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Malnutrition in the First Two Years of Life: The Contribution of Low Birth Weight to Population Estimates in the United States

Malnutrition in the First Two Years of Life: The Contribution of Low Birth Weight to Population... Abstract • To examine the contribution of low birth weight (LBW) to prevalence estimates of undernutrition as measured by low length-for-age (L/A), we analyzed data on 374554 children under 24 months old from the Centers for Disease Control Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Overall, 9.2% of white, 13.4% of black, and 9.2% of Hispanic children weighed less than 2500 g at birth. The mean prevalence of low L/A during the first two years of life was 10.4%, 12.0%, and 11.7% for whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively; the mean proportion of L/A less than the fifth percentile attributable to LBW was 28.9%, 27.6%, and 21.3%. Our results demonstrate the need to consider the LBW prevalence in population estimates of malnutrition since 20% to 40% of the prevalence of low L/A in the first two years of life can be attributable to LBW. (AJDC 1987;141:531-534) References 1. Beck GJ, van den Berg BJ: The relationship of the rate of intrauterine growth of low-birth-weight infants to later growth . J Pediatr 1975;86: 504-511.Crossref 2. Fitzhardinge PM, Steven EM: The small-for-date infant: I. Later growth patterns . Pediatrics 1972;49:671-681. 3. Low JA, Galbraith RS, Muir D, et al: Intrauterine growth retardation: A study of long-term morbidity . Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 142:670-677. 4. Villar J, Belizan JM, Spalding J, et al: Postnatal growth of intrauterine growth retarded infants . Early Hum Dev 1982;6:265-271.Crossref 5. Bjerre I: Physical growth of 5-year-old children with a low birth weight . Acta Paediatr Scand 1975;64:33-43.Crossref 6. Fledelius HC: Inhibited growth and development as permanent features of low birth weight . Acta Paediatr Scand 1982;71:645-650.Crossref 7. Nilsen ST, Finne PH, Bergsjo P, et al: Males with low birthweight examined at 18 years of age . Acta Paediatr Scand 1984;73:168-175.Crossref 8. Westwood M, Kramer MS, Munz D, et al: Growth and development of full-term nonasphyxiated small-for-gestational-age newborns: Follow-up through adolescence . Pediatrics 1983;71: 376-382. 9. Centers for Disease Control: Nutrition Surveillance 1983 . Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control, 1985. 10. Griffin M: Growth Monitoring of Preschool Children: Practical Considerations for Primary Health Care Projects, 1981 . Washington, DC, American Public Health Association, 1981. 11. Fleiss JL: Inference about population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies . Am J Epidemiol 1979;110:103-104. 12. SAS User's Guide: Basics , ed 5. Cary, NC, SAS Institute Inc, 1985. 13. Garn SM, Clark DC, Trowbridge FL: Tendency toward greater stature in American black children . AJDC 1973;129:164-166. 14. Owens GM, Lubin AH: Anthropometric differences between black and white preschool children . AJDC 1973;126:168-169. 15. Kessel SS, Villar J, Berendes HW, et al: The changing pattern of low birth weight in the United States . JAMA 1984;251:1978-1982.Crossref 16. Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Morgenstein H: Epidemiology Research . Belmont, Calif, Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1982, pp 147, 173. 17. Babson SG: Growth of low-birth-weight infants . J Padiatr 1970;77:11-18.Crossref 18. Hofvander Y: International comparisons of postnatal growth of low birth-weight infants with special reference to differences between developing and affluent countries . Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1982;296:14-18.Crossref 19. Cruise MO: A longitudinal study of the growth of low birth weight infants . Pediatrics 1973;51:620-628. 20. Walter SD: Calculation of attributable risks from epidemiological data . Int J Epidemiol 1978;7:175-182.Crossref 21. Hamill PVV: NCHS Growth Curves for Children , US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication (PHS) 78-1650. Hyattsville, Md, National Center for Health Statistics, 1977. 22. Querec LJ: Comparability of Reporting on Birth Certificates and National Natality Survey Questionnaire , US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication (PHS) 80-1357, 1980. 23. Goddard KE, Broder AB, Wenar C: Reliability of pediatric histories . Pediatrics 1961;28: 1011-1018. 24. Axelsson G, Rylander R: Validation of questionnaire reported miscarriage, malformation and birth weight . Int J Epidemiol 1984;13: 94-98.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Malnutrition in the First Two Years of Life: The Contribution of Low Birth Weight to Population Estimates in the United States

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1987.04460050073034
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • To examine the contribution of low birth weight (LBW) to prevalence estimates of undernutrition as measured by low length-for-age (L/A), we analyzed data on 374554 children under 24 months old from the Centers for Disease Control Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Overall, 9.2% of white, 13.4% of black, and 9.2% of Hispanic children weighed less than 2500 g at birth. The mean prevalence of low L/A during the first two years of life was 10.4%, 12.0%, and 11.7% for whites, blacks, and Hispanics, respectively; the mean proportion of L/A less than the fifth percentile attributable to LBW was 28.9%, 27.6%, and 21.3%. Our results demonstrate the need to consider the LBW prevalence in population estimates of malnutrition since 20% to 40% of the prevalence of low L/A in the first two years of life can be attributable to LBW. (AJDC 1987;141:531-534) References 1. Beck GJ, van den Berg BJ: The relationship of the rate of intrauterine growth of low-birth-weight infants to later growth . J Pediatr 1975;86: 504-511.Crossref 2. Fitzhardinge PM, Steven EM: The small-for-date infant: I. Later growth patterns . Pediatrics 1972;49:671-681. 3. Low JA, Galbraith RS, Muir D, et al: Intrauterine growth retardation: A study of long-term morbidity . Am J Obstet Gynecol 1982; 142:670-677. 4. Villar J, Belizan JM, Spalding J, et al: Postnatal growth of intrauterine growth retarded infants . Early Hum Dev 1982;6:265-271.Crossref 5. Bjerre I: Physical growth of 5-year-old children with a low birth weight . Acta Paediatr Scand 1975;64:33-43.Crossref 6. Fledelius HC: Inhibited growth and development as permanent features of low birth weight . Acta Paediatr Scand 1982;71:645-650.Crossref 7. Nilsen ST, Finne PH, Bergsjo P, et al: Males with low birthweight examined at 18 years of age . Acta Paediatr Scand 1984;73:168-175.Crossref 8. Westwood M, Kramer MS, Munz D, et al: Growth and development of full-term nonasphyxiated small-for-gestational-age newborns: Follow-up through adolescence . Pediatrics 1983;71: 376-382. 9. Centers for Disease Control: Nutrition Surveillance 1983 . Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control, 1985. 10. Griffin M: Growth Monitoring of Preschool Children: Practical Considerations for Primary Health Care Projects, 1981 . Washington, DC, American Public Health Association, 1981. 11. Fleiss JL: Inference about population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies . Am J Epidemiol 1979;110:103-104. 12. SAS User's Guide: Basics , ed 5. Cary, NC, SAS Institute Inc, 1985. 13. Garn SM, Clark DC, Trowbridge FL: Tendency toward greater stature in American black children . AJDC 1973;129:164-166. 14. Owens GM, Lubin AH: Anthropometric differences between black and white preschool children . AJDC 1973;126:168-169. 15. Kessel SS, Villar J, Berendes HW, et al: The changing pattern of low birth weight in the United States . JAMA 1984;251:1978-1982.Crossref 16. Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Morgenstein H: Epidemiology Research . Belmont, Calif, Wadsworth Publishing Co, 1982, pp 147, 173. 17. Babson SG: Growth of low-birth-weight infants . J Padiatr 1970;77:11-18.Crossref 18. Hofvander Y: International comparisons of postnatal growth of low birth-weight infants with special reference to differences between developing and affluent countries . Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1982;296:14-18.Crossref 19. Cruise MO: A longitudinal study of the growth of low birth weight infants . Pediatrics 1973;51:620-628. 20. Walter SD: Calculation of attributable risks from epidemiological data . Int J Epidemiol 1978;7:175-182.Crossref 21. Hamill PVV: NCHS Growth Curves for Children , US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication (PHS) 78-1650. Hyattsville, Md, National Center for Health Statistics, 1977. 22. Querec LJ: Comparability of Reporting on Birth Certificates and National Natality Survey Questionnaire , US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication (PHS) 80-1357, 1980. 23. Goddard KE, Broder AB, Wenar C: Reliability of pediatric histories . Pediatrics 1961;28: 1011-1018. 24. Axelsson G, Rylander R: Validation of questionnaire reported miscarriage, malformation and birth weight . Int J Epidemiol 1984;13: 94-98.Crossref

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 1, 1987

References