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Meningitis Due to Combined Infections: Association of Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Clostridium perfringens

Meningitis Due to Combined Infections: Association of Haemophilus influenzae Type B and... Abstract • Haemophilus influenzae type B and Clostridium perfringens were recovered simultaneously from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with purulent meningitis. No antecedent history of head trauma was present to explain the coexistence of the anaerobe with Haemophilus organisms. A review of the literature on mixed meningitis indicates that no previous cases of anaerobes have been reported in uncomplicated meningitis due to multiple organisms. In addition, the recovery of clostridia is extremely unusual in the absence of an identifiable portal of entry. We have identified two additional cases of clostridia infection in the central nervous system and recommend that anaerobic organisms be considered in selected cases of meningitis. (Am J Dis Child 130:877-879, 1976) References 1. Neal JB: Meningitis: Distribution according to age and etiology . JAMA 82:1429, 1924.Crossref 2. Vaden EB, Rice EC, Stadnichenko V: Meningitis due to simultaneous double infections in children . JAMA 143:1402-1404, 1950.Crossref 3. Herweg JC, Middelkamp JN, Hartmann AF: Simultaneous mixed bacterial meningitis in children . J Pediatr 63:76-83, 1963.Crossref 4. Keys TF, Wellman WE, Needham GM, et al: Bacterial meningitis: IV. Infections caused by multiple organisms . Mayo Clin Proc 41:179-185, 1966. 5. Ashmun SH: Pneumococcic meningitis combined with streptococcus and Diplococcus catarrhalis . Ohio State Med J 29:243-246, 1933. 6. Cunningham AA: Mixed meningococcal and streptococcal meningitis . Lancet 1:198-199, 1937.Crossref 7. Gaffney JC: Mixed infection of the meninges with H influenzae and the pneumococcus . Br Med J 1:346, 1940. 8. Todesco J: A case of meningitis due to the tubercle bacillus and a diplococcus closely allied to Micrococcus tetragenes . Lancet 2:338, 1927.Crossref 9. Fiddes J: Combined forms of meningitis: Mixed infection of the meninges by the tubercle bacillus and meningococcus . Arch Dis Child 16:140-144, 1941.Crossref 10. Rosenthal IM, Linker M, Golomb J: Tuberculous meningitis complicated by pyogenic meningitis caused by Streptococcus faecalis . Am Rev Tuberc 62:441, 1950. 11. Williams MJ, Clapp MP: Mixed meningitis: Association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, alpha hemolytic streptococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis . JAMA 151:732-734, 1953.Crossref 12. Riley EA: Combined pneumococcal and tuberculous meningitis . Am Rev Tuberc 71:584, 1955. 13. Wright HT, McAllister RM, Ward R: "Mixed" meningitis: Report of a case with isolation of Hemophilus influenzae type B and ECHO virus type 9 from the cerebrospinal fluid . N Engl J Med 267:142-144, 1962.Crossref 14. Chia W, Berriman P: A case of "mixed meningitis" in a neonate due to Proteus mirabilis and Coxsackie virus group b type 4 . Med J Aust 1:209-210, 1971. 15. Nanda SP, Kass I, Cohn M, et al: Coexistence of tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis . Pediatrics 20:45, 1957. 16. Bornstein DL, Weinberg AN, Swartz MN, et al: Anaerobic infections: Review of current experience . Medicine 43:207-232, 1964. 17. Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG: Anaerobic infections: Medical progress . N Engl J Med 290:1177-1183, 1237-1245, 1289-2394, 1974.Crossref 18. Gas infection of brain as one form of serious complications of cerebrocranial injuries, Committee of Soviet Scientists . Br Med J 1:785-788, 1943.Crossref 19. Cairns H, Calvert CA, Daniel P: Complications of head wounds with special reference to infection . Br J Surg 35 (War Surg suppl)1:198-243, 1947. 20. Henderson JK, Kennedy WFC, Potter JM: Recovery from acute Clostridium welchii meningitis . Br Med J 2:1400-1401, 1954.Crossref 21. Moller B: Purulent Clostridium welchii meningitis originating from penetrating cranial wounds . Acta Chir Scand 109:394-399, 1955. 22. Colwell FG, Sullivan J, Shuman HH: Acute purulent meningitis due to Clostridium perfringens . N Engl J Med 262:618-619, 1960.Crossref 23. Willis AT, Jacob SI: A case of meningitis due to Clostridium welchii . J Pathol Bacteriol 88:312-314, 1964.Crossref 24. Samson DS, Clark K: A current review of brain abscess . Am J Med 54:201-210, 1973.Crossref 25. Conomy JP, Dalton JW: Clostridium perfringens meningitis: Report of a case with neuropathological observations . Arch Neurol 21:44-50, 1969.Crossref 26. Ganchrow MI, Brief DK: A case of meningitis secondary to Clostridium welchii . J Trau ma 11:444-446, 1971.Crossref 27. Mackay NNS, Gruneberg RN, Harries BJ, et al: Primary Clostridium welchii meningitis . Br Med J 1:591-592, 1971.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Meningitis Due to Combined Infections: Association of Haemophilus influenzae Type B and Clostridium perfringens

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1976.02120090087016
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Haemophilus influenzae type B and Clostridium perfringens were recovered simultaneously from the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with purulent meningitis. No antecedent history of head trauma was present to explain the coexistence of the anaerobe with Haemophilus organisms. A review of the literature on mixed meningitis indicates that no previous cases of anaerobes have been reported in uncomplicated meningitis due to multiple organisms. In addition, the recovery of clostridia is extremely unusual in the absence of an identifiable portal of entry. We have identified two additional cases of clostridia infection in the central nervous system and recommend that anaerobic organisms be considered in selected cases of meningitis. (Am J Dis Child 130:877-879, 1976) References 1. Neal JB: Meningitis: Distribution according to age and etiology . JAMA 82:1429, 1924.Crossref 2. Vaden EB, Rice EC, Stadnichenko V: Meningitis due to simultaneous double infections in children . JAMA 143:1402-1404, 1950.Crossref 3. Herweg JC, Middelkamp JN, Hartmann AF: Simultaneous mixed bacterial meningitis in children . J Pediatr 63:76-83, 1963.Crossref 4. Keys TF, Wellman WE, Needham GM, et al: Bacterial meningitis: IV. Infections caused by multiple organisms . Mayo Clin Proc 41:179-185, 1966. 5. Ashmun SH: Pneumococcic meningitis combined with streptococcus and Diplococcus catarrhalis . Ohio State Med J 29:243-246, 1933. 6. Cunningham AA: Mixed meningococcal and streptococcal meningitis . Lancet 1:198-199, 1937.Crossref 7. Gaffney JC: Mixed infection of the meninges with H influenzae and the pneumococcus . Br Med J 1:346, 1940. 8. Todesco J: A case of meningitis due to the tubercle bacillus and a diplococcus closely allied to Micrococcus tetragenes . Lancet 2:338, 1927.Crossref 9. Fiddes J: Combined forms of meningitis: Mixed infection of the meninges by the tubercle bacillus and meningococcus . Arch Dis Child 16:140-144, 1941.Crossref 10. Rosenthal IM, Linker M, Golomb J: Tuberculous meningitis complicated by pyogenic meningitis caused by Streptococcus faecalis . Am Rev Tuberc 62:441, 1950. 11. Williams MJ, Clapp MP: Mixed meningitis: Association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, alpha hemolytic streptococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis . JAMA 151:732-734, 1953.Crossref 12. Riley EA: Combined pneumococcal and tuberculous meningitis . Am Rev Tuberc 71:584, 1955. 13. Wright HT, McAllister RM, Ward R: "Mixed" meningitis: Report of a case with isolation of Hemophilus influenzae type B and ECHO virus type 9 from the cerebrospinal fluid . N Engl J Med 267:142-144, 1962.Crossref 14. Chia W, Berriman P: A case of "mixed meningitis" in a neonate due to Proteus mirabilis and Coxsackie virus group b type 4 . Med J Aust 1:209-210, 1971. 15. Nanda SP, Kass I, Cohn M, et al: Coexistence of tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis . Pediatrics 20:45, 1957. 16. Bornstein DL, Weinberg AN, Swartz MN, et al: Anaerobic infections: Review of current experience . Medicine 43:207-232, 1964. 17. Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG: Anaerobic infections: Medical progress . N Engl J Med 290:1177-1183, 1237-1245, 1289-2394, 1974.Crossref 18. Gas infection of brain as one form of serious complications of cerebrocranial injuries, Committee of Soviet Scientists . Br Med J 1:785-788, 1943.Crossref 19. Cairns H, Calvert CA, Daniel P: Complications of head wounds with special reference to infection . Br J Surg 35 (War Surg suppl)1:198-243, 1947. 20. Henderson JK, Kennedy WFC, Potter JM: Recovery from acute Clostridium welchii meningitis . Br Med J 2:1400-1401, 1954.Crossref 21. Moller B: Purulent Clostridium welchii meningitis originating from penetrating cranial wounds . Acta Chir Scand 109:394-399, 1955. 22. Colwell FG, Sullivan J, Shuman HH: Acute purulent meningitis due to Clostridium perfringens . N Engl J Med 262:618-619, 1960.Crossref 23. Willis AT, Jacob SI: A case of meningitis due to Clostridium welchii . J Pathol Bacteriol 88:312-314, 1964.Crossref 24. Samson DS, Clark K: A current review of brain abscess . Am J Med 54:201-210, 1973.Crossref 25. Conomy JP, Dalton JW: Clostridium perfringens meningitis: Report of a case with neuropathological observations . Arch Neurol 21:44-50, 1969.Crossref 26. Ganchrow MI, Brief DK: A case of meningitis secondary to Clostridium welchii . J Trau ma 11:444-446, 1971.Crossref 27. Mackay NNS, Gruneberg RN, Harries BJ, et al: Primary Clostridium welchii meningitis . Br Med J 1:591-592, 1971.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1976

References