvulsant , J. Nerv. & Ment. Dis. 85:438-441, 1937 3. Anticonvulsive Action of Vital Dyes , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 40:1156-1177 ( (Dec.) ) 1938. 4. The chemical formula for brilliant vital red is tolidine + 1 mol of β-naphthylamine-3,6-disulfonic acid + 1 mol of β-naphthylamine-6-monosulfonic acid.2 5. Evans, H. M., and Scott, K. J.: On the Differential Reaction to Vital Dyes Exhibited by the Two Great Groups of Connective-Tissue Cells , Publication 273, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1919, pp. 1-55. 6. Evans, H. M., and Schulemann, W.: The Action of Vital Stains Belonging to the Benzidine Group , Science 39:443-454, 1914. 7. MacCurdy, J. T., and Evans, H. M.: Experimentelle Läsionen des Central-nervensystems, untersucht mit Hilfe der vitalen Färbung , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 49:1695, 1912. 8. Evans, H. M.: The Physiology of Endothelium , Anat. Rec. 8:99-101, 1914. 9. The spectrographic studies were made in collaboration with Louis Strait, Ph.D., of the department of physics, University of California. 10. Merritt, H. H., and Putnam, T. J.: A New Series of Anticonvulsant Drugs Tested by Experiments on Animals , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 39:1003-1015 ( (May) ) 1938. 11. These studies were made in collaboration with Charles Gurchot, Ph.D., of the department of pharmacology, University of California Medical School. 12. These studies were made in collaboration with Louis Strait, Ph.D., of the department of physics, University of California. 13. Feinberg, I.: Weitere Mittheilungen zur physiologischen Cocainwirkung , Berl. klin. Wchnschr. 24:166-168, 1887. 14. Morita, S.: Untersuchungen an grosshirnlösen Kaninchen: I. Das Verhalten der Blutzuckerkonzentration , Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol. 78:188-207, 1915. 15. Dandy, W., and Blackfan, K. D.: Internal Hydrocephalus: An Experimental, Clinical and Pathological Study , Am. J. Dis. Child. 8:406-482 ( (Dec.) ) 1914 16. Internal Hydrocephalus: Second Paper , Dandy Am. J. Dis. Child. 14:424-443 ( (Dec.) ) 1917. 17. The spectrographic studies were made in collaboration with Louis Strait, Ph.D., of the department of physics, University of California. 18. Castille, A.: Ultra-Violet Absorption Spectrum of the Alkaloids of the Tropeine Group , Bull. Acad. roy. de méd. de belgique 5:193-200, 1925. 19. Harrison, G. R.: Instruments and Methods Used for Measuring Spectral Light Intensities , J. Optic. Soc. America 19:267-315, 1929. 20. Ducrot, R., and Gautrelet, J.: Le liquide céphalo-rachidien au cours de l'ictére expérimental , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 58:160-161, 1905 21. Présence des pigments biliaires dans le liquide céphalo-rachidien aprés suppression physiologique des plexus choiroïdes , Ducrot Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 58:161-162, 1905. 22. Stern, L.: Le liquide céphalo-rachidien au point de vue de ses rapports avec la circulation sanguine et avec les éléments nerveux de l'axe cérébrospinal , Schweiz. Arch. f. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 8:215-232, 1921. 23. Stern, L., and Gautier, R.: Recherches sur le liquide céphalo-rachidien: I. Les rapports entre le liquide céphalo-rachidien et la circulation sanguine , Arch. internat. de physiol. 17:138-191, 1921 24. II. Les rapports entre le liquide céphalo-rachidien et les éléments nerveux de l'axe cérébrospinal , Stern Arch. internat. de physiol. 17:391-448, 1922. 25. McVicar, C. S., and Ross, H.: The Sodium and Potassium Content of Blood Serum in Various Diseases and of the Cerebrospinal Fluid in Proved and Suspected Syphilis , J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 9:87-91, 1923. 26. Dailey, M. E.: The Equilibrium Between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Plasma: The Distribution of Sodium Between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Blood Serum , J. Biol. Chem. 93:5-15, 1931. 27. Lawrence, E. O.: Radioactive Sodium Produced by Deuton Bombardment , Phys. Rev. 46:746, 1934.Crossref 28. Lawrence, E. O., and Cooksey, D.: On the Apparatus for the Multiple Acceleration of Light Ions to High Speeds , Phys. Rev. 50: 1131-1140, 1936.Crossref 29. Hamilton, J. G.: The Rates of Absorption of Radio-Sodium in Normal Human Subjects , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 23:521-527, 1937.Crossref 30. The studies on radioactive sodium were made in collaboration with Mr. Waldo Cohn, of the department of biochemistry, University of California Medical School. 31. Stern.18 32. Stern and Gautier.19 33. Schmorl, G.: Untersuchungen über Icterus neonatorum , Zentralbl. f. Gynäk. 26:1049-1051, 1902. 34. Cestan, R.; Riser, and Pérès, M.: Physio-pathologie des ventricules cérébraux dans la syphilis nerveuse , Ann. de méd. 15:201-222, 1924. 35. Stern, L.: Modification fonctionnelle de la barrière hémato-encéphalique dans quelques conditions pathologiques , Schweiz. med. Wchnschr. 53:502, 1923. 36. Heilig, R., and Hoff, H.: Menstruation und Liquor , Klin. Wchnschr. 3: 2049-2051, 1924.Crossref 37. Benda, R.: Das reticulo-endotheliale System in der Schwangerschaft: Eine experimentell-klinische Studie , Berlin, Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1927. 38. Petersen, W. F., and Milles, G.: The Relation of Menstruation to the Permeability of the Skin Capillaries and the Autonomic Tonus of the Skin Vessels , Arch. Int. Med. 38:730-735 ( (Dec.) ) 1926.Crossref 39. Petersen, W. F., and Müller, E. F.: Ueber Aenderungen in der Permeabilität nach Insulin , Ztschr. f. d. ges. exper. Med. 54:415-438, 1927.Crossref 40. Stern, L.; Kassil, G. N., and Lokschina, E. S.: Effet de l'anaphylaxie sur le fonctionnement de la barrière hémato-encéphalique , Compt. rend. Soc. de biol. 99:451-452, 1928. 41. Redlich, E.; Pötzl, O., and Hess, L.: Untersuchungen über das Verhalten des Liquor cerebrospinalis bei der Epilepsie , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 2:715-725, 1910.Crossref 42. Katzenelbogen, S.: Examination of the Function of the Barrier Between Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid , in The Cerebrospinal Fluid and Its Relation to the Blood , Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1935, chap. 16. 43. Trevisanello, C.: Untersuchungen über das Blutserum und die Cerebrospinalflüssigkeit von Epileptikern , Centralbl. f. Bakt. (Abt. 1) 69:163-166, 1913. 44. Speransky, A.: La congélation des tissus: Procédé d'obtention de l'auto-neurotoxine et d'autres autotoxines cellulaires , Ann. Inst. Pasteur 40:213-231, 1926 45. L'influence du liquide céphalo-rachidien sur l'évolution des processus physiologiques et pathologiques du cerveau , Speransky Ann. Inst. Pasteur 40:755-786, 1926. 46. Buscaino, V. M., and Longo, V.: Ricerche sperimentali sulla tossicita del sangue degli epilettici: Dati neurologici , Riv. di pat. nerv. 48:682-685, 1936. 47. Barbour, H. G., and Abel, J. J.: Tetanic Convulsions in Frogs Produced by Acid Fuchsin, and Their Relation to the Problem of Inhibition in the Central Nervous System , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 2:167-199, 1910. 48. Abel, J. J.: On the Action of Drugs and the Function of the Anterior Lymph Hearts in Cardiectomized Frogs , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 3:581-608, 1912. 49. Sauerbruch, F.: Experimentelle Studien über die Entstehung der Epilepsie , Verhandl. d. deutsch. Gesellsch. f. Chir. 42:144-149, 1913. 50. Rachmanow, A.: Beiträge zur vitalen Färbung des Zentralnervensystems , Folia neuro-biol. 7:750-771, 1913. 51. Syz, H. C.: On the Entrance of Convulsant Dyes into the Substance of the Brain and Spinal Cord After an Injury to These Structures , J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 21:263-290, 1923. 52. Dandy, W. E., and Elman, R.: Studies in Experimental Epilepsy , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 36:40-49, 1925. 53. Mendel, W.: Versuche über das Eindringen intravenös injizierten Trypanblaus in das künstlich verletzte Grosshirn , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Neurol. u. Psychiat. 117:148-162, 1928.Crossref 54. MacCurdy and Evans.6 55. Spiegel, E., and Spiegel-Adolf, M.: Physiochemical Mechanisms in Convulsive Reactivity , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 34:799-800, 1936 56. Fundamental Effects of Epileptogenous Agents upon the Central Nervous System , Am. J. Psychiat. 92:1145-1168, 1936.

Journal

Archives of Neurology & PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1939

References