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Measurement of Preretinal Oxygen Tension in the Vitrectomized Human Eye Using Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Measurement of Preretinal Oxygen Tension in the Vitrectomized Human Eye Using Fluorine-19... Abstract • We obtained oxygen measurements from a human eye that contained small preretinal droplets of perfluorotributylamine (FTBA) by using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These droplets were the remainder of a larger volume of FTBA that was used as an intraoperative retinal tamponade during retinal detachment repair. The spin-lattice relaxation rate ([T1]-1) of the FTBA fluorine nuclide was obtained that could then be related, by direct proportionality, to droplet Po2. With the patient in a supine position, the droplets could be positioned over the macula in the preretinal vitreous space, whereon the FTBA Po2 could be influenced by the preretinal oxygen concentration. Preretinal Po2 values, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were in the range of 6 to 9 mm Hg, although multiple components were identified that were suggestive of a heterogeneous distribution of Po2 values in the population of droplets. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to performing long-term, noninvasive preretinal oxygen measurements in the vitrectomized human eye by using small droplets of a liquid perfluorochemical. References 1. Wise GN. Retinal neovascularization . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1956;54:729-826. 2. Stefánsson E, Novack RL, Hatchell DL. Vitrectomy prevents retinal hypoxia in branch retinal vein occlusion . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:284-289. 3. Pournaras CJ, Tsacopoulos M, Strommer K, Gilodi N, Leuenberger PM. Experimental retinal branch vein occlusion in miniature pigs induces local tissue hypoxia and vasoproliferative microangiopathy . Ophthalmology . 1990;97:1321-1328.Crossref 4. Sakaue H, Negi A, Honda Y. Comparative study of vitreous oxygen tension in human and rabbit eyes . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1933-1937. 5. Stefánsson E, Machemer R, de Juan E Jr, McCuen BW II, Peterson J. Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1992;113( (ARVO suppl) ): 36-38. 6. Tano Y, Maeda N, Manabe R. Intraocular oxygen tension in proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or without vitreous . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1225. 7. Linsenmeier RA, Goldstick TK, Blum RS, Enroth-Cugell C. Estimation of retinal oxygen transients from measurements made in the vitreous humor . Exp Eye Res . 1981;32:369-379.Crossref 8. Parhami P, Fung BM. Fluorine-19 relaxation study of perfluorochemicals as oxygen carriers . J Phys Chem . 1983;87:1928-1931.Crossref 9. Clark LC Jr, Ackerman JL, Thomas SR, et al. Perfluorinated organic liquids and emulsions as biocompatible NMR imaging agents for 19F and dissolved oxygen . Adv Exp Med Biol . 1984;180:835-845. 10. Thomas SR, Clark LC Jr., Ackerman JL, et al. MR imaging of the lung using liquid perfluorocarbons . J Comput Assist Tomogr . 1986;10:1-9.Crossref 11. Fishman JE, Joseph PM, Floyd TF, Mukherji B, Sloviter HA. Oxygen-sensitive 19-F NMR imaging of the vascular system in vivo . Magn Reson Imaging . 1987;5:279-285.Crossref 12. Eidelberg D, Johnson G, Barnes D, et al. 19-F NMR imaging of blood oxygenation in the brain . Magn Reson Med . 1988;6:344-352.Crossref 13. Mason RP, Nunnally RL, Antich PP. Tissue oxygenation: a novel determination using 19-F surface coil NMR spectroscopy of sequestered perfluorocarbon emulsion . Magn Reson Med . 1991;18:71-79.Crossref 14. Wilson CA, Berkowitz BA, Hatchell DL. Localized steady-state oxygen measurements from the preretinal space of the rabbit eye using 19F NMR . NMR Biomed . 1991;4:157-159.Crossref 15. Wilson CA, Berkowitz BA, Hatchell DL. Oxygen kinetics in preretinal perfluorotributylamine. Exp Eye Res. In press. 16. Chang S, Lincoff H, Zimmerman NJ, Fuchs W. Giant retinal tears: surgical techniques and results using perfluorocarbon liquids . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:761-766.Crossref 17. McFarland E, Koutcher JA, Rosen BR, Teicher B, Brady TJ. In vivo 19-F NMR imaging . J Comput Assist Tomogr . 1985;9:8-15.Crossref 18. Berkowitz BA, Wilson CA, Hatchell DL, London RE. Quantitative determination of the partial oxygen pressure in the vitrectomized rabbit eye in vivo using 19F NMR . Magn Reson Med . 1991;21:233-241.Crossref 19. (Publisher's Erratum. Magn Reson Med . 1991;22:512-513.)Crossref 20. Berkowitz BA, Wilson CA, Hatchell DL. Oxygen kinetics in the vitreous substitute perfluorotributylamine: a 19F NMR study in vivo . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2382-2387. 21. Chang S, Sparrow JR, Iwamoto T, Gershbein A, Ross R, Ortiz R. Experimental studies of tolerance to intravitreal perfluoro-n-octane liquid . Retina . 1991;11:367-374.Crossref 22. Peyman GA, Conway MD, Soike KF, Clark LC Jr. Long-term vitreous replacement with intravitreal Vitreon or Vitreon plus silicone . Ophthalmic Surg . 1991;22:657-664. 23. Eckardt C, Nicolai U, Winter M, Knop E. Experimental intraocular tolerance to liquid perfluorooctane and perfluoropolyether . Retina . 1991;11:375-384.Crossref 24. Chang S, Zimmerman NJ, Iwamoto T, Ortiz R, Faris D. Experimental vitreous replacement with perfluorotributylamine . Am J Ophthalmol . 1987;103:29-37. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

Measurement of Preretinal Oxygen Tension in the Vitrectomized Human Eye Using Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1992.01080200078028
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract • We obtained oxygen measurements from a human eye that contained small preretinal droplets of perfluorotributylamine (FTBA) by using fluorine-19 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These droplets were the remainder of a larger volume of FTBA that was used as an intraoperative retinal tamponade during retinal detachment repair. The spin-lattice relaxation rate ([T1]-1) of the FTBA fluorine nuclide was obtained that could then be related, by direct proportionality, to droplet Po2. With the patient in a supine position, the droplets could be positioned over the macula in the preretinal vitreous space, whereon the FTBA Po2 could be influenced by the preretinal oxygen concentration. Preretinal Po2 values, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were in the range of 6 to 9 mm Hg, although multiple components were identified that were suggestive of a heterogeneous distribution of Po2 values in the population of droplets. To our knowledge, this investigation is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach to performing long-term, noninvasive preretinal oxygen measurements in the vitrectomized human eye by using small droplets of a liquid perfluorochemical. References 1. Wise GN. Retinal neovascularization . Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc . 1956;54:729-826. 2. Stefánsson E, Novack RL, Hatchell DL. Vitrectomy prevents retinal hypoxia in branch retinal vein occlusion . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1990;31:284-289. 3. Pournaras CJ, Tsacopoulos M, Strommer K, Gilodi N, Leuenberger PM. Experimental retinal branch vein occlusion in miniature pigs induces local tissue hypoxia and vasoproliferative microangiopathy . Ophthalmology . 1990;97:1321-1328.Crossref 4. Sakaue H, Negi A, Honda Y. Comparative study of vitreous oxygen tension in human and rabbit eyes . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1989;30:1933-1937. 5. Stefánsson E, Machemer R, de Juan E Jr, McCuen BW II, Peterson J. Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy . Am J Ophthalmol . 1992;113( (ARVO suppl) ): 36-38. 6. Tano Y, Maeda N, Manabe R. Intraocular oxygen tension in proliferative diabetic retinopathy with or without vitreous . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32( (ARVO suppl) ):1225. 7. Linsenmeier RA, Goldstick TK, Blum RS, Enroth-Cugell C. Estimation of retinal oxygen transients from measurements made in the vitreous humor . Exp Eye Res . 1981;32:369-379.Crossref 8. Parhami P, Fung BM. Fluorine-19 relaxation study of perfluorochemicals as oxygen carriers . J Phys Chem . 1983;87:1928-1931.Crossref 9. Clark LC Jr, Ackerman JL, Thomas SR, et al. Perfluorinated organic liquids and emulsions as biocompatible NMR imaging agents for 19F and dissolved oxygen . Adv Exp Med Biol . 1984;180:835-845. 10. Thomas SR, Clark LC Jr., Ackerman JL, et al. MR imaging of the lung using liquid perfluorocarbons . J Comput Assist Tomogr . 1986;10:1-9.Crossref 11. Fishman JE, Joseph PM, Floyd TF, Mukherji B, Sloviter HA. Oxygen-sensitive 19-F NMR imaging of the vascular system in vivo . Magn Reson Imaging . 1987;5:279-285.Crossref 12. Eidelberg D, Johnson G, Barnes D, et al. 19-F NMR imaging of blood oxygenation in the brain . Magn Reson Med . 1988;6:344-352.Crossref 13. Mason RP, Nunnally RL, Antich PP. Tissue oxygenation: a novel determination using 19-F surface coil NMR spectroscopy of sequestered perfluorocarbon emulsion . Magn Reson Med . 1991;18:71-79.Crossref 14. Wilson CA, Berkowitz BA, Hatchell DL. Localized steady-state oxygen measurements from the preretinal space of the rabbit eye using 19F NMR . NMR Biomed . 1991;4:157-159.Crossref 15. Wilson CA, Berkowitz BA, Hatchell DL. Oxygen kinetics in preretinal perfluorotributylamine. Exp Eye Res. In press. 16. Chang S, Lincoff H, Zimmerman NJ, Fuchs W. Giant retinal tears: surgical techniques and results using perfluorocarbon liquids . Arch Ophthalmol . 1989;107:761-766.Crossref 17. McFarland E, Koutcher JA, Rosen BR, Teicher B, Brady TJ. In vivo 19-F NMR imaging . J Comput Assist Tomogr . 1985;9:8-15.Crossref 18. Berkowitz BA, Wilson CA, Hatchell DL, London RE. Quantitative determination of the partial oxygen pressure in the vitrectomized rabbit eye in vivo using 19F NMR . Magn Reson Med . 1991;21:233-241.Crossref 19. (Publisher's Erratum. Magn Reson Med . 1991;22:512-513.)Crossref 20. Berkowitz BA, Wilson CA, Hatchell DL. Oxygen kinetics in the vitreous substitute perfluorotributylamine: a 19F NMR study in vivo . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1991;32:2382-2387. 21. Chang S, Sparrow JR, Iwamoto T, Gershbein A, Ross R, Ortiz R. Experimental studies of tolerance to intravitreal perfluoro-n-octane liquid . Retina . 1991;11:367-374.Crossref 22. Peyman GA, Conway MD, Soike KF, Clark LC Jr. Long-term vitreous replacement with intravitreal Vitreon or Vitreon plus silicone . Ophthalmic Surg . 1991;22:657-664. 23. Eckardt C, Nicolai U, Winter M, Knop E. Experimental intraocular tolerance to liquid perfluorooctane and perfluoropolyether . Retina . 1991;11:375-384.Crossref 24. Chang S, Zimmerman NJ, Iwamoto T, Ortiz R, Faris D. Experimental vitreous replacement with perfluorotributylamine . Am J Ophthalmol . 1987;103:29-37.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1992

References