Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

MECHANISMS OF THE CONTRACTION AND EVACUATION OF THE GALLBLADDER

MECHANISMS OF THE CONTRACTION AND EVACUATION OF THE GALLBLADDER Abstract The factors concerned in the contraction and evacuation of the gallbladder have been greatly clarified by Ivy and his collaborators,1 who have shown that the introduction of acid or of digested fat into the duodenum liberates a hormone, named by them "cholecystokinin," which causes an active contraction of the viscus. Their work indicates that this liberation of cholecystokinin is one of the principal mechanisms by which evacuation of the gallbladder is effected. In view of their reports, an evaluation of other possible mechanisms is of importance. REFLEX AND DIRECT STIMULATION OF THE EXTRINSIC NERVES The literature on the extrinsic nerves of the gallbladder was reviewed in 1924 by Mann,2 who was led to conclude that the vagus is mainly motor and the splanchnic mainly inhibitory. Experimental work up to this time had been largely concerned with stimulation of the nerves under anesthesia and by means of drugs, but References 1. Ivy, A. C., and Oldberg, E.: Am. J. Physiol. 86:599, 1928. 2. Lueth, H. C.; Ivy, A. C., and Kloster, G.: Am. J. Physiol. 91:329, 1929. 3. Ivy, A. C.: Proc. Internat. Assemb. Inter-State Post-Grad. M. A., North America (1929) 5:378, 1930. 4. Mann, F. C.: Physiol. Rev. 4:251, 1924. 5. Whitaker, L. R.: Am. J. Physiol. 78:411, 1926. 6. Copher and Kodama: Unpublished 7. Graham et al (footnote 14). 8. Boyden, E. A.: Anat. Rec. 33:201, 1926.Crossref 9. Burget, G. E.: Am. J. Physiol. 81:422, 1927. 10. Birch, C. L., and Boyden, E. A.: Am. J. Physiol. 92:301, 1930. 11. Sosman, M. C.; Whitaker, L. R., and Edson, P. J.: Am. J. Roentgenol. 14:495, 1925. 12. Whitaker, L. R.: The Mechanism of the Gallbladder and Its Relation to Cholelithiasis , J. A. M. A. 88:1542 ( (May 14) ) 1927.Crossref 13. Krause, W. F., and Whitaker, L. R.: Am. J. Physiol. 87:172, 1928. 14. Boyden, E. A., and Birch, C. L.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 24:827, 1927. 15. Boyden, E. A.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 25:99, 1927. 16. Elman, R., and McMaster, P. D.: J. Exper. Med. 44:151, 1926. 17. The results of these experiments on human beings, as well as all the other human experiments, are reported by the courtesy of Dr. James T. Case, Professor of Roentgenology, Northwestern University Medical School, under whose auspices they were performed, and of Dr. E. R. Crowder, Fellow in Roentgenology, who assisted in the human experiments. 18. Graham, E. A.; Cole, W. H.; Copher, G. H., and Moore, S.: Diseases of the Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts , Philadelphia. Lea & Febiger, 1928. 19. Case, J. T.: Evaluation of Cholecystography , J. A. M. A. 92:291 ( (Jan. 26) ) 1929. 20. Lueth, H. C.: Unpublished work. 21. Drewyer, G. E., and Ivy, A. C.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 27:186, 1929. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

MECHANISMS OF THE CONTRACTION AND EVACUATION OF THE GALLBLADDER

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 48 (6) – Dec 1, 1931

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/mechanisms-of-the-contraction-and-evacuation-of-the-gallbladder-QeTSd2oyUs
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1931 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0730-188X
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1931.00150070155012
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The factors concerned in the contraction and evacuation of the gallbladder have been greatly clarified by Ivy and his collaborators,1 who have shown that the introduction of acid or of digested fat into the duodenum liberates a hormone, named by them "cholecystokinin," which causes an active contraction of the viscus. Their work indicates that this liberation of cholecystokinin is one of the principal mechanisms by which evacuation of the gallbladder is effected. In view of their reports, an evaluation of other possible mechanisms is of importance. REFLEX AND DIRECT STIMULATION OF THE EXTRINSIC NERVES The literature on the extrinsic nerves of the gallbladder was reviewed in 1924 by Mann,2 who was led to conclude that the vagus is mainly motor and the splanchnic mainly inhibitory. Experimental work up to this time had been largely concerned with stimulation of the nerves under anesthesia and by means of drugs, but References 1. Ivy, A. C., and Oldberg, E.: Am. J. Physiol. 86:599, 1928. 2. Lueth, H. C.; Ivy, A. C., and Kloster, G.: Am. J. Physiol. 91:329, 1929. 3. Ivy, A. C.: Proc. Internat. Assemb. Inter-State Post-Grad. M. A., North America (1929) 5:378, 1930. 4. Mann, F. C.: Physiol. Rev. 4:251, 1924. 5. Whitaker, L. R.: Am. J. Physiol. 78:411, 1926. 6. Copher and Kodama: Unpublished 7. Graham et al (footnote 14). 8. Boyden, E. A.: Anat. Rec. 33:201, 1926.Crossref 9. Burget, G. E.: Am. J. Physiol. 81:422, 1927. 10. Birch, C. L., and Boyden, E. A.: Am. J. Physiol. 92:301, 1930. 11. Sosman, M. C.; Whitaker, L. R., and Edson, P. J.: Am. J. Roentgenol. 14:495, 1925. 12. Whitaker, L. R.: The Mechanism of the Gallbladder and Its Relation to Cholelithiasis , J. A. M. A. 88:1542 ( (May 14) ) 1927.Crossref 13. Krause, W. F., and Whitaker, L. R.: Am. J. Physiol. 87:172, 1928. 14. Boyden, E. A., and Birch, C. L.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 24:827, 1927. 15. Boyden, E. A.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 25:99, 1927. 16. Elman, R., and McMaster, P. D.: J. Exper. Med. 44:151, 1926. 17. The results of these experiments on human beings, as well as all the other human experiments, are reported by the courtesy of Dr. James T. Case, Professor of Roentgenology, Northwestern University Medical School, under whose auspices they were performed, and of Dr. E. R. Crowder, Fellow in Roentgenology, who assisted in the human experiments. 18. Graham, E. A.; Cole, W. H.; Copher, G. H., and Moore, S.: Diseases of the Gall Bladder and Bile Ducts , Philadelphia. Lea & Febiger, 1928. 19. Case, J. T.: Evaluation of Cholecystography , J. A. M. A. 92:291 ( (Jan. 26) ) 1929. 20. Lueth, H. C.: Unpublished work. 21. Drewyer, G. E., and Ivy, A. C.: Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 27:186, 1929.

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1931

References