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Microwave Diathermy of the Retina and Choroid

Microwave Diathermy of the Retina and Choroid Abstract • Microwaves were used to induce chorioretinal scar formation in normal rabbit eyes. We have developed a directional 6.8-gigahertz microwave applicator with a rectangular aperture. It was designed to mimic the shape and function of a T-shaped scleral depressor. For treatment, the applicator was placed on the conjunctiva over the sclera. Then, indentation was used to visualize probe placement during indirect ophthalmoscopy. Thermocouple-controlled heating was initiated such that conjunctival temperatures in a range of 51°C to 65°C were induced for 10 seconds per treatment. We found that treatment at temperatures of 51°C or 52°C for 10 seconds produced circular areas of acute retinal whitening. From these microwave-induced lesions, there evolved chorioretinal attenuation with and without evidence of retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia. No evidence of scleral damage was noted at these thermal doses. References 1. Gonin J. Guerisons operatoires de decollements retiniens . Rev Gener Ophtalmol . 1923;37:337-340. 2. Schepens CL. Methods of producing a chorioretinal scar, I: diathermy . In: Schepens CL, ed. Retinal Detachment and Allied Diseases . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1983:289-299. 3. deGuillebon HF, Ishii Y. Scleral changes during diathermy application . Arch Ophthalmol . 1970;83:752-759.Crossref 4. Beckman H, Leff S, Sugar S. Scleral bursting strength: results after treatment with ruby laser, cryotherapy, or diathermy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1975;93:428.Crossref 5. Jabbour NM, McCormick SA, Gong H. Trans-scleral and transconjunctival diathermy . Retina . 1989;9:127-130.Crossref 6. Bietti G. Criocauticazioni episclerali come mezzo di terapia nel diatacco retinico . Bol Oculist . 1934;13:576-617. 7. Hall GA, Schlegel WA. Relative bursting strength of rabbit sclera after cryosurgery and diathermy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1967;78:521-522.Crossref 8. Curtin VT, Fujino T, Norton EWD. Comparative histopathology of cryosurgery and photocoagulation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1966;75:674-682.Crossref 9. Lincoff H, Long R, Marquart J, McLean J. The cryosurgical adhesion . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol . 1968;72:191-202. 10. Sudarsky RD, Yannuzzi LA. Cryomarcation line and pigment migration after retinal cryosurgery . Arch Ophthalmol . 1970;83:395-401.Crossref 11. Singh AK, Michels RG, Glaser BM. Scleral indentation following cryotherapy and repeat cryotherapy enhance release of viable retinal pigment epithelial cells . Retina . 1986;6:176-178. 12. Zaret MM, Breinin GM, Schmidt H, Ripps H, Siegal TM, Solon LR. Ocular lesions produced by an optical maser (laser) . Science . 1961;134:1525-1526.Crossref 13. L'Esperance FA Jr. An ophthalmic argon laser photocoagulation system: design, construction, and laboratory investigations . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1968;66:827-904. 14. Rosan RC, Flocks M, Vassilaiddis A, Rose HW, Peabody RR, Hammond A. Pathology of monkey retina following irradiation with an argon laser . Arch Ophthalmol . 1969;81:84-88.Crossref 15. Apple DJ, Goldberg MF, Whinny G. Histopathology and ultrastructure of the argon laser lesion in human retinal and choroidal vasculature . Am J Ophthalmol . 1973;75:595-609. 16. Wallow IHL, Tso MOM. Repair after xenon arc photocoagulation, II: a clinical and light microscopic study of the evolution of retinal lesions in the rhesus monkey . Am J Ophthalmol . 1973;75:610-626. 17. Tso MOM, Wallow IHL, Elgin S. Experimental photocoagulation of the human retina, I: correlation of physical, clinical, and pathologic data . Arch Ophthalmol . 1977;95:1035-1040.Crossref 18. Marshall J, Bird AC. A comparative histopathological study of argon and krypton laser irradiations of the human retina . Br J Ophthalmol . 1979;63:657-668.Crossref 19. Puliafito CA, Deutsch TF, Boll J, Eng M, To K. Semiconductor laser endophotocoagulation of the retina . Arch Ophthalmol . 1987;105:424-427.Crossref 20. McHugh JDA, Marshall J, Capon M, Rothery S, Raven A, Naylor RP. Transpupillary retinal photocoagulation in the eyes of rabbit and humans using a diode laser . Lasers Light Ophthalmol . 1988;2:125-142. 21. Broncato R, Pratesi R, Leoni G, Trabucchi G, Vanni U. Histopathology of diode and argon laser lesions in rabbit retina: a comparative study . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1504-1510. 22. Rosen RB, Muldoon TO, Walsh JB, McCormick SA. A cryo-like semiconductor laser probe for transscleral retinopexy: evaluation in a rabbit model . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1992;33( (suppl) ): 1311. 23. Akamoto S, Takahashi H, Fukado Y, Ozawa T. Laser diode application for transscleral photocoagulation . Lasers Light Ophthalmol . 1990;3:29-37. 24. Peyman GA, Naguib KS, Gasterland D. Transscleral application of a semiconductor diode laser . Lasers Surg Med . 1990;10:569-573.Crossref 25. Stuchley MA, Stuchley SS. Dielectric properties of biological substances—tabulated . J Microwave Power . 1980;15:19-26. 26. Schwan HP, Cartensen EL, Li K. Heating of fat-muscle layers by electromagnetic and ultrasonic diathermy . Am Inst Elect Eng Trans . 1953;72:483-488. 27. Maurice DM. The cornea and sclera . In: Davson H, ed. The Eye: Vegetative Physiology and Biochemistry . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1962;1:295-296. 28. O'Rourke J, D'Amato DP. Regional nuclear dynamic function measurements in normal and diseased eyes . In: Seligson D, Spencer RP, eds. CRC Handbook Series in Clinical Laboratory Science, Section A: Nuclear Medicine . Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc; 1977:63. 29. Cetas TC. Thermometry considerations in localized hyperthermia . Med Phys . 1978;5:79.Crossref 30. Finger PT, Selkin R, Grabczyk J, Fetter RW. A phantom system for microwave treatment of intraocular tumors. Retina. In press. 31. Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra PP, Paglione RW. A 5.8-GHz ophthalmic microwave applicator for treatment of choroidal melanoma . IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest . New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc; 1983:177-179. 32. Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra PP, Paglione RW, Chess J, Albert DM. Hyperthermic treatment of intraocular tumors . Arch Ophthalmol . 1984;102:1477-1481.Crossref 33. Svitra PP, Finger PT, Packer S, Paglione RW, Riedel K, Albert DM. Microwave hyperthermia for treatment of intraocular tumors . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1984;25( (suppl) ):50. 34. Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra PP, et al. Thermoradiotherapy of intraocular tumors . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:1574-1578.Crossref 35. Swift PS, Stauffer PR, Fries PD, et al. Microwave hyperthermia of choroidal melanoma in rabbits . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:1754-1760. 36. Finger PT, Svitra PP, Packer S, Riedel KG, Albert DM. Models of uveal melanoma . In: Bornfeld N, Gragoudas ES, Hopping W, Lommatzsch PK, Wessing A, Zografos L, eds. International Symposium on Tumors of the Eye . Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Kugler Publications; 1991:207-213. 37. Finger PT, Curtin BJ, Packer S, et al. Scleral hyperplasia induced by heat . Am J Ophthalmol . 1986;102:25-32. 38. Goldblatt WS, Finger PT, Perry HD, Stroh EM, Weiser DS, Donnenfeld ED. Hyperthermic treatment of rabbit corneas . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1778-1783. 39. Finger PT, Packer S, Paglione RW, Gatz JF, Ho TK, Bosworth JL. Thermoradiotherapy of choroidal melanoma: clinical experience . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1384-1388.Crossref 40. Finger PT, Paglione RW, Packer S. Microwave thermotherapy for choroidal hemangioma . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;111:240-241. 41. Finger PT. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma . Br J Ophthalmol . 1992;76:358-364.Crossref 42. Finger PT, Smith PD, Paglione RW, Perry HD. Transscleral microwave cyclodestruction . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:2151-2155. 43. Finger PT, Moshfeghi DM, Smith PD, Perry HD. Microwave cyclodestruction for glaucoma in a rabbit model . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:1001-1004.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1993 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1993.01090020108033
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Microwaves were used to induce chorioretinal scar formation in normal rabbit eyes. We have developed a directional 6.8-gigahertz microwave applicator with a rectangular aperture. It was designed to mimic the shape and function of a T-shaped scleral depressor. For treatment, the applicator was placed on the conjunctiva over the sclera. Then, indentation was used to visualize probe placement during indirect ophthalmoscopy. Thermocouple-controlled heating was initiated such that conjunctival temperatures in a range of 51°C to 65°C were induced for 10 seconds per treatment. We found that treatment at temperatures of 51°C or 52°C for 10 seconds produced circular areas of acute retinal whitening. From these microwave-induced lesions, there evolved chorioretinal attenuation with and without evidence of retinal pigment epithelial hyperplasia. No evidence of scleral damage was noted at these thermal doses. References 1. Gonin J. Guerisons operatoires de decollements retiniens . Rev Gener Ophtalmol . 1923;37:337-340. 2. Schepens CL. Methods of producing a chorioretinal scar, I: diathermy . In: Schepens CL, ed. Retinal Detachment and Allied Diseases . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1983:289-299. 3. deGuillebon HF, Ishii Y. Scleral changes during diathermy application . Arch Ophthalmol . 1970;83:752-759.Crossref 4. Beckman H, Leff S, Sugar S. Scleral bursting strength: results after treatment with ruby laser, cryotherapy, or diathermy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1975;93:428.Crossref 5. Jabbour NM, McCormick SA, Gong H. Trans-scleral and transconjunctival diathermy . Retina . 1989;9:127-130.Crossref 6. Bietti G. Criocauticazioni episclerali come mezzo di terapia nel diatacco retinico . Bol Oculist . 1934;13:576-617. 7. Hall GA, Schlegel WA. Relative bursting strength of rabbit sclera after cryosurgery and diathermy . Arch Ophthalmol . 1967;78:521-522.Crossref 8. Curtin VT, Fujino T, Norton EWD. Comparative histopathology of cryosurgery and photocoagulation . Arch Ophthalmol . 1966;75:674-682.Crossref 9. Lincoff H, Long R, Marquart J, McLean J. The cryosurgical adhesion . Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol . 1968;72:191-202. 10. Sudarsky RD, Yannuzzi LA. Cryomarcation line and pigment migration after retinal cryosurgery . Arch Ophthalmol . 1970;83:395-401.Crossref 11. Singh AK, Michels RG, Glaser BM. Scleral indentation following cryotherapy and repeat cryotherapy enhance release of viable retinal pigment epithelial cells . Retina . 1986;6:176-178. 12. Zaret MM, Breinin GM, Schmidt H, Ripps H, Siegal TM, Solon LR. Ocular lesions produced by an optical maser (laser) . Science . 1961;134:1525-1526.Crossref 13. L'Esperance FA Jr. An ophthalmic argon laser photocoagulation system: design, construction, and laboratory investigations . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1968;66:827-904. 14. Rosan RC, Flocks M, Vassilaiddis A, Rose HW, Peabody RR, Hammond A. Pathology of monkey retina following irradiation with an argon laser . Arch Ophthalmol . 1969;81:84-88.Crossref 15. Apple DJ, Goldberg MF, Whinny G. Histopathology and ultrastructure of the argon laser lesion in human retinal and choroidal vasculature . Am J Ophthalmol . 1973;75:595-609. 16. Wallow IHL, Tso MOM. Repair after xenon arc photocoagulation, II: a clinical and light microscopic study of the evolution of retinal lesions in the rhesus monkey . Am J Ophthalmol . 1973;75:610-626. 17. Tso MOM, Wallow IHL, Elgin S. Experimental photocoagulation of the human retina, I: correlation of physical, clinical, and pathologic data . Arch Ophthalmol . 1977;95:1035-1040.Crossref 18. Marshall J, Bird AC. A comparative histopathological study of argon and krypton laser irradiations of the human retina . Br J Ophthalmol . 1979;63:657-668.Crossref 19. Puliafito CA, Deutsch TF, Boll J, Eng M, To K. Semiconductor laser endophotocoagulation of the retina . Arch Ophthalmol . 1987;105:424-427.Crossref 20. McHugh JDA, Marshall J, Capon M, Rothery S, Raven A, Naylor RP. Transpupillary retinal photocoagulation in the eyes of rabbit and humans using a diode laser . Lasers Light Ophthalmol . 1988;2:125-142. 21. Broncato R, Pratesi R, Leoni G, Trabucchi G, Vanni U. Histopathology of diode and argon laser lesions in rabbit retina: a comparative study . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1504-1510. 22. Rosen RB, Muldoon TO, Walsh JB, McCormick SA. A cryo-like semiconductor laser probe for transscleral retinopexy: evaluation in a rabbit model . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1992;33( (suppl) ): 1311. 23. Akamoto S, Takahashi H, Fukado Y, Ozawa T. Laser diode application for transscleral photocoagulation . Lasers Light Ophthalmol . 1990;3:29-37. 24. Peyman GA, Naguib KS, Gasterland D. Transscleral application of a semiconductor diode laser . Lasers Surg Med . 1990;10:569-573.Crossref 25. Stuchley MA, Stuchley SS. Dielectric properties of biological substances—tabulated . J Microwave Power . 1980;15:19-26. 26. Schwan HP, Cartensen EL, Li K. Heating of fat-muscle layers by electromagnetic and ultrasonic diathermy . Am Inst Elect Eng Trans . 1953;72:483-488. 27. Maurice DM. The cornea and sclera . In: Davson H, ed. The Eye: Vegetative Physiology and Biochemistry . Orlando, Fla: Academic Press Inc; 1962;1:295-296. 28. O'Rourke J, D'Amato DP. Regional nuclear dynamic function measurements in normal and diseased eyes . In: Seligson D, Spencer RP, eds. CRC Handbook Series in Clinical Laboratory Science, Section A: Nuclear Medicine . Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press Inc; 1977:63. 29. Cetas TC. Thermometry considerations in localized hyperthermia . Med Phys . 1978;5:79.Crossref 30. Finger PT, Selkin R, Grabczyk J, Fetter RW. A phantom system for microwave treatment of intraocular tumors. Retina. In press. 31. Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra PP, Paglione RW. A 5.8-GHz ophthalmic microwave applicator for treatment of choroidal melanoma . IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest . New York, NY: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc; 1983:177-179. 32. Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra PP, Paglione RW, Chess J, Albert DM. Hyperthermic treatment of intraocular tumors . Arch Ophthalmol . 1984;102:1477-1481.Crossref 33. Svitra PP, Finger PT, Packer S, Paglione RW, Riedel K, Albert DM. Microwave hyperthermia for treatment of intraocular tumors . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1984;25( (suppl) ):50. 34. Finger PT, Packer S, Svitra PP, et al. Thermoradiotherapy of intraocular tumors . Arch Ophthalmol . 1985;103:1574-1578.Crossref 35. Swift PS, Stauffer PR, Fries PD, et al. Microwave hyperthermia of choroidal melanoma in rabbits . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:1754-1760. 36. Finger PT, Svitra PP, Packer S, Riedel KG, Albert DM. Models of uveal melanoma . In: Bornfeld N, Gragoudas ES, Hopping W, Lommatzsch PK, Wessing A, Zografos L, eds. International Symposium on Tumors of the Eye . Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Kugler Publications; 1991:207-213. 37. Finger PT, Curtin BJ, Packer S, et al. Scleral hyperplasia induced by heat . Am J Ophthalmol . 1986;102:25-32. 38. Goldblatt WS, Finger PT, Perry HD, Stroh EM, Weiser DS, Donnenfeld ED. Hyperthermic treatment of rabbit corneas . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1778-1783. 39. Finger PT, Packer S, Paglione RW, Gatz JF, Ho TK, Bosworth JL. Thermoradiotherapy of choroidal melanoma: clinical experience . Ophthalmology . 1989;96:1384-1388.Crossref 40. Finger PT, Paglione RW, Packer S. Microwave thermotherapy for choroidal hemangioma . Am J Ophthalmol . 1991;111:240-241. 41. Finger PT. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma . Br J Ophthalmol . 1992;76:358-364.Crossref 42. Finger PT, Smith PD, Paglione RW, Perry HD. Transscleral microwave cyclodestruction . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:2151-2155. 43. Finger PT, Moshfeghi DM, Smith PD, Perry HD. Microwave cyclodestruction for glaucoma in a rabbit model . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:1001-1004.Crossref

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1993

References

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