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Mechanisms of the Immediate Allergic Reaction and Some Therapeutic Implications

Mechanisms of the Immediate Allergic Reaction and Some Therapeutic Implications Abstract Allergic disease in children is still thought of by many pediatricians solely from a clinical standpoint. Therapy under such circumstances remains empiric. Present knowledge of the mechanisms of the immediate allergic reaction is admittedly imperfect. Sufficient has been learned, however, to give what seems to be a rational explanation of the reaction and so to give a logical basis for certain forms of treatment. Diagrammatic presentation usually makes a chain of events more easily understood. The schematic representation to be given here is a compilation of several which have been published previously together with some information not previously diagrammed.1-3 It is in accord with and extends the concept of Boyd.4a One should not view this diagram, however, as the complete and final explanation of the immediate allergic mechanism but rather, as MacKay5 pointed out a few years ago, as a template which we construct and then hold References 1. Trethewie, E. R.: Fundamental Aspects of Allergy , M. J. Australia 1:388-392 ( (March 13) ) 1954. 2. Raffel, S.: Immunity, Hypersensitivity, Serology , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1953, p. 231. 3. Mongar, J. L., and Schild, H. O.: Effect of Temperature on the Anaphylactic Reaction , J. Physiol. 135:320-338 ( (Feb. 15) ) 1957. 4. Boyd, W. C.: Fundamentals of Immunology , Ed. 3, New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1956, (a) p. 425; (b) p. 465. 5. MacKay, D. M.: On Comparing the Brain with Machines , Am. Scientist 42:261-268 ( (April) ) 1954. 6. Dienes, L.: Specific Immunity Response and Healing of Infectious Diseases: Significance of Active Immunity and Connections Between Immunity Response and Anatomic Lesions , Arch. Path. 21:357-386 ( (March) ) 1936. 7. Cannon, W. B.: The Wisdom of the Body , Ed. 2, Philadelphia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1939. 8. Richards, D. W.: Homeostasis Versus Hyperexis: Or Saint George and the Dragon , Scient. Month. 77:289-294 ( (Dec.) ) 1953. 9. Brown, E. A.: Food Processing and Allergy , Rev. Allergy & Applied Immunol. 11:307-345 ( (May) ) 1957. 10. Ratner, B., and Greenburgh, J. E.: Congenital Protein Hypersensitiveness: Protein Hypersensitiveness Transmitted from Allergic Mother to Child , J. Allergy 3:149-160 ( (Jan.) ) 1932. 11. Ortega, L. G., and Mellors, R. C.: Cellular Sites of Formation of Gamma Globulin , J. Exper. Med. 106:627-639 ( (Nov. 1) ) 1957. 12. Leduc, E. H.; Coons, A. H., and Connolly, J. M.: Studies on Antibody Formation: II. The Primary and Secondary Responses in the Popliteal Lymph Node of the Rabbit , J. Exper. Med. 102: 61-72 ( (July 1) ) 1955. 13. Fagraeus, A.: Antibody Production in Relation to the Development of Plasma Cells: In Vivo and in Vitro Experiments , Acta med. scandinav. , (Supp. 204) , pp. 1-122, 1948. 14. Janeway, C. A., and Gitlin, D.: The Gamma Globulins , in Advances in Pediatrics , Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1957, Vol. 9, pp. 65-136 15. Ehrich, W. E.: Role of Lymphocyte in Circulation of Lymph , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 46:823-857 ( (Sept. 16) ) 1946. 16. White, A., and Dougherty, T. F.: Role of Lymphocytes in Normal and Immune Globulin Production, and Mode of Release of Globulin from Lymphocytes , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 46:859-882 ( (Sept. 16) ) 1946. 17. Ehrich, W. E., and Harris, T. N.: Site of Antibody Formation , Science 101:28-31 ( (Jan. 12) ) 1945 18. McMaster, P. D.: Site of Antibody Formation, in Pappenheimer , A. M., Jr.: The Nature and Significance of the Antibody Response , New York, Columbia University Press, 1953, pp. 13-45. 19. Sherman, W. B.: Reaginic and Blocking Antibodies , J. Allergy 28:62-74 ( (Jan.) ) 1957. 20. Sehon, A. H.; Fyles, T. W., and Rose, B.: Electrophoretic Separation of Skin-Sensitizing Antibody from the Sera of Ragweed-Sensitive Patients , J. Allergy 26:329-339 ( (July) ) 1955. 21. Cann, J. R., and Loveless, M. H.: Biophysical Characterization of Reaginic and Blocking Sera , J. Allergy 28:379-391 ( (Sept.) ) 1957. 22. Campbell, D. H.; Cann, J. R.; Friedman, T. B., and Brown, R.: Relation of Allergy Reagins to Electrophoretic Components of Serum , Science 119:289-291 ( (Feb. 26) ) 1954. 23. Sehon, A. H.; Harter, J. G., and Rose, B.: The Localization of Skin-Sensitizing Antibody in the Sera of Ragweed-Sensitive Individuals by Electrophoresis , J. Exper. Med. 103:679-699 ( (May 1) ) 1956. 24. Sehon, A. H.; Hollinger, H. Z.; Harter, J. G.; Schweitzer, A. E., and Rose, B.: Localization of Blocking Antibody in Sera of Ragweed-Sensitive Individuals by Starch Electrophoresis , J. Allergy 28:229-237 ( (May) ) 1957. 25. Haurowitz, F.: Theories of Antibody Formation, in Pappenheimer , A. M., Jr.: The Nature and Significance of the Antibody Response , New York, Columbia University Press, 1953, pp. 3-12. 26. Alexander, J., quoted by Haurowitz,25 p. 4. 27. Mudd, S., quoted by Haurowitz,25 p. 4. 28. Pauling, L., quoted by Haurowitz,25 pp. 5, 9. 29. Burnet, M.: Enzyme Antigen and Virus : A Study of Macromolecular Pattern in Action , Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1956, Chap. 2. 30. Jerne, N. K.: The Natural-Selection Theory of Antibody Formation , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 41: 849-857 ( (Nov. 15) ) 1955. 31. Dale, H.: Histamine and Its Antagonists , J. Laryng. & Otol. 68:28-38 ( (Jan.) ) 1954. 32. Friedberger, E., quoted by Rocha e Silva,37 p. 225. 33. Friedemann, U., quoted by Rocha e Silva,37 p. 225. 34. Bordet, J., Quoted by Rocha e Silva,37 p. 226. 35. Dale, H. H.: Mechanism of Anaphylaxis , Acta allergol. 5:191-206, 1952. 36. Dale, H. H.: Progress in Autopharmacology: Survey of Present Knowledge of Chemical Regulation of Certain Functions by Natural Constituents of Tissues; Introduction; Action of Histamine, and Evidence Restricting Its Probable Significance; Evidence for Other Natural Vasodilators (Charles E. Dohme Memorial Lecture) , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 53:297-312 ( (Dec.) ) 1933. 37. Rocha e Silva, M.: Anaphylatoxin and Histamine Release , Quart. Rev. Allergy 8:220-238 ( (June) ) 1954. 38. Fulton, G. P.; Maynard, F. L.; Riley, J. F., and West, G. B.: Humoral Aspects of Tissue Mast Cells , Physiol. Rev. 37:221-232 ( (April) ) 1957. 39. Graham, H. T.; Wheelwright, F.; Parish, H. H., Jr., Marks, A. R., and Lowry, O. H.: Distribution of Histamine Among Blood Elements , Fed. Proc. 11:350 ( (March) ) 1952. 40. Valentine, W. N.; Lawrence, J. S.; Pearce, M. L., and Beck, W. S.: The Relationship of the Basophil to Blood Histamine in Man , Blood 10: 154-159 (Feb.) 1955. 41. Blaschko, H.: Remarks on the Location of Histamine in Mammalian Tissues , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 381-389. 42. Erspamer, V.: Pharmacology of Indolealkylamines , Pharmacol. Rev. 6:425-487 ( (Dec.) ) 1954. 43. Katz, G.: The Rôle of Blood Cells in the Anaphylactic Histamine Release , Abstracted, J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 72:22 ( (May) ) 1941. 44. Noah, J. W., and Brand, A.: Release of Histamine in Blood of Ragweed-Sensitive Individuals , J. Allergy 25:210-214 ( (May) ) 1954. 45. Michels, N. A.: The Mast Cells, in Downey, H.: Handbook of Hematology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 231-372. 46. Wislocki, G. B., and Dempsey, E. W.: Observations on the Chemical Cytology of Normal Blood and Hemopoietic Tissues , Anat. Rec. 96:249-275 ( (Nov.) ) 1946. 47. Staemmler, M.: Untersuchung über Vorkommen und Bedeutung der histiogenen Mastzellen im menschlichen Körper unter normalen und pathologischen Verhältnissen , Frankfurt. Ztschr. Path. 25:391-435, 1921. 48. Jorpes, J. E.: Heparin in the Treatment of Thrombosis: An Account of Its Chemistry, Physiology , and Application in Medicine , Ed. 2, New York, Oxford University Press, 1946, pp. 57-68. 49. Riley, J. F.: The Effects of Histamine-Liberators on Mast Cells of Rat , J. Path. & Bact. 65:471-479 ( (April) ) 1953. 50. Benditt, E. P.; Wond, R. L.; Arase, M., and Roeper, E.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Mast Cells , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 90:303-304 ( (Oct.) ) 1955. 51. West, G. B.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine, Tissue Mast Cells and Oedema , Acta allergol. 11:159-160, 1957. 52. Mongar, J. L., and Schild, H. O.: Inhibition of the Anaphylactic Reaction , J. Physiol. 135:301-319 ( (Feb. 15) ) 1957. 53. McIntire, F. C.: The Mechanism of Histamine Release , in Wolstenholme , G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale, Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 416-430. 54. Schild, H. O.; Hawkins, D. F.; Mongar, J. L., and Herxheimer, H.: Reactions of Isolated Human Asthmatic Lung and Bronchial Tissue to Specific Antigen: Histamine Release and Muscular Contraction , Lancet 2:376-382 ( (Sept. 1) ) 1951. 55. Jaques, L. B., and Waters, E. T.: The Identity and Origin of the Anticoagulant of Anaphylactic Shock in the Dog , J. Physiol. 99:454-466 ( (June) ) 1941. 56. Weissbach, H.; Waalkes, T. P., and Udenfriend, S.: Presence of Serotonin in Lung and Its Implication in the Anaphylactic Reaction , Science 125:235-236 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1957. 57. Wenner, W. F., and Buhrmester, C. C.: Potassium and Acetylcholine in the Blood of Rabbits in Anaphylactic Shock , J. Allergy 9:85-87 ( (Nov.) ) 1937. 58. Nakamura, K.: Allergy and Anaphylaxis , Tokyo, Japan, Department of Bacteriology, Nippon Medical School, 1954. 59. Brocklehurst, W. E.: A Slow Reacting Substance in Anaphylaxis—"SRS-A", in Wolsten-Holme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 175-179. 60. Fcldberg, W.: Distribution of Histamine in the Body , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 4-13. 61. West, G. B.: Histamine and Mast Cells , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 14-19. 62. Scroggie, A., and Jaques, L. B.: The Release of Histamine and Heparin by Antigen from the Isolated Perfused Liver of the Sensitized Dog , J. Immunol. 62:103-116 ( (May) ) 1949. 63. Goodman, L. S., and Gilman, A.: The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics: A Textbook of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics for Physicians and Medical Students , Ed. 2, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1955, (a) pp. 1500-1527; (b) pp. 505-540. 64. Parratt, J. R., and West, G. B.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine and the Anaphylactoid Reaction in the Rat , J. Physiol. 139:27-41 ( (Nov. 14) ) 1957. 65. Grant, R. T.; Pearson, R. S. B., and Comeau, W. J.: Observations on Urticaria Provoked by Emotion, by Exercise, and by Warming the Body , Clin. Sc. 2:253-272 ( (July) ) 1936. 66. Ratnoff, O. D.: Relation of Acetyl Choline to Anaphylactic Shock in Rabbits , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 40:471-473 ( (March) ) 1939. 67. Farber, S.; Pope, A., and Landsteiner, E., Jr.: Role of Acetylcholine in the Anaphylactic Process , Arch. Path. 37:275-278 ( (April) ) 1944. 68. Peters, G. A., and Silverman, J. J.: Role of Histamine and Acetylcholine in the Mechanism of Heat Allergy: Report of Studies on a Soldier , Arch. Int. Med. 77:526-543 ( (May) ) 1946. 69. Urbach, E., and Gottlieb, P. M.: Mechanism of Allergy , Ed. 2, New York, Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1946, pp. 36-51. 70. Kellaway, C. H., and Trethewie, E. R.: Liberation of Slow-Reacting Smooth Muscle-Stimulating Substance in Anaphylaxis , Quart. J. Exper. Physiol. 30:121-145 ( (April) ) 1940. 71. Sparrow, E. M., and Wilhelm, D. L.: Species Differences in Susceptibility to Capillary Permeability Factors: Histamine, 5-Hydroxytryptamine, and Compound 48/80 . J. Physiol. 137:51-65 ( (June 18) ) 1957. 72. Dunbar, H. F.: Emotions and Bodily Changes: A Survey of Literature on Psychosomatic Interrelationships , 1910-1953, Ed. 4, New York, Columbia University Press, 1954, Chap. 10, 1192 pp. 73. Speer, F.: Symposium on Pediatric Allergy: Allergic Tension-Fatigue Syndrome , Pediat. Clin. North America 1:1029-1037 ( (Nov.) ) 1954. 74. Dees, S. C.: Neurologic Allergy in Childhood , Pediat. Clin. North America 1:1017-1027 ( (Nov.) ) 1954. 75. Feldberg, W., and Kellaway, C. H.: Liberation of Histamine from the Perfused Lung by Snake Venoms , J. Physiol. 90:257-279 ( (Aug. 17) ) 1937. 76. Dale, H.: Antihistaminic Substances , Brit. M. J. 2:281-283 ( (Aug. 7) ) 1948. 77. Glaser, J.: Allergy in Childhood , Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1956, p. 290. 78. Halpern, B. N.: Physiopathological Mechanism of Paroxysmal Attacks of Asthma and Their Treatment with Drugs , in Van Ufford, W. J. Q.: The Therapy of Bronchial Asthma: Proceedings of the International Round Table Friendship Meeting of the Allergologists Held at Utrecht , Holland, in 1955, Leiden, Holland, H. E. Stenfert Kroese N. V., 1956, pp. 1-14. 79. Sollmann, T. H.: A Manual of Pharmacology , Ed. 8, Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, 1957, p. 502. 80. Feinberg, S. M.; Malkiel, S., and Feinberg, A. R.: The Antihistamines: Their Clinical Application , Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1950, p. 64. 81. Schild, H. O.: Histamine Release and Anaphylaxis , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, 1956, pp. 139-149. 82. Dougherty, T. F.: The Mechanisms of Action of Adrenocortical Hormones in Allergy , Progr. Allergy 4:319-360, 1954. 83. Dixon, F. J.: The Metabolism of Antigen and Antibody , J. Allergy 25:487-503 ( (Nov.) ) 1954. 84. Dews, P. B., and Code, C. F.: Anaphylactic Reactions and Concentrations of Antibody in Rats and Rabbits: Effect of Adrenalectomy and of Administration of Cortisone , J. Immunol. 70:199-206 ( (March) ) 1953. 85. McMaster, P. D., and Edwards, J. L.: Behavior of 2 Protein Antigens in Mice During Inhibition of Antibody Formation by Cortisone , Science 125:749 ( (April 19) ) 1957. 86. Schayer, R. W.: The Origin and Fate of Histamine in the Body , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 183-188. 87. Halpern, B. N.: Histamine Release by Long Chain Molecules , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W. and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 92-123. 88. Holman, J., and Goth, A.: Histamine Release in the Human Skin and the Effect of Cortisone , Fed. Proc. 11:358 ( (March) ) 1952. 89. Mitchell, R. G.; Logan, G. B.; Peters, G. A., and Henderson, L. L.: Urinary Excretion of Histamine in Patients Having Asthma and Hay Fever: Observations on Changes Produced by Administration of Cortisone , J. Allergy 25:504-510 ( (Nov.) ) 1954. 90. Mitchell, R. G., and Code, C. F.: Urinary Excretion of Histamine After Administration of Cortisone , J. Clin. Endocrinol. 14:707-710 ( (July) ) 1954. 91. Cooke, R. A.; Barnard, J. H.; Hebald, S., and Stull, A.: Serological Evidence of Immunity with Coexisting Sensitization in Type of Human Allergy (Hay Fever) , J. Exper. Med. 62:733-750 ( (Dec.) ) 1935. 92. Loveless, M. H., quoted by Sherman.19 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Mechanisms of the Immediate Allergic Reaction and Some Therapeutic Implications

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1959 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0096-6916
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10.1001/archpedi.1959.02070010165003
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Abstract

Abstract Allergic disease in children is still thought of by many pediatricians solely from a clinical standpoint. Therapy under such circumstances remains empiric. Present knowledge of the mechanisms of the immediate allergic reaction is admittedly imperfect. Sufficient has been learned, however, to give what seems to be a rational explanation of the reaction and so to give a logical basis for certain forms of treatment. Diagrammatic presentation usually makes a chain of events more easily understood. The schematic representation to be given here is a compilation of several which have been published previously together with some information not previously diagrammed.1-3 It is in accord with and extends the concept of Boyd.4a One should not view this diagram, however, as the complete and final explanation of the immediate allergic mechanism but rather, as MacKay5 pointed out a few years ago, as a template which we construct and then hold References 1. Trethewie, E. R.: Fundamental Aspects of Allergy , M. J. Australia 1:388-392 ( (March 13) ) 1954. 2. Raffel, S.: Immunity, Hypersensitivity, Serology , New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1953, p. 231. 3. Mongar, J. L., and Schild, H. O.: Effect of Temperature on the Anaphylactic Reaction , J. Physiol. 135:320-338 ( (Feb. 15) ) 1957. 4. Boyd, W. C.: Fundamentals of Immunology , Ed. 3, New York, Interscience Publishers, Inc., 1956, (a) p. 425; (b) p. 465. 5. MacKay, D. M.: On Comparing the Brain with Machines , Am. Scientist 42:261-268 ( (April) ) 1954. 6. Dienes, L.: Specific Immunity Response and Healing of Infectious Diseases: Significance of Active Immunity and Connections Between Immunity Response and Anatomic Lesions , Arch. Path. 21:357-386 ( (March) ) 1936. 7. Cannon, W. B.: The Wisdom of the Body , Ed. 2, Philadelphia, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1939. 8. Richards, D. W.: Homeostasis Versus Hyperexis: Or Saint George and the Dragon , Scient. Month. 77:289-294 ( (Dec.) ) 1953. 9. Brown, E. A.: Food Processing and Allergy , Rev. Allergy & Applied Immunol. 11:307-345 ( (May) ) 1957. 10. Ratner, B., and Greenburgh, J. E.: Congenital Protein Hypersensitiveness: Protein Hypersensitiveness Transmitted from Allergic Mother to Child , J. Allergy 3:149-160 ( (Jan.) ) 1932. 11. Ortega, L. G., and Mellors, R. C.: Cellular Sites of Formation of Gamma Globulin , J. Exper. Med. 106:627-639 ( (Nov. 1) ) 1957. 12. Leduc, E. H.; Coons, A. H., and Connolly, J. M.: Studies on Antibody Formation: II. The Primary and Secondary Responses in the Popliteal Lymph Node of the Rabbit , J. Exper. Med. 102: 61-72 ( (July 1) ) 1955. 13. Fagraeus, A.: Antibody Production in Relation to the Development of Plasma Cells: In Vivo and in Vitro Experiments , Acta med. scandinav. , (Supp. 204) , pp. 1-122, 1948. 14. Janeway, C. A., and Gitlin, D.: The Gamma Globulins , in Advances in Pediatrics , Chicago, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., 1957, Vol. 9, pp. 65-136 15. Ehrich, W. E.: Role of Lymphocyte in Circulation of Lymph , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 46:823-857 ( (Sept. 16) ) 1946. 16. White, A., and Dougherty, T. F.: Role of Lymphocytes in Normal and Immune Globulin Production, and Mode of Release of Globulin from Lymphocytes , Ann. New York Acad. Sc. 46:859-882 ( (Sept. 16) ) 1946. 17. Ehrich, W. E., and Harris, T. N.: Site of Antibody Formation , Science 101:28-31 ( (Jan. 12) ) 1945 18. McMaster, P. D.: Site of Antibody Formation, in Pappenheimer , A. M., Jr.: The Nature and Significance of the Antibody Response , New York, Columbia University Press, 1953, pp. 13-45. 19. Sherman, W. B.: Reaginic and Blocking Antibodies , J. Allergy 28:62-74 ( (Jan.) ) 1957. 20. Sehon, A. H.; Fyles, T. W., and Rose, B.: Electrophoretic Separation of Skin-Sensitizing Antibody from the Sera of Ragweed-Sensitive Patients , J. Allergy 26:329-339 ( (July) ) 1955. 21. Cann, J. R., and Loveless, M. H.: Biophysical Characterization of Reaginic and Blocking Sera , J. Allergy 28:379-391 ( (Sept.) ) 1957. 22. Campbell, D. H.; Cann, J. R.; Friedman, T. B., and Brown, R.: Relation of Allergy Reagins to Electrophoretic Components of Serum , Science 119:289-291 ( (Feb. 26) ) 1954. 23. Sehon, A. H.; Harter, J. G., and Rose, B.: The Localization of Skin-Sensitizing Antibody in the Sera of Ragweed-Sensitive Individuals by Electrophoresis , J. Exper. Med. 103:679-699 ( (May 1) ) 1956. 24. Sehon, A. H.; Hollinger, H. Z.; Harter, J. G.; Schweitzer, A. E., and Rose, B.: Localization of Blocking Antibody in Sera of Ragweed-Sensitive Individuals by Starch Electrophoresis , J. Allergy 28:229-237 ( (May) ) 1957. 25. Haurowitz, F.: Theories of Antibody Formation, in Pappenheimer , A. M., Jr.: The Nature and Significance of the Antibody Response , New York, Columbia University Press, 1953, pp. 3-12. 26. Alexander, J., quoted by Haurowitz,25 p. 4. 27. Mudd, S., quoted by Haurowitz,25 p. 4. 28. Pauling, L., quoted by Haurowitz,25 pp. 5, 9. 29. Burnet, M.: Enzyme Antigen and Virus : A Study of Macromolecular Pattern in Action , Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, 1956, Chap. 2. 30. Jerne, N. K.: The Natural-Selection Theory of Antibody Formation , Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc. 41: 849-857 ( (Nov. 15) ) 1955. 31. Dale, H.: Histamine and Its Antagonists , J. Laryng. & Otol. 68:28-38 ( (Jan.) ) 1954. 32. Friedberger, E., quoted by Rocha e Silva,37 p. 225. 33. Friedemann, U., quoted by Rocha e Silva,37 p. 225. 34. Bordet, J., Quoted by Rocha e Silva,37 p. 226. 35. Dale, H. H.: Mechanism of Anaphylaxis , Acta allergol. 5:191-206, 1952. 36. Dale, H. H.: Progress in Autopharmacology: Survey of Present Knowledge of Chemical Regulation of Certain Functions by Natural Constituents of Tissues; Introduction; Action of Histamine, and Evidence Restricting Its Probable Significance; Evidence for Other Natural Vasodilators (Charles E. Dohme Memorial Lecture) , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 53:297-312 ( (Dec.) ) 1933. 37. Rocha e Silva, M.: Anaphylatoxin and Histamine Release , Quart. Rev. Allergy 8:220-238 ( (June) ) 1954. 38. Fulton, G. P.; Maynard, F. L.; Riley, J. F., and West, G. B.: Humoral Aspects of Tissue Mast Cells , Physiol. Rev. 37:221-232 ( (April) ) 1957. 39. Graham, H. T.; Wheelwright, F.; Parish, H. H., Jr., Marks, A. R., and Lowry, O. H.: Distribution of Histamine Among Blood Elements , Fed. Proc. 11:350 ( (March) ) 1952. 40. Valentine, W. N.; Lawrence, J. S.; Pearce, M. L., and Beck, W. S.: The Relationship of the Basophil to Blood Histamine in Man , Blood 10: 154-159 (Feb.) 1955. 41. Blaschko, H.: Remarks on the Location of Histamine in Mammalian Tissues , in Wolstenholme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale , Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 381-389. 42. Erspamer, V.: Pharmacology of Indolealkylamines , Pharmacol. Rev. 6:425-487 ( (Dec.) ) 1954. 43. Katz, G.: The Rôle of Blood Cells in the Anaphylactic Histamine Release , Abstracted, J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap. 72:22 ( (May) ) 1941. 44. Noah, J. W., and Brand, A.: Release of Histamine in Blood of Ragweed-Sensitive Individuals , J. Allergy 25:210-214 ( (May) ) 1954. 45. Michels, N. A.: The Mast Cells, in Downey, H.: Handbook of Hematology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1938, Vol. 1, pp. 231-372. 46. Wislocki, G. B., and Dempsey, E. W.: Observations on the Chemical Cytology of Normal Blood and Hemopoietic Tissues , Anat. Rec. 96:249-275 ( (Nov.) ) 1946. 47. Staemmler, M.: Untersuchung über Vorkommen und Bedeutung der histiogenen Mastzellen im menschlichen Körper unter normalen und pathologischen Verhältnissen , Frankfurt. Ztschr. Path. 25:391-435, 1921. 48. Jorpes, J. E.: Heparin in the Treatment of Thrombosis: An Account of Its Chemistry, Physiology , and Application in Medicine , Ed. 2, New York, Oxford University Press, 1946, pp. 57-68. 49. Riley, J. F.: The Effects of Histamine-Liberators on Mast Cells of Rat , J. Path. & Bact. 65:471-479 ( (April) ) 1953. 50. Benditt, E. P.; Wond, R. L.; Arase, M., and Roeper, E.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Mast Cells , Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 90:303-304 ( (Oct.) ) 1955. 51. West, G. B.: 5-Hydroxytryptamine, Tissue Mast Cells and Oedema , Acta allergol. 11:159-160, 1957. 52. Mongar, J. L., and Schild, H. O.: Inhibition of the Anaphylactic Reaction , J. Physiol. 135:301-319 ( (Feb. 15) ) 1957. 53. McIntire, F. C.: The Mechanism of Histamine Release , in Wolstenholme , G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. M.: Ciba Foundation Symposium: Jointly with the Physiological Society and the British Pharmacological Society on Histamine in Honour of Sir Henry Dale, Boston, Little, Brown & Company, 1956, pp. 416-430. 54. Schild, H. O.; Hawkins, D. F.; Mongar, J. L., and Herxheimer, H.: Reactions of Isolated Human Asthmatic Lung and Bronchial Tissue to Specific Antigen: Histamine Release and Muscular Contraction , Lancet 2:376-382 ( (Sept. 1) ) 1951. 55. Jaques, L. B., and Waters, E. T.: The Identity and Origin of the Anticoagulant of Anaphylactic Shock in the Dog , J. Physiol. 99:454-466 ( (June) ) 1941. 56. Weissbach, H.; Waalkes, T. P., and Udenfriend, S.: Presence of Serotonin in Lung and Its Implication in the Anaphylactic Reaction , Science 125:235-236 ( (Feb. 8) ) 1957. 57. Wenner, W. F., and Buhrmester, C. C.: Potassium and Acetylcholine in the Blood of Rabbits in Anaphylactic Shock , J. Allergy 9:85-87 ( (Nov.) ) 1937. 58. Nakamura, K.: Allergy and Anaphylaxis , Tokyo, Japan, Department of Bacteriology, Nippon Medical School, 1954. 59. Brocklehurst, W. E.: A Slow Reacting Substance in Anaphylaxis—"SRS-A", in Wolsten-Holme, G. E. W., and O'Connor, C. 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Journal

A.M.A. Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Feb 1, 1959

References