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Major Infectious Diseases Causing Excess Morbidity in the Hispanic Population

Major Infectious Diseases Causing Excess Morbidity in the Hispanic Population Abstract Current data indicate that there are a number of infectious diseases, ie, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus infections, cysticercosis, hepatitis A, syphilis, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever, among others that cause disproportionately increased morbidity in Hispanics. The greater rate of poverty with its associated socioenvironmental problems, increased barriers to health care, and importation of infectious diseases endemic in the mother country are some of the major reasons that probably account for this disparity in disease burden in Hispanics. This formidable health problem can be addressed by targeting efforts at improving health education of family units and communities, environmental improvements, elimination or reduction of barriers to health care management and disease prevention, and appropriate screening programs. A comprehensive and uniform assessment of the impact of infectious diseases on Hispanics (and other minorities) in this country remains elusive, but is of paramount importance in establishing priorities and effective/efficient strategies to address this issue. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1513-1520 References 1. Fox JP. Epidemiology of infectious diseases . In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987:79-105. 2. Heckler MM. Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health: Hispanic Health Issues . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1986;8:3-42. 3. National Center for Health Statistics. Plan and operation of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980. Vital and Health Statistics. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1981. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication PHS 81-1317. 4. The Plan and Operation of tyhe Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1982-84, series 1, No. 19 . Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; 1985. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication PHS 85-1321. 5. Buehler JW, Stroup DF, Klaucke DN, Berkelman RL. The reporting of race and ethnicity in the national notifiable diseases surveillance system . Public Health Rep . 1989;104:457-465. 6. Centers for Disease Control. Measles—Los Angeles County, California, 1988 . MMWR . 1989;38:49-57. 7. Rutherford GW, Desilva JM, Lui C. The epidemiology of measles in New York City, 1983: the role of imported cases . Presented at the 19th Annual Immunization Conference; May 22, 1984; Boston, Mass . 8. Centers for Disease Control. Measles outbreak—New York City . MMWR . 1984;33:580-586. 9. Centers for Disease Control. Measles—New Jersey . MMWR . 1986;35:213-215. 10. Centers for Disease Control. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome— New York City . MMWR . 1986;35:770-779. 11. Centers for Disease Control. Tetanus—United States, 1987 and 1988 . MMWR . 1990;39:37-41. 12. Mendelson JA. Tetanus in Texas . Tex Med . 1987;83:7-8. 13. Bureau of Epidemiology. Reported Morbidity and Mortality in Texas . Austin, Tex: Texas Dept of Health; 1986:32-33. 14. Brooks GF, Bennett JV, Feldman RA. Diphtheria in the United States, 1959-1970 . J Infect Dis . 1974;129:172-178.Crossref 15. Marcuese EK, Grand MG. Epidemiology of diphtheria in San Antonio, Texas, 1970 . JAMA . 1973;224:305-310.Crossref 16. Centers for Disease Control. Shigellosis in the United States, 1980 . J Infect Dis . 1982;125:441-443. 17. Rice PA, Baine WB, Gangarosa EJ. Salmonella typhi infections in the United States, 1967-1972: increasing importance of international travelers . Am J Epidemiol . 1977;106:160-166. 18. Feldman RE, Baine WB, Nitzkin JL, Saslaw MS, Pollard RA Jr. Epidemiology of Salmonella typhi infection in a migrant labor camp in Dade County, Florida . J Infect Dis . 1974;130:334-342.Crossref 19. Askerhoff B, Schroeder SA, Brachman PS. Salmonellosis in the United States: a five-year review . Am J Epidemiol . 1970;92:13-24. 20. Bureau of Epidemiology. Reported Morbidity and Mortality in Texas: 1986 Annual Summary . Austin, Tex: Texas Dept of Health; 1987;9:24-25. 21. Riley LW, Cohen ML, Seals JE, et al. Importance of host factors in human salmonellosis caused by multiresistant strains of Salmonella . J Infect Dis . 1984;149:878-883.Crossref 22. Arfaa F. Intestinal parasites among Indochinese refugees and Mexican immigrants resettled in Contra Costa County, California . J Fam Pract . 1981;12:223-226. 23. Ortiz JS. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in Puerto Rican farm workers in Western Massachusetts . Am J Public Health . 1980;70:1103-1105.Crossref 24. Ungar BLP, Iscoe E, Cutler J, Bartlett J. Intestinal parasites in a migrant farmworker population . Arch Intern Med . 1986;146:513-515.Crossref 25. Thompson JE, Forlenza S, Verma R. Amebic liver abscess: a therapeutic approach . Rev Infect Dis . 1985;7:171-179.Crossref 26. Katzenstein D, Rickerson V, Braude A. New concepts of amebic liver abscess derived from hepatic imaging, serodiagnosis, and hepatic enzymes in 67 consecutive cases in San Diego . Medicine . 1982;61:237-246.Crossref 27. California Department of Health Services. Reported cases of selected notifiable diseases . Calif Morbid. 1982. 28. McCormick GF, Zee C-S, Heiden J. Cysticercosis cerebri: review of 172 cases . Arch Neurol . 1982;39:534-539.Crossref 29. Scharf D. Neurocysticercosis: two hundred thirty-eight cases from a California hospital . Arch Neurol . 1988;45:777-780.Crossref 30. Grisolia JS, Wiederholt WC. CNS cysticercosis . Arch Neurol . 1982;39:540-544.Crossref 31. Mitchell WG, Crawford TO. Intraparenchymal cerebral cysticercosis in children: diagnosis and treatment . Pediatrics . 1988;82:76-82. 32. World Health Organization. Leprosy surveillance in the Americas . Wk Epidemiol Rec . 1984;59:165-172. 33. Centers for Disease Control. Malaria Surveillance Annual Summary . Atlanta, Ga: US Public Health Service; 1979,1980, 1981. 34. Centers for Disease Control. Transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria— San Diego County, California, 1988 and 1989 . MMWR . 1990;39:91-94. 35. Kirchhoff LV, Neva FA. Chagas' disease in Latin American immigrants . JAMA . 1985;254:3058-3060.Crossref 36. Centers for Disease Control. Syphilis and congenital syphilis—United States, 1985-1988 . MMWR . 1988;37:486-489. 37. Centers for Disease Control. Congenital syphilis-United States, 19831985 . MMWR . 1986;35:625-628. 38. Centers for Disease Control. Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics . Atlanta, Ga: US Public Health Service; 1983:35-36. 39. Schmid GP, Sanders LL Jr, Blount JH, Alexander ER. Chancroid in the United States . JAMA . 1987;258:3265-3268.Crossref 40. Glenney KF, Glassman DM, Cox SW, Brown HP. The prevalence of positive test results for Chlamydia trachomatis by direct smear for fluorescent antibodies in a South Texas family planning population . J Reprod Med . 1988;33:457-462 41. Shafer MA, Sweet RL, Ohn-Smith MJ, Shalwitz J, Beck A, Schachter J. Microbiology of the lower genital tract in postmenarchal adolescent girls: differences by sexual activity, contraception, and presence of nonspecific vaginitis . J Pediatr . 1985;107:974-981.Crossref 42. Smith PB, Phillips LE, Faro S, McGill L, Wait RB. Predominant sexually transmitted diseases among different age and ethnic groups of indigent sexually active adolescents attending a family planning clinic . J Adolesc Health Care . 1988;9:291-295.Crossref 43. Eagar RM, Beach RK, Davidson AJ, Judson FN. Epidemiologic and clinical factors of Chlamydia trachomatis in black, Hispanic and white female adolescents . West J Med . 1985;143:37-41. 44. Moran JS, Aral SO, Jenkins WC, Peterman TA, Alexander ER. The impact of sexually transmitted diseases on minority populations . Public Health Rep . 1989;104:560-565. 45. Judson FN, Maltz AB. A rational basis for the epidemiologic treatment of gonorrhea in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases . Sex Transm Dis . 1978;5:89-92.Crossref 46. Alter MJ. Hepatitis surveillance-1982-1983 . MMWR . 1985;34:1SS-10SS. Centers for Disease Control Surveillance Summary 47. Chan LS, McCandless R, Portnoy B, Stolp C, Warner DC. Maternal and Child Health on the US-Mexico Border . Austin, Tex: Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas at Austin; 1987. 48. Sawyer JA, Brown JP, Folke LE, Parra JM, Baez R. Hepatitis A in a border community . Border Health . 1989;5:2-5. 49. Rieder HL, Cauthen GM, Kelly GD, Bloch AB, Snider DE Jr. Tuberculosis in the United States . JAMA . 1989;262:385-389.Crossref 50. Snider DE Jr, Rieder HL, Combs D, Bloch AB, Hayden CH, Smith MHD. Tuberculosis in children . Pediatr Infect Dis . 1988;7:271-278.Crossref 51. Tang PM. Tuberculosis skin testing programs in Maricopa County . Ariz Med . 1983;15:16-18. 52. Vennema A, Rugiero D. Tuberculin-sensitivity and risk of infection in New York City school children 1980-81 . Bull Int Union Tuberc Lung Dis . 1984;59:138-140. 53. Perez-Stable EJ, Levin R, Pineda A, Slutkin G. Tuberculin skin test reactivity and conversions in United States- and foreign-born Latino children . Pediatr Infect Dis J . 1985;4:476-479.Crossref 54. Snider DE Jr, Salinas L, Kelly GD. Tuberculosis: an increasing problem among minorities in the United States . Public Health Rep . 1989;104:646-653. 55. Stoneburner RL, Kristal A. Increasing tuberculous incidence and its relationship to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in New York City . Presented at the International Conference on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); April 14-17, 1985; Atlanta, Ga . 56. Rieder HL, Cauthen GM, Bloch AB, et al. Tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Intern Med . 1989;149:1268-1273.Crossref 57. Centers for Disease Control. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report . Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control; 1990. 58. US Bureau of the Census. County and City Data Books. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office; 1980. 59. Centers for Disease Control: Trends in immunodeficiency virus infection among civilian applicants for military service—United States.October 1985December, 1986 . MMWR . 1987;36:273-276. 60. Centers for Disease Control. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus antibody in US active-duty military personnel, April 1988 . MMWR . 1988;37:461-463. 61. Schoenbaum EE, Hartel D, Selwyn PA, et al. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection in intravenous drug abusers . N Engl J Med . 1989;321:874-879.Crossref 62. Novick DM, Trigg HL, Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Vlahov D, Kreek MJ. Cocaine injection and ethnicity in parenteral drug users during the early years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in New York City . J Med Virol 1989;29:181-185.Crossref 63. Sumaya CV, Porto MD. AIDS in Hispanics . South Med J . 1989;82:943-945.Crossref 64. Alter MJ. Hepatitis surveillance, 1982-1983 . MMWR . 1985;34:1SS-10SS. 65. Arevalo JA, Arevalo M. Prevalence of hepatitis B in an indigent, multiethnic community clinic prenatal population . J Fam Pract . 1989;29:615-619. 66. Tong MJ, Howard AN, Schatz GC, et al. A hepatitis B vaccination program in a community teaching hospital . Infect Control . 1987;8:102-107. 67. Granoff DM, Basden M. Hemophilus influenzae infections in Fresno County, California: a prospective study of the effects of age, race, and contact with a case on incidence of disease . J Infect Dis . 1980;141:40-46.Crossref 68. Bass JL, Mehta KA, Glickman LT, et al. Asymptomatic toxocariasis in children . Clin Pediatr . 1987;26:441-446.Crossref 69. Becker TM, Wiggins C, Peek C, Key CR, Samet JM. Mortality from infectious diseases among New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanic whites, and other whites, 1958-87 . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:320-323.Crossref 70. Schreiber JM, Homiak JP. Mexican Americans . In: Harwood A, ed. Ethnicity and Medical Care . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; 1981:264-336. 71. Gergen PJ, Ezzati T, Russell H. DTP immunization status and tetanus antitoxin titers of Mexican American children ages six months through eleven years . Am J Public Health . 1988;78:1446-1450.Crossref 72. Bean FD, King AG, Passel JS. Estimates of the size of the illegal migrant population of Mexican origin in the United States: an assessment review, and proposal . In: Browning HL, de la Garza RO, eds. Mexican Immigrants and Mexican Americans: An Evolving Relation . Austin, Tex: University of Texas Press; 1986:13-36. 73. US General Accounting Office. Health Care: Availability in the TexasMexico Border Area . Gaithersburg, Md: General Accounting Office; 1988. 74. Maynard JE. Hepatitis . In: Last JM, ed. Public Health and Preventive Medicine . East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton & Lange; 1980:153-166. 75. Smith LS. Ethnic differences in knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases in North American black and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers . Res Nurs Health . 1988;11:51-58.Crossref 76. Rust GS. Health status of migrant farmworkers: a literature review and commentary . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:1213-1217.Crossref 77. Schachter J, Holt J, Goodner E, Grossman M, Sweet R, Mills J. Prospective study of chlamydial infection in neonates . Lancet . 1979;2:377-380.Crossref 78. Waterhouse J, Muir C, Strangmugaratnam K, Powell J. Cancer incidence in five continents . Lyons, France: IARC Scientific Publication; 1982;4. 79. Austin DF. Cancer incidence and mortality in San Francisco Oakland: Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: incidence and mortality data 19731977 . Natl Cancer Inst Mongr . 1981;57:661-786. 80. National Cancer Institute. Hispanic Cancer Control Program Working Group Meetings . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1989. 81. Zunzunegui MV, King MC, Coria CF, Charlet J. Male influences on cervical cancer risk . Am J Epidemiol . 1986;123:302-307. 82. Centers for Disease Control. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among blacks and Hispanics—United States . MMWR . 1986;35:655-666. 83. Novick LF, Truman BI, Lehman JS. The epidemiology of HIV in New York state . NY State J Med . 1988;88:242-246. 84. National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organization (COSSMHO). AIDS, the Impact on Hispanics in Selected States . Washington, DC: National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organization; 1987. 85. Centers for Disease Control. Reports on selected racial/ethnic groups . MMWR . 1988;37( (SS-3) ):1-10. 86. Centers for Disease Control. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United States: a review of current knowledge . MMWR . 1987-36( (S6) ):1-48. 87. National Association of Community Health Centers. Legislative issues for 1989, II: Medicare/Medicaid . In: National Association of Community Health Centers 14th Annual Policy and Issues Form . Washington, DC: National Association of Community Health Centers; 1989:L76-L116 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Internal Medicine American Medical Association

Major Infectious Diseases Causing Excess Morbidity in the Hispanic Population

Archives of Internal Medicine , Volume 151 (8) – Aug 1, 1991

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1991 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9926
eISSN
1538-3679
DOI
10.1001/archinte.1991.00400080029005
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Abstract

Abstract Current data indicate that there are a number of infectious diseases, ie, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus infections, cysticercosis, hepatitis A, syphilis, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever, among others that cause disproportionately increased morbidity in Hispanics. The greater rate of poverty with its associated socioenvironmental problems, increased barriers to health care, and importation of infectious diseases endemic in the mother country are some of the major reasons that probably account for this disparity in disease burden in Hispanics. This formidable health problem can be addressed by targeting efforts at improving health education of family units and communities, environmental improvements, elimination or reduction of barriers to health care management and disease prevention, and appropriate screening programs. A comprehensive and uniform assessment of the impact of infectious diseases on Hispanics (and other minorities) in this country remains elusive, but is of paramount importance in establishing priorities and effective/efficient strategies to address this issue. (Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1513-1520 References 1. Fox JP. Epidemiology of infectious diseases . In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1987:79-105. 2. Heckler MM. Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health: Hispanic Health Issues . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1986;8:3-42. 3. National Center for Health Statistics. Plan and operation of the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980. Vital and Health Statistics. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1981. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication PHS 81-1317. 4. The Plan and Operation of tyhe Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1982-84, series 1, No. 19 . Hyattsville, Md: National Center for Health Statistics; 1985. US Dept of Health and Human Services publication PHS 85-1321. 5. Buehler JW, Stroup DF, Klaucke DN, Berkelman RL. The reporting of race and ethnicity in the national notifiable diseases surveillance system . Public Health Rep . 1989;104:457-465. 6. Centers for Disease Control. Measles—Los Angeles County, California, 1988 . MMWR . 1989;38:49-57. 7. Rutherford GW, Desilva JM, Lui C. The epidemiology of measles in New York City, 1983: the role of imported cases . Presented at the 19th Annual Immunization Conference; May 22, 1984; Boston, Mass . 8. Centers for Disease Control. Measles outbreak—New York City . MMWR . 1984;33:580-586. 9. Centers for Disease Control. Measles—New Jersey . MMWR . 1986;35:213-215. 10. Centers for Disease Control. Rubella and congenital rubella syndrome— New York City . MMWR . 1986;35:770-779. 11. Centers for Disease Control. Tetanus—United States, 1987 and 1988 . MMWR . 1990;39:37-41. 12. Mendelson JA. Tetanus in Texas . Tex Med . 1987;83:7-8. 13. Bureau of Epidemiology. Reported Morbidity and Mortality in Texas . Austin, Tex: Texas Dept of Health; 1986:32-33. 14. Brooks GF, Bennett JV, Feldman RA. Diphtheria in the United States, 1959-1970 . J Infect Dis . 1974;129:172-178.Crossref 15. Marcuese EK, Grand MG. Epidemiology of diphtheria in San Antonio, Texas, 1970 . JAMA . 1973;224:305-310.Crossref 16. Centers for Disease Control. Shigellosis in the United States, 1980 . J Infect Dis . 1982;125:441-443. 17. Rice PA, Baine WB, Gangarosa EJ. Salmonella typhi infections in the United States, 1967-1972: increasing importance of international travelers . Am J Epidemiol . 1977;106:160-166. 18. Feldman RE, Baine WB, Nitzkin JL, Saslaw MS, Pollard RA Jr. Epidemiology of Salmonella typhi infection in a migrant labor camp in Dade County, Florida . J Infect Dis . 1974;130:334-342.Crossref 19. Askerhoff B, Schroeder SA, Brachman PS. Salmonellosis in the United States: a five-year review . Am J Epidemiol . 1970;92:13-24. 20. Bureau of Epidemiology. Reported Morbidity and Mortality in Texas: 1986 Annual Summary . Austin, Tex: Texas Dept of Health; 1987;9:24-25. 21. Riley LW, Cohen ML, Seals JE, et al. Importance of host factors in human salmonellosis caused by multiresistant strains of Salmonella . J Infect Dis . 1984;149:878-883.Crossref 22. Arfaa F. Intestinal parasites among Indochinese refugees and Mexican immigrants resettled in Contra Costa County, California . J Fam Pract . 1981;12:223-226. 23. Ortiz JS. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in Puerto Rican farm workers in Western Massachusetts . Am J Public Health . 1980;70:1103-1105.Crossref 24. Ungar BLP, Iscoe E, Cutler J, Bartlett J. Intestinal parasites in a migrant farmworker population . Arch Intern Med . 1986;146:513-515.Crossref 25. Thompson JE, Forlenza S, Verma R. Amebic liver abscess: a therapeutic approach . Rev Infect Dis . 1985;7:171-179.Crossref 26. Katzenstein D, Rickerson V, Braude A. New concepts of amebic liver abscess derived from hepatic imaging, serodiagnosis, and hepatic enzymes in 67 consecutive cases in San Diego . Medicine . 1982;61:237-246.Crossref 27. California Department of Health Services. Reported cases of selected notifiable diseases . Calif Morbid. 1982. 28. McCormick GF, Zee C-S, Heiden J. Cysticercosis cerebri: review of 172 cases . Arch Neurol . 1982;39:534-539.Crossref 29. Scharf D. Neurocysticercosis: two hundred thirty-eight cases from a California hospital . Arch Neurol . 1988;45:777-780.Crossref 30. Grisolia JS, Wiederholt WC. CNS cysticercosis . Arch Neurol . 1982;39:540-544.Crossref 31. Mitchell WG, Crawford TO. Intraparenchymal cerebral cysticercosis in children: diagnosis and treatment . Pediatrics . 1988;82:76-82. 32. World Health Organization. Leprosy surveillance in the Americas . Wk Epidemiol Rec . 1984;59:165-172. 33. Centers for Disease Control. Malaria Surveillance Annual Summary . Atlanta, Ga: US Public Health Service; 1979,1980, 1981. 34. Centers for Disease Control. Transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria— San Diego County, California, 1988 and 1989 . MMWR . 1990;39:91-94. 35. Kirchhoff LV, Neva FA. Chagas' disease in Latin American immigrants . JAMA . 1985;254:3058-3060.Crossref 36. Centers for Disease Control. Syphilis and congenital syphilis—United States, 1985-1988 . MMWR . 1988;37:486-489. 37. Centers for Disease Control. Congenital syphilis-United States, 19831985 . MMWR . 1986;35:625-628. 38. Centers for Disease Control. Sexually Transmitted Disease Statistics . Atlanta, Ga: US Public Health Service; 1983:35-36. 39. Schmid GP, Sanders LL Jr, Blount JH, Alexander ER. Chancroid in the United States . JAMA . 1987;258:3265-3268.Crossref 40. Glenney KF, Glassman DM, Cox SW, Brown HP. The prevalence of positive test results for Chlamydia trachomatis by direct smear for fluorescent antibodies in a South Texas family planning population . J Reprod Med . 1988;33:457-462 41. Shafer MA, Sweet RL, Ohn-Smith MJ, Shalwitz J, Beck A, Schachter J. Microbiology of the lower genital tract in postmenarchal adolescent girls: differences by sexual activity, contraception, and presence of nonspecific vaginitis . J Pediatr . 1985;107:974-981.Crossref 42. Smith PB, Phillips LE, Faro S, McGill L, Wait RB. Predominant sexually transmitted diseases among different age and ethnic groups of indigent sexually active adolescents attending a family planning clinic . J Adolesc Health Care . 1988;9:291-295.Crossref 43. Eagar RM, Beach RK, Davidson AJ, Judson FN. Epidemiologic and clinical factors of Chlamydia trachomatis in black, Hispanic and white female adolescents . West J Med . 1985;143:37-41. 44. Moran JS, Aral SO, Jenkins WC, Peterman TA, Alexander ER. The impact of sexually transmitted diseases on minority populations . Public Health Rep . 1989;104:560-565. 45. Judson FN, Maltz AB. A rational basis for the epidemiologic treatment of gonorrhea in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases . Sex Transm Dis . 1978;5:89-92.Crossref 46. Alter MJ. Hepatitis surveillance-1982-1983 . MMWR . 1985;34:1SS-10SS. Centers for Disease Control Surveillance Summary 47. Chan LS, McCandless R, Portnoy B, Stolp C, Warner DC. Maternal and Child Health on the US-Mexico Border . Austin, Tex: Lyndon B Johnson School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas at Austin; 1987. 48. Sawyer JA, Brown JP, Folke LE, Parra JM, Baez R. Hepatitis A in a border community . Border Health . 1989;5:2-5. 49. Rieder HL, Cauthen GM, Kelly GD, Bloch AB, Snider DE Jr. Tuberculosis in the United States . JAMA . 1989;262:385-389.Crossref 50. Snider DE Jr, Rieder HL, Combs D, Bloch AB, Hayden CH, Smith MHD. Tuberculosis in children . Pediatr Infect Dis . 1988;7:271-278.Crossref 51. Tang PM. Tuberculosis skin testing programs in Maricopa County . Ariz Med . 1983;15:16-18. 52. Vennema A, Rugiero D. Tuberculin-sensitivity and risk of infection in New York City school children 1980-81 . Bull Int Union Tuberc Lung Dis . 1984;59:138-140. 53. Perez-Stable EJ, Levin R, Pineda A, Slutkin G. Tuberculin skin test reactivity and conversions in United States- and foreign-born Latino children . Pediatr Infect Dis J . 1985;4:476-479.Crossref 54. Snider DE Jr, Salinas L, Kelly GD. Tuberculosis: an increasing problem among minorities in the United States . Public Health Rep . 1989;104:646-653. 55. Stoneburner RL, Kristal A. Increasing tuberculous incidence and its relationship to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in New York City . Presented at the International Conference on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS); April 14-17, 1985; Atlanta, Ga . 56. Rieder HL, Cauthen GM, Bloch AB, et al. Tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Intern Med . 1989;149:1268-1273.Crossref 57. Centers for Disease Control. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report . Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control; 1990. 58. US Bureau of the Census. County and City Data Books. Washington, DC; Government Printing Office; 1980. 59. Centers for Disease Control: Trends in immunodeficiency virus infection among civilian applicants for military service—United States.October 1985December, 1986 . MMWR . 1987;36:273-276. 60. Centers for Disease Control. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus antibody in US active-duty military personnel, April 1988 . MMWR . 1988;37:461-463. 61. Schoenbaum EE, Hartel D, Selwyn PA, et al. Risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection in intravenous drug abusers . N Engl J Med . 1989;321:874-879.Crossref 62. Novick DM, Trigg HL, Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Vlahov D, Kreek MJ. Cocaine injection and ethnicity in parenteral drug users during the early years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in New York City . J Med Virol 1989;29:181-185.Crossref 63. Sumaya CV, Porto MD. AIDS in Hispanics . South Med J . 1989;82:943-945.Crossref 64. Alter MJ. Hepatitis surveillance, 1982-1983 . MMWR . 1985;34:1SS-10SS. 65. Arevalo JA, Arevalo M. Prevalence of hepatitis B in an indigent, multiethnic community clinic prenatal population . J Fam Pract . 1989;29:615-619. 66. Tong MJ, Howard AN, Schatz GC, et al. A hepatitis B vaccination program in a community teaching hospital . Infect Control . 1987;8:102-107. 67. Granoff DM, Basden M. Hemophilus influenzae infections in Fresno County, California: a prospective study of the effects of age, race, and contact with a case on incidence of disease . J Infect Dis . 1980;141:40-46.Crossref 68. Bass JL, Mehta KA, Glickman LT, et al. Asymptomatic toxocariasis in children . Clin Pediatr . 1987;26:441-446.Crossref 69. Becker TM, Wiggins C, Peek C, Key CR, Samet JM. Mortality from infectious diseases among New Mexico's American Indians, Hispanic whites, and other whites, 1958-87 . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:320-323.Crossref 70. Schreiber JM, Homiak JP. Mexican Americans . In: Harwood A, ed. Ethnicity and Medical Care . Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; 1981:264-336. 71. Gergen PJ, Ezzati T, Russell H. DTP immunization status and tetanus antitoxin titers of Mexican American children ages six months through eleven years . Am J Public Health . 1988;78:1446-1450.Crossref 72. Bean FD, King AG, Passel JS. Estimates of the size of the illegal migrant population of Mexican origin in the United States: an assessment review, and proposal . In: Browning HL, de la Garza RO, eds. Mexican Immigrants and Mexican Americans: An Evolving Relation . Austin, Tex: University of Texas Press; 1986:13-36. 73. US General Accounting Office. Health Care: Availability in the TexasMexico Border Area . Gaithersburg, Md: General Accounting Office; 1988. 74. Maynard JE. Hepatitis . In: Last JM, ed. Public Health and Preventive Medicine . East Norwalk, Conn: Appleton & Lange; 1980:153-166. 75. Smith LS. Ethnic differences in knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases in North American black and Mexican-American migrant farmworkers . Res Nurs Health . 1988;11:51-58.Crossref 76. Rust GS. Health status of migrant farmworkers: a literature review and commentary . Am J Public Health . 1990;80:1213-1217.Crossref 77. Schachter J, Holt J, Goodner E, Grossman M, Sweet R, Mills J. Prospective study of chlamydial infection in neonates . Lancet . 1979;2:377-380.Crossref 78. Waterhouse J, Muir C, Strangmugaratnam K, Powell J. Cancer incidence in five continents . Lyons, France: IARC Scientific Publication; 1982;4. 79. Austin DF. Cancer incidence and mortality in San Francisco Oakland: Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: incidence and mortality data 19731977 . Natl Cancer Inst Mongr . 1981;57:661-786. 80. National Cancer Institute. Hispanic Cancer Control Program Working Group Meetings . Washington, DC: US Dept of Health and Human Services; 1989. 81. Zunzunegui MV, King MC, Coria CF, Charlet J. Male influences on cervical cancer risk . Am J Epidemiol . 1986;123:302-307. 82. Centers for Disease Control. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among blacks and Hispanics—United States . MMWR . 1986;35:655-666. 83. Novick LF, Truman BI, Lehman JS. The epidemiology of HIV in New York state . NY State J Med . 1988;88:242-246. 84. National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organization (COSSMHO). AIDS, the Impact on Hispanics in Selected States . Washington, DC: National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organization; 1987. 85. Centers for Disease Control. Reports on selected racial/ethnic groups . MMWR . 1988;37( (SS-3) ):1-10. 86. Centers for Disease Control. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in the United States: a review of current knowledge . MMWR . 1987-36( (S6) ):1-48. 87. National Association of Community Health Centers. Legislative issues for 1989, II: Medicare/Medicaid . In: National Association of Community Health Centers 14th Annual Policy and Issues Form . Washington, DC: National Association of Community Health Centers; 1989:L76-L116

Journal

Archives of Internal MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1991

References