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Malignant Tumors in Smallpox Vaccination Scars: A Report of 24 Cases

Malignant Tumors in Smallpox Vaccination Scars: A Report of 24 Cases Abstract A study of 24 patients with proved malignant tumors originating in smallpox vaccination scars is reported. Three different tumor types were found—malignant melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. There was no exposure to known chemical carcinogens. In most cases a primary vaccination site was involved. The period of time between the vaccination and appearance of the malignant tumor was highly variable. Twenty-three of the patients were from various regions of the United States and one from the Republic of South Africa. Two patients presented tumors in vaccination sites bilaterally. The possible role of vaccinia virus in the present cases is unknown and difficult to conceive. However, it is suggested that additional clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory studies should be made to determine the role, if any, of vaccinia virus in the development of malignant tumors in man. References 1. Kempe, C.H., and Benenson, A.S.: Smallpox Immunization in the United States , JAMA 194:161-166 ( (Oct 11) ) 1965.Crossref 2. Kempe, C.H.: Studies on Smallpox and Complications of Smallpox Vaccination , Pediatrics 26:176-189 ( (Aug) ) 1960. 3. Sussman, S., and Grossman, M.: Smallpox Vaccination Complications , J Pediat 67:1168-1173, 1965.Crossref 4. Sarkany, I., and Caron, G.A.: Cutaneous Complications of Smallpox Vaccination , Trans St John Hosp Derm Soc 48:163-170, 1962. 5. Curth, H.O.; Curth, W.; and Garb, J.: Cutaneous Complications of Mass Vaccination in New York City, 1947 (Part 1) , J Invest Derm 10:197-204, 1948. 6. Curth, H.O.; Curth, W.; and Garb, J.: Cutaneous Complications of Mass Vaccination in New York City (Part 2) , J Invest Derm 11:167-188, 1948.Crossref 7. Helman, J.: Vaccinia as a Possible Carcinogen , Lancet 1:50 ( (Jan 5) ) 1957.Crossref 8. Auger, C.: Cancer sur tatouage et cancer sur cicatrice de vaccination antivariolique , Laval Med 8:300-307 ( (April) ) 1943. 9. Rea, E.: Squamous Carcinoma on Vaccination Scar , S Afr Med J 30:499, 1956. 10. Dorsey, C.S.; Marmelzat, W.L.; and Levan, N.: Skin Cancer in Smallpox Vaccination Scars , Calif Med 92:353 ( (May) ) 1960. 11. Marmelzat, W.L.; Hirsch, P.; and Martel, S.: Malignant Melanomas in Smallpox Vaccination Scars , Arch Derm 89:823-826 ( (June) ) 1964.Crossref 12. Coetzee, T.: Sarcoma Developing in Scar , S Afr J Surg 2:49-54 ( (April) -June) 1964. 13. Goncalves, J.C.A.: Malignant Change in Smallpox Vaccination Scars , Arch Derm 93:229-230 ( (Feb) ) 1966.Crossref 14. Weary, P.E.: Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising at Site of Smallpox Vaccination , Cutis 3:1114-1116, 1967. 15. Borrel, A.: Epithélioses infectieuses et epithéliomas , Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 17:81-122, 1903. 16. Borrel, A.: Le problème du cancer , Bull Inst Pasteur 5:497-512, 545-562, 593-603, 641-662, 1907. 17. Bosc, F.J.: Les Epithéliomas parasitaires: La clavelée at l'epithélioma claveleux , Centralblatt Bakteriol Parasitenk Infektionskrankh 34:413-420, 517-526, 666-674, 1903. 18. Duran-Reynals, F.: Preliminary Studies on the Development of Neoplasia in the Skin of Mice Painted With Methylcholanthrene and Injected With Cortisone and Vaccinia Virus , Ann NY Acad Sci 68:430-440, 1957.Crossref 19. Duran-Reynals, M.L., and Stanley, B.: Vaccinia Dermal Infection and Methylcholanthrene in Cortisone-Treated Mice , Science 134:1984, 1961.Crossref 20. Siegler, R., and Duran-Reynals, M.L.: Observations on the Pathogenesis of Experimental Skin Tumors: A Study of the Mechanism by Which Papillomas Develop , J Nat Cancer Inst 29:653-673, 1962. 21. Mazurenko, N.P.: Induction of Leucoses in Mice With Infectious Viruses and the Significance of the Latter in the Aetiology of Disease , Prob Oncol 6:873-882, 1960. 22. Ilie, B.: Cercetari experimentale in problema actiunii oncogene a virusului vaccinal , Stud Cercet Inframicrobiol 14:625-634, 1963. 23. Conference of Biology of Cutaneous Cancer , Monograph No. 10, Bethesda, Md, National Cancer Institute, (February) , 1963, pp 55-255. 24. Pack, G.T.; Lenson, N.; and Gerber, D.M.: Regional Distribution of Moles and Melanomas , AMA Arch Surg 65:862-870, 1952.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Malignant Tumors in Smallpox Vaccination Scars: A Report of 24 Cases

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 97 (4) – Apr 1, 1968

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1968 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1968.01610100040005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract A study of 24 patients with proved malignant tumors originating in smallpox vaccination scars is reported. Three different tumor types were found—malignant melanomas, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinomas. There was no exposure to known chemical carcinogens. In most cases a primary vaccination site was involved. The period of time between the vaccination and appearance of the malignant tumor was highly variable. Twenty-three of the patients were from various regions of the United States and one from the Republic of South Africa. Two patients presented tumors in vaccination sites bilaterally. The possible role of vaccinia virus in the present cases is unknown and difficult to conceive. However, it is suggested that additional clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory studies should be made to determine the role, if any, of vaccinia virus in the development of malignant tumors in man. References 1. Kempe, C.H., and Benenson, A.S.: Smallpox Immunization in the United States , JAMA 194:161-166 ( (Oct 11) ) 1965.Crossref 2. Kempe, C.H.: Studies on Smallpox and Complications of Smallpox Vaccination , Pediatrics 26:176-189 ( (Aug) ) 1960. 3. Sussman, S., and Grossman, M.: Smallpox Vaccination Complications , J Pediat 67:1168-1173, 1965.Crossref 4. Sarkany, I., and Caron, G.A.: Cutaneous Complications of Smallpox Vaccination , Trans St John Hosp Derm Soc 48:163-170, 1962. 5. Curth, H.O.; Curth, W.; and Garb, J.: Cutaneous Complications of Mass Vaccination in New York City, 1947 (Part 1) , J Invest Derm 10:197-204, 1948. 6. Curth, H.O.; Curth, W.; and Garb, J.: Cutaneous Complications of Mass Vaccination in New York City (Part 2) , J Invest Derm 11:167-188, 1948.Crossref 7. Helman, J.: Vaccinia as a Possible Carcinogen , Lancet 1:50 ( (Jan 5) ) 1957.Crossref 8. Auger, C.: Cancer sur tatouage et cancer sur cicatrice de vaccination antivariolique , Laval Med 8:300-307 ( (April) ) 1943. 9. Rea, E.: Squamous Carcinoma on Vaccination Scar , S Afr Med J 30:499, 1956. 10. Dorsey, C.S.; Marmelzat, W.L.; and Levan, N.: Skin Cancer in Smallpox Vaccination Scars , Calif Med 92:353 ( (May) ) 1960. 11. Marmelzat, W.L.; Hirsch, P.; and Martel, S.: Malignant Melanomas in Smallpox Vaccination Scars , Arch Derm 89:823-826 ( (June) ) 1964.Crossref 12. Coetzee, T.: Sarcoma Developing in Scar , S Afr J Surg 2:49-54 ( (April) -June) 1964. 13. Goncalves, J.C.A.: Malignant Change in Smallpox Vaccination Scars , Arch Derm 93:229-230 ( (Feb) ) 1966.Crossref 14. Weary, P.E.: Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising at Site of Smallpox Vaccination , Cutis 3:1114-1116, 1967. 15. Borrel, A.: Epithélioses infectieuses et epithéliomas , Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 17:81-122, 1903. 16. Borrel, A.: Le problème du cancer , Bull Inst Pasteur 5:497-512, 545-562, 593-603, 641-662, 1907. 17. Bosc, F.J.: Les Epithéliomas parasitaires: La clavelée at l'epithélioma claveleux , Centralblatt Bakteriol Parasitenk Infektionskrankh 34:413-420, 517-526, 666-674, 1903. 18. Duran-Reynals, F.: Preliminary Studies on the Development of Neoplasia in the Skin of Mice Painted With Methylcholanthrene and Injected With Cortisone and Vaccinia Virus , Ann NY Acad Sci 68:430-440, 1957.Crossref 19. Duran-Reynals, M.L., and Stanley, B.: Vaccinia Dermal Infection and Methylcholanthrene in Cortisone-Treated Mice , Science 134:1984, 1961.Crossref 20. Siegler, R., and Duran-Reynals, M.L.: Observations on the Pathogenesis of Experimental Skin Tumors: A Study of the Mechanism by Which Papillomas Develop , J Nat Cancer Inst 29:653-673, 1962. 21. Mazurenko, N.P.: Induction of Leucoses in Mice With Infectious Viruses and the Significance of the Latter in the Aetiology of Disease , Prob Oncol 6:873-882, 1960. 22. Ilie, B.: Cercetari experimentale in problema actiunii oncogene a virusului vaccinal , Stud Cercet Inframicrobiol 14:625-634, 1963. 23. Conference of Biology of Cutaneous Cancer , Monograph No. 10, Bethesda, Md, National Cancer Institute, (February) , 1963, pp 55-255. 24. Pack, G.T.; Lenson, N.; and Gerber, D.M.: Regional Distribution of Moles and Melanomas , AMA Arch Surg 65:862-870, 1952.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Apr 1, 1968

References