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Meningeal Leukemia Diagnosed by Cytocentrifuge Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Study of 631 Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples From 87 Patients

Meningeal Leukemia Diagnosed by Cytocentrifuge Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Study of 631... Abstract • Owing to improved therapy and lengthened life span, the incidence of neuromeningeal involvement in leukemia is increasing. Careful examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for an early diagnosis. Among the available techniques, the use of cytocentrifugation enables us to demonstrate central nervous system leukemia even if the white blood cell count in the CSF is under 10/cu mm. We describe the results obtained by examining 631 CSF samples from 87 patients affected by acute leukemia; central nervous system luekemia was found in 22.7% of the patients suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia and in 6.4% of those with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), but this ratio is higher in ANLL compared with the survival as measured in months (a ratio of 2.0 in ANLL compared with 0.50 in acute lymphocytic leukemia). A "leukemic" CSF was found in 51.5% of prophylactically treated patients and in 73.1% of the untreated ones. References 1. References 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 12-14, 18, 20. 2. References 1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 13, 15, 20, 22-24, 26. 3. Fitzpatric KJ, Lieberman M, Sinks LF: Staging of acute leukemia and the relationship to CNS involvement . Cancer 1974;33:1376-1381.Crossref 4. Law IP, Blom J: Adult acute leukemia . Cancer 1977;40:1304-1306.Crossref 5. McElwain JJ, Clink HM, Kay HEM, et al: Central nervous system involvement in acute myelogenous leukemia , in Whitehouse JMA, Kay HEM (eds): CNS Complications of Malignant Disease . New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1979, pp 91-120. 6. Reske-Nielsen E, Petersen JH, Sogaard H, et al: Leukaemia of the central nervous system . Lancet 1974;9:211-212.Crossref 7. Zachariah C, Grünwald HW, Rosner F: Prolonged meningeal leukemia . JAMA 1978;239:1423-1424.Crossref 8. West R, Craham-Pole J, Hardisty H, et al: Factors in pathogenesis of central nervous system leukaemia . Br Med J 1972;3:311-314.Crossref 9. Wolk RW, Masse SR, Conklin R, et al: The incidence of central nervous system leukemia in adults with acute leukemia . Cancer 1974;33:863-869.Crossref 10. Beard ME, Hamilton-Fairley G: Acute leukemia in adults . Semin Hematol 1974;11:5-24. 11. Bernard J, Jacquillat C, Weil M: Treatment of the acute leukemias . Semin Hematol 1972;9:181-191. 12. Dawson DM, Rosenthal DS, Moloney WC: Neurological complications of acute leukemia in adults: Changing rate . Ann Intern Med 1973;79:541-544.Crossref 13. Gétaz EP, Miller GJ: Spinal cord involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia . Cancer 1979;43:1858-1861.Crossref 14. Griffin JW, Thompson RW, Mitchinson MJ, et al: Lymphomatous leptomeningitis . Ann J Med 1971;51:200-208.Crossref 15. Pochedly C, Maner AM: Leukemia and Lymphoma in the Nervous System . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publishers, 1977, p 88. 16. Fontana G, Rizzo SC, Ascari E, et al: Prophylaxis and therapy of neuromeningeal involvement of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Case report and critical review of literature . Haematologica 1975;60:207-229. 17. Gastaut JA, Gastaut JL, Cercassonne Y: Computerized axial tomography in the study of intracranial complications in hematology . Cancer 1978;41:487-501.Crossref 18. Kay HEM: Acute leukemia , in Hoffbrand AV (ed): Recent Advances in Hematology . New York, Churchill Livingstone Inc, 1982, pp 61-82. 19. Herman TS, Hammond N, Jones SE, et al: Involvement of the central nervous system by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma . Cancer 1979;43:390-397.Crossref 20. Fontana G, Rizzo SC, Ascari E, et al: Therapy and prophylaxis of leukaemic meningeal complication by intrathecal administration of the association methotrexate and Ara C. Read before the second meeting of II° Meeting of the European African Division of the International Society of Haematology, Prague. 21. Spiers ASD, Firth JL: Treating the nervous system in acute leukemia . Lancet 1972;1:433.Crossref 22. Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Verzosa MS, et al: Comparison of two methods of preventing central nervous system leukemia . Blood 1973;42:349-357. 23. Drewinko B, Sullivan M, Martin T: Use of the cytocentrifuge in the diagnosis of meningeal leukaemia . Cancer 1973;31:1331-1336.Crossref 24. Enzmann DR, Krikorian J, York C: Computed tomography in leptomeningeal spread of tumor . J Comput Assist Tomogr 1978;2:448-455.Crossref 25. Hansen HH, Bender AR, Shelton BJ: The cytocentrifuge and cerebrospinal fluid cytology . Acta Cytol 1974;18:259-263. 26. Rich SR: A membrane filter technique of cerebrospinal fluid cytology . J Neurosurg 1972;37:661-666.Crossref 27. Siden A, Kjellin KG: Isoelectric focusing of CSF and serum proteins in neurological disorders combined with benign and malignant proliferations of reticulocytes, lymphocytes and plasmocytes . J Neurol 1977;216:251-261.Crossref 28. Pouillart P, Schwarzenberg L, Schneider M, et al: Les méningites lymphoblastiques: Incidence, prévention et tratement . Presse Med 1972;6:387-390. 29. Spiers ASD: Chemotherapy of acute leukaemia . Clin Hematol 1972;1:127-165.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Meningeal Leukemia Diagnosed by Cytocentrifuge Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid: A Study of 631 Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples From 87 Patients

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1986 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1986.00520050046020
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • Owing to improved therapy and lengthened life span, the incidence of neuromeningeal involvement in leukemia is increasing. Careful examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for an early diagnosis. Among the available techniques, the use of cytocentrifugation enables us to demonstrate central nervous system leukemia even if the white blood cell count in the CSF is under 10/cu mm. We describe the results obtained by examining 631 CSF samples from 87 patients affected by acute leukemia; central nervous system luekemia was found in 22.7% of the patients suffering from acute lymphocytic leukemia and in 6.4% of those with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), but this ratio is higher in ANLL compared with the survival as measured in months (a ratio of 2.0 in ANLL compared with 0.50 in acute lymphocytic leukemia). A "leukemic" CSF was found in 51.5% of prophylactically treated patients and in 73.1% of the untreated ones. References 1. References 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 12-14, 18, 20. 2. References 1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 13, 15, 20, 22-24, 26. 3. Fitzpatric KJ, Lieberman M, Sinks LF: Staging of acute leukemia and the relationship to CNS involvement . Cancer 1974;33:1376-1381.Crossref 4. Law IP, Blom J: Adult acute leukemia . Cancer 1977;40:1304-1306.Crossref 5. McElwain JJ, Clink HM, Kay HEM, et al: Central nervous system involvement in acute myelogenous leukemia , in Whitehouse JMA, Kay HEM (eds): CNS Complications of Malignant Disease . New York, Macmillan Publishing Co Inc, 1979, pp 91-120. 6. Reske-Nielsen E, Petersen JH, Sogaard H, et al: Leukaemia of the central nervous system . Lancet 1974;9:211-212.Crossref 7. Zachariah C, Grünwald HW, Rosner F: Prolonged meningeal leukemia . JAMA 1978;239:1423-1424.Crossref 8. West R, Craham-Pole J, Hardisty H, et al: Factors in pathogenesis of central nervous system leukaemia . Br Med J 1972;3:311-314.Crossref 9. Wolk RW, Masse SR, Conklin R, et al: The incidence of central nervous system leukemia in adults with acute leukemia . Cancer 1974;33:863-869.Crossref 10. Beard ME, Hamilton-Fairley G: Acute leukemia in adults . Semin Hematol 1974;11:5-24. 11. Bernard J, Jacquillat C, Weil M: Treatment of the acute leukemias . Semin Hematol 1972;9:181-191. 12. Dawson DM, Rosenthal DS, Moloney WC: Neurological complications of acute leukemia in adults: Changing rate . Ann Intern Med 1973;79:541-544.Crossref 13. Gétaz EP, Miller GJ: Spinal cord involvement in chronic lymphocytic leukemia . Cancer 1979;43:1858-1861.Crossref 14. Griffin JW, Thompson RW, Mitchinson MJ, et al: Lymphomatous leptomeningitis . Ann J Med 1971;51:200-208.Crossref 15. Pochedly C, Maner AM: Leukemia and Lymphoma in the Nervous System . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publishers, 1977, p 88. 16. Fontana G, Rizzo SC, Ascari E, et al: Prophylaxis and therapy of neuromeningeal involvement of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Case report and critical review of literature . Haematologica 1975;60:207-229. 17. Gastaut JA, Gastaut JL, Cercassonne Y: Computerized axial tomography in the study of intracranial complications in hematology . Cancer 1978;41:487-501.Crossref 18. Kay HEM: Acute leukemia , in Hoffbrand AV (ed): Recent Advances in Hematology . New York, Churchill Livingstone Inc, 1982, pp 61-82. 19. Herman TS, Hammond N, Jones SE, et al: Involvement of the central nervous system by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma . Cancer 1979;43:390-397.Crossref 20. Fontana G, Rizzo SC, Ascari E, et al: Therapy and prophylaxis of leukaemic meningeal complication by intrathecal administration of the association methotrexate and Ara C. Read before the second meeting of II° Meeting of the European African Division of the International Society of Haematology, Prague. 21. Spiers ASD, Firth JL: Treating the nervous system in acute leukemia . Lancet 1972;1:433.Crossref 22. Aur RJA, Hustu HO, Verzosa MS, et al: Comparison of two methods of preventing central nervous system leukemia . Blood 1973;42:349-357. 23. Drewinko B, Sullivan M, Martin T: Use of the cytocentrifuge in the diagnosis of meningeal leukaemia . Cancer 1973;31:1331-1336.Crossref 24. Enzmann DR, Krikorian J, York C: Computed tomography in leptomeningeal spread of tumor . J Comput Assist Tomogr 1978;2:448-455.Crossref 25. Hansen HH, Bender AR, Shelton BJ: The cytocentrifuge and cerebrospinal fluid cytology . Acta Cytol 1974;18:259-263. 26. Rich SR: A membrane filter technique of cerebrospinal fluid cytology . J Neurosurg 1972;37:661-666.Crossref 27. Siden A, Kjellin KG: Isoelectric focusing of CSF and serum proteins in neurological disorders combined with benign and malignant proliferations of reticulocytes, lymphocytes and plasmocytes . J Neurol 1977;216:251-261.Crossref 28. Pouillart P, Schwarzenberg L, Schneider M, et al: Les méningites lymphoblastiques: Incidence, prévention et tratement . Presse Med 1972;6:387-390. 29. Spiers ASD: Chemotherapy of acute leukaemia . Clin Hematol 1972;1:127-165.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1986

References