Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

Medical, Metabolic, and Psychological Effects of Weight Cycling

Medical, Metabolic, and Psychological Effects of Weight Cycling Abstract This article reviews studies on the effects of weight cycling and weight variability on metabolism, psychological status, morbidity, and mortality. Repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling or yo-yo dieting, are highly prevalent, occur in males and females, and are common in both overweight and nonoverweight individuals. While there has been no consistent demonstration that, as was first thought, weight cycling makes subsequent weight loss more difficult or regain more rapid, it is possible that this does occur under some conditions or in particular individuals. There are stronger and more consistent links between body weight variability and negative health outcomes, particularly all-cause mortality and mortality from coronary heart disease. Weight cycling may also have negative psychological and behavioral consequences; studies have reported increased risk for psychopathology, life dissatisfaction, and binge eating. The bulk of epidemiologic research shows an association of weight variability with morbidity and mortality, although the mechanisms are not clear at present. There is a clear need for further research on the effects of weight cycling on behavior, metabolism, and health. Understanding and promoting weight maintenance is an important priority. (Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1325-1330) References 1. Brownell KD, Greenwood MRC, Stellar E, Shrager EE. The effects of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain in rats . Physiol Behav. 1986;38:459-464.Crossref 2. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk . Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989. 3. US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1988. Publication No. 88-50210. 4. Bouchard C. Is weight fluctuation a risk factor? N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1887-1888.Crossref 5. Rossner S. Weight cycling: a new risk factor? J Intern Med. 1989;226:209-211.Crossref 6. Wing RR. Weight cycling in humans: a review of the literature . Ann Behav Med. 1992;14:113-119. 7. Wing RR. Weight cycling: the public concern and the scientific data . Obesity Res. 1993;1:390-391.Crossref 8. Reed GW, Hill JO. Weight cycling: a review of the animal literature . Obesity Res. 1993;1:392-402.Crossref 9. Bray GA, York B, DeLany J. A survey of the opinions of obesity experts on the causes and treatment of obesity . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:151S-154S. 10. Serdula M, Collins ME, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Pamuk ER, Byers TE. Weight control practices of US adolescents and adults: Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System . Ann Intern Med. 1993;119: 667-671.Crossref 11. Horm J, Anderson K. Who in America is trying to lose weight? Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:672-676.Crossref 12. Brownell KD, Marlatt GA, Lichtenstein E, Wilson GT. Understanding and preventing relapse . Am Psychol. 1986;41:765-782.Crossref 13. Garner DM, Wooley SC. Confronting the failure of behavioral and dietary treatments for obesity . Clin Psychol Rev. 1991:11:729-780. 14. Williamson DF, Kahn HS, Remington PL, Anda RF. The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults . Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:665-672.Crossref 15. Williamson DF. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in US adults . Arch Intern Med. 1993;119:646-649. 16. Lissner L, Odell PM, D'Agostino RB, et al. Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population . N Engl J Med. 1991; 324:1839-1844.Crossref 17. Blair SN, Shaten J, Brownell KD, Collins G, Lissner L. Body weight fluctuation, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial . Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:749-757.Crossref 18. Steen SN, Oppliger RA, Brownell KD. Metabolic effects of repeated weight loss and regain in adolescent wrestlers . JAMA . 1988;260:47-50.Crossref 19. Steen SN, Brownell KD. Patterns of weight loss and regain in wrestlers: has the tradition changed? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22:762-768.Crossref 20. Williamson PS, Levy BT. Long-term body weight fluctuation in an overweight population . Int J Obesity. 1988;12:579-583. 21. Blackburn GL, Wilson GT, Kanders BS, et al. Weight cycling: the experience of human dieters . Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:1105-1109. 22. Smith DE, Wing RR. Diminished weight loss and behavioral compliance during repeated diets in obese patients with type II diabetes . Health Psychol. 1991;10:378-383.Crossref 23. Kaplan GD, Miller KC, Anderson JW. Comparative weight loss in obese patients restarting a supplemented very-low-calorie diet . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:S290-S291. 24. Beeson V, Ray C, Coxon A, Kreitzman S. The myth of the yo-yo: consistent rate of weight loss on successive diets . Int J Obesity. 1989;13( (suppl) ): 135-139. 25. vanDale D, Saris WHM. Repetitive weight loss and weight regain: effects on weight reduction, resting metabolic rate, and lipolytic activity before and after exercise and/or diet treatment . Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:409-416. 26. Wadden TA, Bartlett S, Letizia KA, Foster GD, Stunkard AJ, Conill A. Relationship of dieting history to resting metabolic rate, body composition, eating behavior, and subsequent weight loss . Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;56:203S-208S. 27. Maxwell MH, Heber D. Weight cycling does not reduce the rate of weight loss on VLCD . Presented at the International Conference on Very-Low-Calorie Diets; August 20-22, 1990; Kyoto, Japan. 28. Archambault CM, Czyzewski D, Cordua y Cruz GD, Foreyt JP, Mariotto MJ. Effects of weight cycling in female rats . Physiol Behav. 1989;46: 417-421.Crossref 29. Wainwright PE, Simpson JR, Cameron R, et al. Effects of treadmill exercise on weight cycling in female mice . Physiol Behav. 1991;49:639-642.Crossref 30. Graham B, Chang S, Lin D, Yakubu F, Hill JO. Effect of weight cycling on susceptibility to dietary obesity . Am J Physiol. 1990;259:R1096-R1102. 31. Wheeler J, Martin R, Lin D, Yakubu F, Hill JO. Weight cycling in female rats subjected to varying meal patterns . Am J Physiol. 1990;258:R124-R129. 32. Gray DS, Fisler JS, Bray GA. Effects of repeated weight loss and regain on body composition in obese rats . Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:393-399. 33. Melby CL, Schmidt WD, Corrigan D. Resting metabolic rate in weight-cycling collegiate wrestlers compared with physically active, noncycling control subjects . Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:409-414. 34. McCargar LJ, Crawford SM. Metabolic and anthropometric changes with weight cycling in wrestlers . Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:1270-1275.Crossref 35. Schmidt WD, Corrigan D, Melby CL. Two seasons of weight cycling does not lower resting metabolic rate in college wrestlers . Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:613-619.Crossref 36. Manore MM, Berry TE, Skinner JS, Carroll SS. Energy expenditure at rest and during exercise in nonobese female cyclical dieters and in non-dieting control subjects . Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 54:41-46. 37. Jebb SA, Goldberg GR, Coward WA, Murgatroyd PR, Prentice AM. Effects of weight cycling caused by intermittent dieting on metabolic rate and body composition in obese women . Int J Obesity . 1991;15:367-374. 38. Foreyt JP, Brunner RL, St Jeor ST, Goodrick GK. Psychological correlates of weight fluctuation . Int J Eating Disorders . In press. 39. Kiernan M, Rodin J, Brownell KD, Wilmore JH, Crandall C. Relationship of level of exercise, age and weight cycling history to eating and weight disturbances in male and female runners . Health Psychol. 1992;11:418-421.Crossref 40. Spitzer RL, Devlin M, Walsh BT, et al. Binge eating disorder: a multisite field trial of diagnostic criteria . Int J Eating Disord. 1992;11:191-203.Crossref 41. Polivy J, Herman CP. Dieting and binging: a causal analysis . Am Psychol. 1985;40:193-201.Crossref 42. Striegel-Moore RH, Silberstein LR, Rodin J. Toward an understanding of risk factors for bulimia . Am Psychol. 1986;41:246-263.Crossref 43. Heatherton TF, Polivy J, Herman CP. Restraint, weight loss, and variability of body weight . J Abnorm Psychol. 1991;100:78-83.Crossref 44. Hamm P, Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-year risk of coronary heart disease in men . Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129:312-318. 45. Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS. Change in body weight and longevity . JAMA . 1992;268:2045-2049.Crossref 46. Lissner L, Bengtsson C, Lapidus L, Larrson B, Bengtsson B, Brownell KD. Body weight variability and mortality in the Gothenburg Prospective Studies on men and women . In: Bjorntorp P, Rossner S, eds. Obesity in Europe 88: Proceedings of the First European Congress on Obesity . London, England: Libbey; 1989:55-60. 47. Blair SN, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Influence of body weight and shape variation on incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lung disease and cancer . Presented at the Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention of the American Heart Association; March 16-19, 1994; Tampa, Fla. 48. Lissner L, Andres R, Muller DC, Shimokata H. Body weight variability in men: metabolic rate, health and longevity . Int J Obesity . 1989;14:373-383. 49. Stevens J, Lissner L. Body weight variability and mortality in the Charleston Heart Study . Int J Obesity. 1990;14:385-386. 50. Cutter G, St Jeor ST, Brunner R, Foreyt JP, Dyer A, Brownell KD. Methodological issues in weight cycling . Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine; March 11-14, 1993; San Francisco, Calif. 51. Brownell KD, Wadden TA. Etiology and treatment of obesity: understanding a serious, prevalent and refractory disorder . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992;60:505-517.Crossref 52. Jeffery RW, Wing RR, French SA. Weight cycling and cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:641-644. 53. Barlow CE, Kohl HW, Blair SN. Weight fluctuation and cardiovascular risk factors . Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23( (suppl) ):S53. 54. Hart KE, Figlerski RW, Broeder BS, Stalters C. Weight cycling: biopsychosocial correlates . Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine; March 16-18, 1989; San Francisco, Calif. 55. Ernsberger P, Nelson DO. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity . Am J Physiol. 1988;254: R47-R55. 56. Contreras RJ, Williams VL. Dietary obesity and weight cycling: effects on blood pressure and heart rate in rats . Am J Physiol. 1989;256:R1209-R1219. 57. Contreras RJ, King S. High fat/sucrose feeding attenuates the hypertension of spontaneously hypertensive rats . Physiol Behav. 1989;46:285-291.Crossref 58. Schotte DE, Cohen E, Singh SP. Effects of weight cycling on metabolic control in male outpatients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Health Psychol. 1990;9:599-605.Crossref 59. Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor, Wingard DL. The association of lifetime weight and weight control patterns with diabetes among men and women in an adult community . Int J Obesity . 1989;13: 723-729. 60. Prentice AM, Jebb SA, Goldberg GR, et al. Effects of weight cycling on body composition . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:S209-S216. 61. Bjorntorp P. Regional obesity . In: Bjorntorp P, Brodoff BN, eds. Obesity . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1992:579-586. 62. Rodin J, Radke-Sharpe N, Rebuffe-Scrive M, Greenwood MRC. Weight cycling and fat distribution . Int J Obesity . 1990;14:303-310. 63. Reed RD, Contreras RJ, Maggio C, Greenwood MRC, Rodin J. Weight cycling in female rats increases dietary fat selection and adiposity . Physiol Behav. 1988;42:389-395.Crossref 64. Gerardo-Gettens T, Miller GD, Horwitz BA, et al. Exercise decreases fat selection in female rats during weight cycling . Am J Physiol. 1991;260: R518-R524. 65. Drewnowski A, Kurth CL, Rahaim JE. Taste preferences in human obesity: environmental and familial factors . Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:635-641. 66. Drewnowski A, Holden-Wiltse J. Taste responses and food preferences in obese women: effects of weight cycling . Int J Obesity . 1992; 16:639-648. 67. Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelson O, Taylor HL. The Biology of Human Starvation . Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press; 1950. 68. Rossner S. Pregnancy, weight cycling and weight gain in obesity . Int J Obesity . 1992;16:145-147. 69. Brownell KD, Rodin J. The dieting maelstrom: is it possible and advisable to lose weight? Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine; March 11-14, 1993; San Francisco, Calif. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Medical, Metabolic, and Psychological Effects of Weight Cycling

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 154 (12) – Jun 27, 1994

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/medical-metabolic-and-psychological-effects-of-weight-cycling-7090cCwsvk
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1994 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1994.00420120035004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract This article reviews studies on the effects of weight cycling and weight variability on metabolism, psychological status, morbidity, and mortality. Repeated bouts of weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling or yo-yo dieting, are highly prevalent, occur in males and females, and are common in both overweight and nonoverweight individuals. While there has been no consistent demonstration that, as was first thought, weight cycling makes subsequent weight loss more difficult or regain more rapid, it is possible that this does occur under some conditions or in particular individuals. There are stronger and more consistent links between body weight variability and negative health outcomes, particularly all-cause mortality and mortality from coronary heart disease. Weight cycling may also have negative psychological and behavioral consequences; studies have reported increased risk for psychopathology, life dissatisfaction, and binge eating. The bulk of epidemiologic research shows an association of weight variability with morbidity and mortality, although the mechanisms are not clear at present. There is a clear need for further research on the effects of weight cycling on behavior, metabolism, and health. Understanding and promoting weight maintenance is an important priority. (Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:1325-1330) References 1. Brownell KD, Greenwood MRC, Stellar E, Shrager EE. The effects of repeated cycles of weight loss and regain in rats . Physiol Behav. 1986;38:459-464.Crossref 2. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk . Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989. 3. US Dept of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Report on Nutrition and Health. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1988. Publication No. 88-50210. 4. Bouchard C. Is weight fluctuation a risk factor? N Engl J Med. 1991;324:1887-1888.Crossref 5. Rossner S. Weight cycling: a new risk factor? J Intern Med. 1989;226:209-211.Crossref 6. Wing RR. Weight cycling in humans: a review of the literature . Ann Behav Med. 1992;14:113-119. 7. Wing RR. Weight cycling: the public concern and the scientific data . Obesity Res. 1993;1:390-391.Crossref 8. Reed GW, Hill JO. Weight cycling: a review of the animal literature . Obesity Res. 1993;1:392-402.Crossref 9. Bray GA, York B, DeLany J. A survey of the opinions of obesity experts on the causes and treatment of obesity . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:151S-154S. 10. Serdula M, Collins ME, Williamson DF, Anda RF, Pamuk ER, Byers TE. Weight control practices of US adolescents and adults: Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System . Ann Intern Med. 1993;119: 667-671.Crossref 11. Horm J, Anderson K. Who in America is trying to lose weight? Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:672-676.Crossref 12. Brownell KD, Marlatt GA, Lichtenstein E, Wilson GT. Understanding and preventing relapse . Am Psychol. 1986;41:765-782.Crossref 13. Garner DM, Wooley SC. Confronting the failure of behavioral and dietary treatments for obesity . Clin Psychol Rev. 1991:11:729-780. 14. Williamson DF, Kahn HS, Remington PL, Anda RF. The 10-year incidence of overweight and major weight gain in US adults . Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:665-672.Crossref 15. Williamson DF. Descriptive epidemiology of body weight and weight change in US adults . Arch Intern Med. 1993;119:646-649. 16. Lissner L, Odell PM, D'Agostino RB, et al. Variability of body weight and health outcomes in the Framingham population . N Engl J Med. 1991; 324:1839-1844.Crossref 17. Blair SN, Shaten J, Brownell KD, Collins G, Lissner L. Body weight fluctuation, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial . Ann Intern Med. 1993;119:749-757.Crossref 18. Steen SN, Oppliger RA, Brownell KD. Metabolic effects of repeated weight loss and regain in adolescent wrestlers . JAMA . 1988;260:47-50.Crossref 19. Steen SN, Brownell KD. Patterns of weight loss and regain in wrestlers: has the tradition changed? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990;22:762-768.Crossref 20. Williamson PS, Levy BT. Long-term body weight fluctuation in an overweight population . Int J Obesity. 1988;12:579-583. 21. Blackburn GL, Wilson GT, Kanders BS, et al. Weight cycling: the experience of human dieters . Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:1105-1109. 22. Smith DE, Wing RR. Diminished weight loss and behavioral compliance during repeated diets in obese patients with type II diabetes . Health Psychol. 1991;10:378-383.Crossref 23. Kaplan GD, Miller KC, Anderson JW. Comparative weight loss in obese patients restarting a supplemented very-low-calorie diet . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:S290-S291. 24. Beeson V, Ray C, Coxon A, Kreitzman S. The myth of the yo-yo: consistent rate of weight loss on successive diets . Int J Obesity. 1989;13( (suppl) ): 135-139. 25. vanDale D, Saris WHM. Repetitive weight loss and weight regain: effects on weight reduction, resting metabolic rate, and lipolytic activity before and after exercise and/or diet treatment . Am J Clin Nutr. 1989;49:409-416. 26. Wadden TA, Bartlett S, Letizia KA, Foster GD, Stunkard AJ, Conill A. Relationship of dieting history to resting metabolic rate, body composition, eating behavior, and subsequent weight loss . Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;56:203S-208S. 27. Maxwell MH, Heber D. Weight cycling does not reduce the rate of weight loss on VLCD . Presented at the International Conference on Very-Low-Calorie Diets; August 20-22, 1990; Kyoto, Japan. 28. Archambault CM, Czyzewski D, Cordua y Cruz GD, Foreyt JP, Mariotto MJ. Effects of weight cycling in female rats . Physiol Behav. 1989;46: 417-421.Crossref 29. Wainwright PE, Simpson JR, Cameron R, et al. Effects of treadmill exercise on weight cycling in female mice . Physiol Behav. 1991;49:639-642.Crossref 30. Graham B, Chang S, Lin D, Yakubu F, Hill JO. Effect of weight cycling on susceptibility to dietary obesity . Am J Physiol. 1990;259:R1096-R1102. 31. Wheeler J, Martin R, Lin D, Yakubu F, Hill JO. Weight cycling in female rats subjected to varying meal patterns . Am J Physiol. 1990;258:R124-R129. 32. Gray DS, Fisler JS, Bray GA. Effects of repeated weight loss and regain on body composition in obese rats . Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;47:393-399. 33. Melby CL, Schmidt WD, Corrigan D. Resting metabolic rate in weight-cycling collegiate wrestlers compared with physically active, noncycling control subjects . Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;52:409-414. 34. McCargar LJ, Crawford SM. Metabolic and anthropometric changes with weight cycling in wrestlers . Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1992;24:1270-1275.Crossref 35. Schmidt WD, Corrigan D, Melby CL. Two seasons of weight cycling does not lower resting metabolic rate in college wrestlers . Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25:613-619.Crossref 36. Manore MM, Berry TE, Skinner JS, Carroll SS. Energy expenditure at rest and during exercise in nonobese female cyclical dieters and in non-dieting control subjects . Am J Clin Nutr. 1991; 54:41-46. 37. Jebb SA, Goldberg GR, Coward WA, Murgatroyd PR, Prentice AM. Effects of weight cycling caused by intermittent dieting on metabolic rate and body composition in obese women . Int J Obesity . 1991;15:367-374. 38. Foreyt JP, Brunner RL, St Jeor ST, Goodrick GK. Psychological correlates of weight fluctuation . Int J Eating Disorders . In press. 39. Kiernan M, Rodin J, Brownell KD, Wilmore JH, Crandall C. Relationship of level of exercise, age and weight cycling history to eating and weight disturbances in male and female runners . Health Psychol. 1992;11:418-421.Crossref 40. Spitzer RL, Devlin M, Walsh BT, et al. Binge eating disorder: a multisite field trial of diagnostic criteria . Int J Eating Disord. 1992;11:191-203.Crossref 41. Polivy J, Herman CP. Dieting and binging: a causal analysis . Am Psychol. 1985;40:193-201.Crossref 42. Striegel-Moore RH, Silberstein LR, Rodin J. Toward an understanding of risk factors for bulimia . Am Psychol. 1986;41:246-263.Crossref 43. Heatherton TF, Polivy J, Herman CP. Restraint, weight loss, and variability of body weight . J Abnorm Psychol. 1991;100:78-83.Crossref 44. Hamm P, Shekelle RB, Stamler J. Large fluctuations in body weight during young adulthood and 25-year risk of coronary heart disease in men . Am J Epidemiol. 1989;129:312-318. 45. Lee IM, Paffenbarger RS. Change in body weight and longevity . JAMA . 1992;268:2045-2049.Crossref 46. Lissner L, Bengtsson C, Lapidus L, Larrson B, Bengtsson B, Brownell KD. Body weight variability and mortality in the Gothenburg Prospective Studies on men and women . In: Bjorntorp P, Rossner S, eds. Obesity in Europe 88: Proceedings of the First European Congress on Obesity . London, England: Libbey; 1989:55-60. 47. Blair SN, Paffenbarger RS Jr. Influence of body weight and shape variation on incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lung disease and cancer . Presented at the Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention of the American Heart Association; March 16-19, 1994; Tampa, Fla. 48. Lissner L, Andres R, Muller DC, Shimokata H. Body weight variability in men: metabolic rate, health and longevity . Int J Obesity . 1989;14:373-383. 49. Stevens J, Lissner L. Body weight variability and mortality in the Charleston Heart Study . Int J Obesity. 1990;14:385-386. 50. Cutter G, St Jeor ST, Brunner R, Foreyt JP, Dyer A, Brownell KD. Methodological issues in weight cycling . Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine; March 11-14, 1993; San Francisco, Calif. 51. Brownell KD, Wadden TA. Etiology and treatment of obesity: understanding a serious, prevalent and refractory disorder . J Consult Clin Psychol. 1992;60:505-517.Crossref 52. Jeffery RW, Wing RR, French SA. Weight cycling and cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55:641-644. 53. Barlow CE, Kohl HW, Blair SN. Weight fluctuation and cardiovascular risk factors . Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991;23( (suppl) ):S53. 54. Hart KE, Figlerski RW, Broeder BS, Stalters C. Weight cycling: biopsychosocial correlates . Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine; March 16-18, 1989; San Francisco, Calif. 55. Ernsberger P, Nelson DO. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity . Am J Physiol. 1988;254: R47-R55. 56. Contreras RJ, Williams VL. Dietary obesity and weight cycling: effects on blood pressure and heart rate in rats . Am J Physiol. 1989;256:R1209-R1219. 57. Contreras RJ, King S. High fat/sucrose feeding attenuates the hypertension of spontaneously hypertensive rats . Physiol Behav. 1989;46:285-291.Crossref 58. Schotte DE, Cohen E, Singh SP. Effects of weight cycling on metabolic control in male outpatients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Health Psychol. 1990;9:599-605.Crossref 59. Holbrook TL, Barrett-Connor, Wingard DL. The association of lifetime weight and weight control patterns with diabetes among men and women in an adult community . Int J Obesity . 1989;13: 723-729. 60. Prentice AM, Jebb SA, Goldberg GR, et al. Effects of weight cycling on body composition . Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;56:S209-S216. 61. Bjorntorp P. Regional obesity . In: Bjorntorp P, Brodoff BN, eds. Obesity . Philadelphia, Pa: JB Lippincott; 1992:579-586. 62. Rodin J, Radke-Sharpe N, Rebuffe-Scrive M, Greenwood MRC. Weight cycling and fat distribution . Int J Obesity . 1990;14:303-310. 63. Reed RD, Contreras RJ, Maggio C, Greenwood MRC, Rodin J. Weight cycling in female rats increases dietary fat selection and adiposity . Physiol Behav. 1988;42:389-395.Crossref 64. Gerardo-Gettens T, Miller GD, Horwitz BA, et al. Exercise decreases fat selection in female rats during weight cycling . Am J Physiol. 1991;260: R518-R524. 65. Drewnowski A, Kurth CL, Rahaim JE. Taste preferences in human obesity: environmental and familial factors . Am J Clin Nutr. 1991;54:635-641. 66. Drewnowski A, Holden-Wiltse J. Taste responses and food preferences in obese women: effects of weight cycling . Int J Obesity . 1992; 16:639-648. 67. Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A, Mickelson O, Taylor HL. The Biology of Human Starvation . Minneapolis, Minn: University of Minnesota Press; 1950. 68. Rossner S. Pregnancy, weight cycling and weight gain in obesity . Int J Obesity . 1992;16:145-147. 69. Brownell KD, Rodin J. The dieting maelstrom: is it possible and advisable to lose weight? Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Behavioral Medicine; March 11-14, 1993; San Francisco, Calif.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 27, 1994

References