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Midfacial Fractures in Pediatric Patients: Frequency, Characteristics, and Causes

Midfacial Fractures in Pediatric Patients: Frequency, Characteristics, and Causes Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency, characteristics, and causes of midfacial fractures in children. Design: A retrospective review of the patients' medical charts and radiographs. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Fifty-four patients under 16 years of age, with midfacial fractures diagnosed and treated in the Helsinki (Finland) University Central Hospital from 1980 through 1992. Main Outcome Measurements: The data examined included sex, age, time and cause of the accident, type and location of the fractures, the presence and location of associated injuries, complications, and treatment methods. Results: The male-to-female ratio was 1.16:1. Motorvehicle accident was the most common cause of injuries. The frequency of injuries was in decreasing order: (1) maxillary alveolar bone, (2) zygoma, and (3) Le Fort fractures of the maxilla. The majority of injuries occurred in subjects who were 13 to 15 years old. In children less than 6 years old, only alveolar fractures occurred. For the other age groups, no significant difference in the fracture pattern was found. No fatalities occurred in this patient series. Conclusions: Midfacial pediatric fractures are rare. A high velocity force, such as that from a motor-vehicle accident is a factor producing the injury. Owing to the high impact, associated injuries are common. The severity of the insult is more essential than the age of the patient and the development of the paranasal sinuses.(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121:1366-1371) References 1. Hagan EH, Huelke DF. An analysis of 319 case reports of mandibular fractures . J Oral Surg . 1961:19:93-104. 2. Rowe NL. Fractures of the facial skeleton in children . J Oral Surg . 1968;26: 505-515.Crossref 3. Oikarinen V, Malmström M. Jaw fractures . Proc Finn Dent Soc . 1969;65( (suppl) ): 95-111. 4. Kaban LB, Mulliken JB, Murray JE. Facial fractures in children . Plast Reconstr Surg . 1977;59:15-20.Crossref 5. Bales CR, Randall P, Lehr H. Fractures of the facial bones in children . J Trauma . 1972;12:56-65.Crossref 6. Bochlogyros PN. A retrospective study of 1521 mandibular fractures . J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1985;43:597-599.Crossref 7. Ellis E, Moos KF, El-Attar A. Ten years of mandibular fractures: an analysis of 2137 cases . Oral Surg . 1985;59:120-129.Crossref 8. de Amaratunga SNA. Mandibular fractures in children: a study of clinical aspects, treatment needs, and complications . J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1988;46: 637-640.Crossref 9. Khan AA. A retrospective study of injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton in Harare, Zimbabwe . Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1988;26:435-439.Crossref 10. Cook HE, Rowe M. A retrospective study of 356 midfacial fractures occurring in 255 patients . J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1990;48:574-578.Crossref 11. Thorén H, lizuka T, Hallikainen D, Lindqvist C. Different patterns of mandibular fractures in children: an analysis of 220 fractures in 157 patients . J Craniomaxillofac Surg . 1992;20:292-296.Crossref 12. Andersson L, Hultin M, Kjellman O, Nordenram A, Ramström G. Jaw fractures in the county of Stockholm (1978-1980) . Swed Dent J . 1989;13:201-207. 13. Zachariades N, Papavassiliou D, Koumoura F. Fractures of the facial skeleton in children . J Craniomaxillofac Surg . 1990;18:151-153.Crossref 14. Stylogianni L, Arsenopoulos A, Patrikiou A. Fractures of the facial skeleton in children . Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1991;29:9-11.Crossref 15. Güven O. Fractures of the maxillofacial region in children . J Craniomaxillofac Surg . 1992;20:244-247.Crossref 16. Hurme VO. Ranges of normalcy in the eruption of permanent teeth . ASDC J Dent Child . 1949;16:11-15. 17. Haavikko K. The formation and the alveolar and clinical eruption of the permanent teeth: an orthopantomographic study . Proc Finn Dent Soc . 1970;66: 103-170. 18. Fortunato MA, Fielding AF, Guernsey LH. Facial bone fractures in children . Oral Surg . 1982;53:225-230.Crossref 19. McGraw BL, Cole RR. Pediatric maxillofacial trauma . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1990;116:41-45.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery American Medical Association

Midfacial Fractures in Pediatric Patients: Frequency, Characteristics, and Causes

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0886-4470
eISSN
1538-361X
DOI
10.1001/archotol.1995.01890120026005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency, characteristics, and causes of midfacial fractures in children. Design: A retrospective review of the patients' medical charts and radiographs. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Patients: Fifty-four patients under 16 years of age, with midfacial fractures diagnosed and treated in the Helsinki (Finland) University Central Hospital from 1980 through 1992. Main Outcome Measurements: The data examined included sex, age, time and cause of the accident, type and location of the fractures, the presence and location of associated injuries, complications, and treatment methods. Results: The male-to-female ratio was 1.16:1. Motorvehicle accident was the most common cause of injuries. The frequency of injuries was in decreasing order: (1) maxillary alveolar bone, (2) zygoma, and (3) Le Fort fractures of the maxilla. The majority of injuries occurred in subjects who were 13 to 15 years old. In children less than 6 years old, only alveolar fractures occurred. For the other age groups, no significant difference in the fracture pattern was found. No fatalities occurred in this patient series. Conclusions: Midfacial pediatric fractures are rare. A high velocity force, such as that from a motor-vehicle accident is a factor producing the injury. Owing to the high impact, associated injuries are common. The severity of the insult is more essential than the age of the patient and the development of the paranasal sinuses.(Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1995;121:1366-1371) References 1. Hagan EH, Huelke DF. An analysis of 319 case reports of mandibular fractures . J Oral Surg . 1961:19:93-104. 2. Rowe NL. Fractures of the facial skeleton in children . J Oral Surg . 1968;26: 505-515.Crossref 3. Oikarinen V, Malmström M. Jaw fractures . Proc Finn Dent Soc . 1969;65( (suppl) ): 95-111. 4. Kaban LB, Mulliken JB, Murray JE. Facial fractures in children . Plast Reconstr Surg . 1977;59:15-20.Crossref 5. Bales CR, Randall P, Lehr H. Fractures of the facial bones in children . J Trauma . 1972;12:56-65.Crossref 6. Bochlogyros PN. A retrospective study of 1521 mandibular fractures . J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1985;43:597-599.Crossref 7. Ellis E, Moos KF, El-Attar A. Ten years of mandibular fractures: an analysis of 2137 cases . Oral Surg . 1985;59:120-129.Crossref 8. de Amaratunga SNA. Mandibular fractures in children: a study of clinical aspects, treatment needs, and complications . J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1988;46: 637-640.Crossref 9. Khan AA. A retrospective study of injuries to the maxillofacial skeleton in Harare, Zimbabwe . Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1988;26:435-439.Crossref 10. Cook HE, Rowe M. A retrospective study of 356 midfacial fractures occurring in 255 patients . J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1990;48:574-578.Crossref 11. Thorén H, lizuka T, Hallikainen D, Lindqvist C. Different patterns of mandibular fractures in children: an analysis of 220 fractures in 157 patients . J Craniomaxillofac Surg . 1992;20:292-296.Crossref 12. Andersson L, Hultin M, Kjellman O, Nordenram A, Ramström G. Jaw fractures in the county of Stockholm (1978-1980) . Swed Dent J . 1989;13:201-207. 13. Zachariades N, Papavassiliou D, Koumoura F. Fractures of the facial skeleton in children . J Craniomaxillofac Surg . 1990;18:151-153.Crossref 14. Stylogianni L, Arsenopoulos A, Patrikiou A. Fractures of the facial skeleton in children . Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg . 1991;29:9-11.Crossref 15. Güven O. Fractures of the maxillofacial region in children . J Craniomaxillofac Surg . 1992;20:244-247.Crossref 16. Hurme VO. Ranges of normalcy in the eruption of permanent teeth . ASDC J Dent Child . 1949;16:11-15. 17. Haavikko K. The formation and the alveolar and clinical eruption of the permanent teeth: an orthopantomographic study . Proc Finn Dent Soc . 1970;66: 103-170. 18. Fortunato MA, Fielding AF, Guernsey LH. Facial bone fractures in children . Oral Surg . 1982;53:225-230.Crossref 19. McGraw BL, Cole RR. Pediatric maxillofacial trauma . Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 1990;116:41-45.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1995

References