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Methylprednisolone Ameliorates Retinal Photic Injury in Rats

Methylprednisolone Ameliorates Retinal Photic Injury in Rats Abstract • Since lipid peroxidation induced by oxygen free radicals is believed to play an important role in retinal photic injury and high doses of certain steroids have been demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation, we evaluated the effect of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate on retinal injury inflicted by green light (490 to 580 nm, 160 to 180 foot-candles [1721.6 to 1936.8 lux]) for 24 hours in 36 rats. Animals received either intraperitoneal injections of the drug (80 mg/kg twice daily) or saline as a control, twice daily for 2 days, commencing with light exposure. The retinal photic injury was assessed 6 hours, 6 days, and 14 days after light exposure by light and electron microscopy, morphometric study of outer nuclear layer thickness and count of subretinal macrophages, and spectrophotometric measurement of rhodopsin. A beneficial effect of high-dose methylprednisolone was observed in retinal photic injury. References 1. Duke-Elder S, MacFaul PA. Radiational injuries . In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of Ophthalmology . St Louis, Mo: CV Mosby Co; 1972;14(pt 2):894. 2. Ewald RA, Ritchey CL. Sun gazing as the cause of foveomacular retinitis . Am J Ophthalmol . 1970;70:491-497. 3. Parver LM, Auker CR, Fine BS, et al. Dexamethasone protection against photochemical retinal injury . Arch Ophthalmol . 1984;102:772-777.Crossref 4. Fu J, Lam TT, Tso MOM. Dexamethasone ameliorates retinal photic injury in rats. Exp Eye Res. In press. 5. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Ruffolo JJ Jr, et al. Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina . Curr Eye Res . 1984;3:165-174.Crossref 6. Braughler JM. Lipid peroxidation-induced inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake in rat brain synaptosomes: protection by glucocorticoids . J Neurochem . 1985;44:1282-1288.Crossref 7. Vladimirov YA, Sergeev PV, Seifulla RD, et al. Effects of steroids on lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondrial membranes . Mol Biol . 1973;7:206-211. 8. Seligman ML, Mitamura J, Shera N, et al. Corticosteroid (methylprednisolone) modulation of photoperoxidation by ultraviolet light in liposomes . Photochem Photobiol . 1979;29:549-558.Crossref 9. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Effects of intravenous methylprednisolone on spinal cord lipid peroxidation and (Na + K+)-ATPase activity: doseresponse analysis during 1st hour after contusion injury in the cat . J Neurosurg . 1982;57:247-253.Crossref 10. Braughler JM, Hall ED. Correlation of methylprednisolone levels in cat spinal cord with its effects on (Na++K+)-ATPase, lipid peroxidation, and alpha motor neuron function . J Neurosurg . 1982;56:838-844.Crossref 11. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Role of lipid peroxidation in posttraumatic spinal cord degeneration: a review . Cent Nerv Syst Trauma . 1986;3:281-293. 12. Anderson DK, Saunders RD, Demrdiuk P, et al. Lipid hydrolysis and peroxidation in injured spinal cord: partial protection with methylprednisolone or vitamin E and selenium . Cent Nerv Syst Trauma . 1985;2:257-267. 13. Means ED, Anderson DK, Waters TR, et al. Effects of methylprednisolone in compression trauma to the feline spinal cord . J Neurosurg . 1981;55:200-208.Crossref 14. Anderson DK, Means ED, Waters TR, et al. Microvascular perfusion and metabolism in injured spinal cord after methylprednisolone treatment . J Neurosurg . 1983;56:106-113.Crossref 15. Hall ED. High-dose glucocorticoid treatment improves neurological recovery in headinjured mice . J Neurosurg . 1985;62:882-887.Crossref 16. Young W, Flamm ES. Effect of high-dose corticosteroid therapy on blood flow, evoked potentials, and extracellular calcium in experimental spinal injury . J Neurosurg . 1982;57:667-673.Crossref 17. Bracken MB, Sheparo MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury . N Engl J Med . 1990;322:1405-1411.Crossref 18. Demopoulos HB, Flamm ES, Seligman ML, et al. Further studies on free-radical pathology in the major central nervous system disorders: effect of very high doses of methylprednisolone on the functional outcome, morphology, and chemistry of experimental spinal cord impact injury . Can J Physiol Pharmacol . 1982;60:1415-1424.Crossref 19. Demopoulos HB, Milvy P, Kakari S, Ransohoff J. Molecular aspects of membrane structure in cerebral edema . In: Reulen HJ, Schurmann K, eds. Steroids and Brain Edema: Proceedings of an International Workshop . Mainz, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1972:29-39. 20. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Acute effects of intravenous glucocorticoid pretreatment on the in vitro peroxidation of cat spinal cord tissue . Exp Neurol . 1981;73:321-324.Crossref 21. Willmore LJ, Triggs WJ. Effects of phenytoin and corticosteroids on seizures and lipid peroxidation in experimental posttraumatic epilepsy . J Neurosurg . 1984;60:467-472.Crossref 22. Noell WK. Possible mechanisms of photoreceptor damage by light in mammalian eyes . Vision Res . 1980;20:1163-1171.Crossref 23. Armstrong D, Hiramitsu T, Gutteridge J, et al. Studies on experimentally induced retina degeneration, I: effect of lipid peroxides on electroretinographic activity in the albino rabbit . Exp Eye Res . 1982;35:157-171.Crossref 24. Anderson RE, Rapp LM, Wiegand RD. Lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration . Curr Eye Res . 1984;3:223-227.Crossref 25. Li ZY, Tso MOM, Wang HM, et al. Amelioration of photic injury in rat retina by ascorbic acid: a histopathologic study . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1985;26:1589-1598. 26. Organisciak DT, Wang HM, Kou AL. Ascorbate and glutathione levels in the developing normal and dystrophic rat retina: effect of intense light exposure . Curr Eye Res . 1984;3:257-267.Crossref 27. Organisciak DT, Wang HM, Li ZY, et al. The protective effect of ascorbate in retinal light damage of rats . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1985;26:1580-1588. 28. Lam S, Tso MOM, Grune DH. Amelioration of retinal photic injury in albino rats by dimethylthiourea . Arch Ophthalmol . 1990;108:1751-1757.Crossref 29. Li ZL, Lam S, Tso MOM. Desferrioxamine ameliorates retinal photic injury in albino rats . Curr Eye Res . 1991;10:133-144.Crossref 30. Shahinfar S, Edward DP, Tso MOM. A pathologic study of photoreceptor cell death in retinal photic injury . Curr Eye Res . 1991;10:47-59.Crossref 31. Edward DP, Lam TT, Shahinfar S, et al. Amelioration of light-induced retinal degeneration by a calcium overload blocker: flunarizine . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:554-562.Crossref 32. Lee FL, Gurne D, Liu D, et al. Effect of different schedules of intermittent light exposures on the rat retina . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30 ( (suppl) ):461. Abstract. 33. Noell WK, Walker VS, Kang BS, et al. Retinal damage by light in rats . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1966;5:450-472. 34. Haynes RC Jr, Murad F. Adrenocorticotropic hormone; adrenocortical steroids and their synthetic analogs; inhibitors of adrenocortical steroid biosynthesis . In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics . New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1985:1459-1489. 35. O'Steen WK, Donnelly JE. Antagonistic effects of adrenalectomy and ether/surgical stress on light-induced photoreceptor damage . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1982;22:1-7. 36. McEvoy GK, ed. American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information . Bethesda, Md: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Inc; 1990:1772. 37. Jonung M, Bjorkman S, Idvall J. Determination of methylprednisolone in rat tissue by highperformance liquid chromatography . J Chromatogr Biomed Applications . 1987;415:35-44.Crossref 38. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Glucocorticoid mechanisms in acute spinal cord injury: a review and therapeutic rationale . Surg Neurol . 1982;18:320-322.Crossref 39. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Central nervous system trauma and stroke . Free Radic Biol Med . 1989;6:303-313.Crossref 40. Ducker TB, Hamit HF. Experimental treatments of acute spinal cord injury . J Neurosurg . 1969;30:693-697.Crossref 41. Lewin MG, Hansebout RR, Pappius HM. Chemical characteristics of traumatic spinal cord edema in cats: effect of steroids on potassium depletion . J Neurosurg . 1974;40:65-75.Crossref 42. Green BA, Kahn T, Klose KJ. A comparative study of steroid therapy in acute experimental spinal cord injury . Surg Neurol . 1980;13:91-97. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Methylprednisolone Ameliorates Retinal Photic Injury in Rats

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1992.01080180129040
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Abstract

Abstract • Since lipid peroxidation induced by oxygen free radicals is believed to play an important role in retinal photic injury and high doses of certain steroids have been demonstrated to inhibit lipid peroxidation, we evaluated the effect of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate on retinal injury inflicted by green light (490 to 580 nm, 160 to 180 foot-candles [1721.6 to 1936.8 lux]) for 24 hours in 36 rats. Animals received either intraperitoneal injections of the drug (80 mg/kg twice daily) or saline as a control, twice daily for 2 days, commencing with light exposure. The retinal photic injury was assessed 6 hours, 6 days, and 14 days after light exposure by light and electron microscopy, morphometric study of outer nuclear layer thickness and count of subretinal macrophages, and spectrophotometric measurement of rhodopsin. A beneficial effect of high-dose methylprednisolone was observed in retinal photic injury. References 1. Duke-Elder S, MacFaul PA. Radiational injuries . In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of Ophthalmology . St Louis, Mo: CV Mosby Co; 1972;14(pt 2):894. 2. Ewald RA, Ritchey CL. Sun gazing as the cause of foveomacular retinitis . Am J Ophthalmol . 1970;70:491-497. 3. Parver LM, Auker CR, Fine BS, et al. Dexamethasone protection against photochemical retinal injury . Arch Ophthalmol . 1984;102:772-777.Crossref 4. Fu J, Lam TT, Tso MOM. Dexamethasone ameliorates retinal photic injury in rats. Exp Eye Res. In press. 5. Ham WT Jr, Mueller HA, Ruffolo JJ Jr, et al. Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina . Curr Eye Res . 1984;3:165-174.Crossref 6. Braughler JM. Lipid peroxidation-induced inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid uptake in rat brain synaptosomes: protection by glucocorticoids . J Neurochem . 1985;44:1282-1288.Crossref 7. Vladimirov YA, Sergeev PV, Seifulla RD, et al. Effects of steroids on lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondrial membranes . Mol Biol . 1973;7:206-211. 8. Seligman ML, Mitamura J, Shera N, et al. Corticosteroid (methylprednisolone) modulation of photoperoxidation by ultraviolet light in liposomes . Photochem Photobiol . 1979;29:549-558.Crossref 9. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Effects of intravenous methylprednisolone on spinal cord lipid peroxidation and (Na + K+)-ATPase activity: doseresponse analysis during 1st hour after contusion injury in the cat . J Neurosurg . 1982;57:247-253.Crossref 10. Braughler JM, Hall ED. Correlation of methylprednisolone levels in cat spinal cord with its effects on (Na++K+)-ATPase, lipid peroxidation, and alpha motor neuron function . J Neurosurg . 1982;56:838-844.Crossref 11. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Role of lipid peroxidation in posttraumatic spinal cord degeneration: a review . Cent Nerv Syst Trauma . 1986;3:281-293. 12. Anderson DK, Saunders RD, Demrdiuk P, et al. Lipid hydrolysis and peroxidation in injured spinal cord: partial protection with methylprednisolone or vitamin E and selenium . Cent Nerv Syst Trauma . 1985;2:257-267. 13. Means ED, Anderson DK, Waters TR, et al. Effects of methylprednisolone in compression trauma to the feline spinal cord . J Neurosurg . 1981;55:200-208.Crossref 14. Anderson DK, Means ED, Waters TR, et al. Microvascular perfusion and metabolism in injured spinal cord after methylprednisolone treatment . J Neurosurg . 1983;56:106-113.Crossref 15. Hall ED. High-dose glucocorticoid treatment improves neurological recovery in headinjured mice . J Neurosurg . 1985;62:882-887.Crossref 16. Young W, Flamm ES. Effect of high-dose corticosteroid therapy on blood flow, evoked potentials, and extracellular calcium in experimental spinal injury . J Neurosurg . 1982;57:667-673.Crossref 17. Bracken MB, Sheparo MJ, Collins WF, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal-cord injury . N Engl J Med . 1990;322:1405-1411.Crossref 18. Demopoulos HB, Flamm ES, Seligman ML, et al. Further studies on free-radical pathology in the major central nervous system disorders: effect of very high doses of methylprednisolone on the functional outcome, morphology, and chemistry of experimental spinal cord impact injury . Can J Physiol Pharmacol . 1982;60:1415-1424.Crossref 19. Demopoulos HB, Milvy P, Kakari S, Ransohoff J. Molecular aspects of membrane structure in cerebral edema . In: Reulen HJ, Schurmann K, eds. Steroids and Brain Edema: Proceedings of an International Workshop . Mainz, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1972:29-39. 20. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Acute effects of intravenous glucocorticoid pretreatment on the in vitro peroxidation of cat spinal cord tissue . Exp Neurol . 1981;73:321-324.Crossref 21. Willmore LJ, Triggs WJ. Effects of phenytoin and corticosteroids on seizures and lipid peroxidation in experimental posttraumatic epilepsy . J Neurosurg . 1984;60:467-472.Crossref 22. Noell WK. Possible mechanisms of photoreceptor damage by light in mammalian eyes . Vision Res . 1980;20:1163-1171.Crossref 23. Armstrong D, Hiramitsu T, Gutteridge J, et al. Studies on experimentally induced retina degeneration, I: effect of lipid peroxides on electroretinographic activity in the albino rabbit . Exp Eye Res . 1982;35:157-171.Crossref 24. Anderson RE, Rapp LM, Wiegand RD. Lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration . Curr Eye Res . 1984;3:223-227.Crossref 25. Li ZY, Tso MOM, Wang HM, et al. Amelioration of photic injury in rat retina by ascorbic acid: a histopathologic study . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1985;26:1589-1598. 26. Organisciak DT, Wang HM, Kou AL. Ascorbate and glutathione levels in the developing normal and dystrophic rat retina: effect of intense light exposure . Curr Eye Res . 1984;3:257-267.Crossref 27. Organisciak DT, Wang HM, Li ZY, et al. The protective effect of ascorbate in retinal light damage of rats . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1985;26:1580-1588. 28. Lam S, Tso MOM, Grune DH. Amelioration of retinal photic injury in albino rats by dimethylthiourea . Arch Ophthalmol . 1990;108:1751-1757.Crossref 29. Li ZL, Lam S, Tso MOM. Desferrioxamine ameliorates retinal photic injury in albino rats . Curr Eye Res . 1991;10:133-144.Crossref 30. Shahinfar S, Edward DP, Tso MOM. A pathologic study of photoreceptor cell death in retinal photic injury . Curr Eye Res . 1991;10:47-59.Crossref 31. Edward DP, Lam TT, Shahinfar S, et al. Amelioration of light-induced retinal degeneration by a calcium overload blocker: flunarizine . Arch Ophthalmol . 1991;109:554-562.Crossref 32. Lee FL, Gurne D, Liu D, et al. Effect of different schedules of intermittent light exposures on the rat retina . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30 ( (suppl) ):461. Abstract. 33. Noell WK, Walker VS, Kang BS, et al. Retinal damage by light in rats . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1966;5:450-472. 34. Haynes RC Jr, Murad F. Adrenocorticotropic hormone; adrenocortical steroids and their synthetic analogs; inhibitors of adrenocortical steroid biosynthesis . In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics . New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co Inc; 1985:1459-1489. 35. O'Steen WK, Donnelly JE. Antagonistic effects of adrenalectomy and ether/surgical stress on light-induced photoreceptor damage . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1982;22:1-7. 36. McEvoy GK, ed. American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information . Bethesda, Md: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Inc; 1990:1772. 37. Jonung M, Bjorkman S, Idvall J. Determination of methylprednisolone in rat tissue by highperformance liquid chromatography . J Chromatogr Biomed Applications . 1987;415:35-44.Crossref 38. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Glucocorticoid mechanisms in acute spinal cord injury: a review and therapeutic rationale . Surg Neurol . 1982;18:320-322.Crossref 39. Hall ED, Braughler JM. Central nervous system trauma and stroke . Free Radic Biol Med . 1989;6:303-313.Crossref 40. Ducker TB, Hamit HF. Experimental treatments of acute spinal cord injury . J Neurosurg . 1969;30:693-697.Crossref 41. Lewin MG, Hansebout RR, Pappius HM. Chemical characteristics of traumatic spinal cord edema in cats: effect of steroids on potassium depletion . J Neurosurg . 1974;40:65-75.Crossref 42. Green BA, Kahn T, Klose KJ. A comparative study of steroid therapy in acute experimental spinal cord injury . Surg Neurol . 1980;13:91-97.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1992

References