Abstract Of the estimated total of 609,000 new patients with diabetes mellitus each year, only 19,000 (3%) will have the insulin-dependent type.1 Prevalence data would suggest that only 5% to 10% of all diabetics have type I diabetes; the majority of these patients have the onset of disease when they are children or adolescents. Insulin-dependent diabetes is rare in the newborn but increases in frequency after 9 months of age.1 The majority of studies have shown young childhood (4 to 5 years of age) and preadolescence (10 to 14 years of age) to be the most common ages at onset. However, several studies have noted smaller peaks of increased incidence in children younger than 5 years of age.2-5 The number of such children with insulin-dependent diabetes may be increasing. In 1959, Imerslund6 reported a prevalence of 0.3% for children less than 3 years of age. In 1984, References 1. Herman WH, Sinnock P, Brenner E, et al: An epidemiologic model for diabetes mellitus . Diabetes Care 1984;7:367-371.Crossref 2. Bloom A, Hayes TM, Gamble DR: Register of newly diagnosed diabetic children . Br Med J 1975;3:580-583.Crossref 3. Dahlquist G, Gustaveson KH, Holmgren G, et al: The incidence of diabetes mellitus in Swedish children 0-14 years of age: Operative study 1977-1980 . Acta Paediatr Scand 1982;71:7-14.Crossref 4. Durruty P, Ruiz F, Garcia de los Rios M: Age at diagnosis and seasonal variation in the onset of insulin-dependent diabetes in Chile . Diabetologia 1979;17:357-360.Crossref 5. Patterson CC, Thorogood M, Smith PG, et al: Epidemiology of type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes in Scotland 1968-1976: Evidence of an increasing incidence . Diabetologia 1983;24: 238-243.Crossref 6. Imerslund O: The prognosis in diabetes with onset before age two . Acta Paediatr 1959;49: 243-248.Crossref 7. Jackson RL: Growth and maturation of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . Pediatr Clin North Am 1984;31:545-567. 8. Brouhard BH: Control and monitoring for the child with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus . AJDC 1983;137:787-794. 9. Brouhard BH, Travis LB: Diabetes mellitus in childhood and adolescence , in Conn HC (ed): Current Therapy . Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co, 1982, pp 425-432. 10. Tamborlane WV, Sherwin RS: Diabetes control and complications: New strategies and insights . J Pediatr 1983;102:805-813.Crossref 11. Miller LV, Goldstein J: More efficient care of diabetic patients in a county hospital setting . N Engl J Med 1972;286:1388-1391.Crossref 12. Geller J, Buther K: Study of educational deficits as the cause of hospital admissions for diabetes mellitus in a community hospital . Diabetes Care 1981;4:487-489.Crossref 13. Golden MP, Russell BP, Ingersoll GM, et al: Management of diabetes mellitus in children younger than 5 years of age . AJDC 1985; 139:448-452. 14. Ahlsen P, Danowski TS, Rosenblum DH, et al: Discrepancies between glycosuria and home estimates of blood glucose in insulin treated diabetes mellitus . Diabetes Care 1980;3:178-183.Crossref 15. Mann NP, Noronha JL, Johnston DI: A prospective study to evaluate the benefits of long-term self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetic children . Diabetes Care 1984;7:322-326.Crossref 16. Malone JI, Grizzard S, Espinoza LR, et al: Risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in youth . Pediatrics 1984;73:756-761. 17. Sennock P, Bauer DW: Reimbursement issues in diabetes . Diabetes Care 1984;7:291-296.Crossref 18. Onger RH: Meticulous control of diabetes: Benefits, risks and precautions . Diabetes 1982; 31:479-483.Crossref 19. The Kroc Collaborative Study Group: Blood glucose control and the evaluation of diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria . N Engl J Med 1984;311:365-372.Crossref 20. Lauritzen T, Larsen H-W, Larsen KF, et al: Effect of one year of near normal blood glucose levels on retinopathy in insulin-dependent diabetics . Lancet 1983;1:200-203.Crossref 21. Danemon D, Drash AL, Lobes LA, et al: Progressive retinopathy with improved control in diabetic dwarfism (Mauriac's syndrome) . Diabetes Care 1981;4:360-365.Crossref 22. Ellis D, Auner ED, Transue D, et al: Diabetic nephropathy in adolescence: Appearance during improved glycemic control . Pediatrics 1983;71:824-829.
American Journal of Diseases of Children – American Medical Association
Published: May 1, 1985
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