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Magnesium and Calcium in Human Muscular Dystrophy: Complexometric Analyses of Serum and Serum Ultrafiltrates

Magnesium and Calcium in Human Muscular Dystrophy: Complexometric Analyses of Serum and Serum... Abstract Human muscular dystrophy is a condition of unknown etiology which produces progressive and severe dysfunction of symmetrical groups of skeletal muscle. Although its clinical manifestations1-3 and patterns of heredity4-6 have long been recognized, relatively little attention has been given the study of distribution and utilization of metal ions in this disorder. In recent years, new impetus has been given the study of metal ions in health and disease by the increasing recognition of their important influences upon activities of enzymes. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal activities of various glycogenolytic enzymes,7-9 transaminase,10 nucleotidase,11 and creatine phosphokinase12 have been described. It is well known that all of the enzymes which catalyze the transfer of phosphate from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a phosphate receptor, or from a phosphorylated compound to adenosine diphosphate, (ADP) are activated by magnesium. Since ATP is necessary in such diverse functions as muscle contraction; References 1. Shank, R. E.; Gilder, H., and Hoagland, C. L.: Studies on Diseases of Muscle: I. Progressive Muscular Dystrophy; A Clinical Review of 40 Cases , Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 52:431, 1944.Crossref 2. Hsia, D. Y.: The Muscular Dystrophies , in Inborn Errors of Metabolism , Chicago, The Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1959, Chap. 13, pp. 256-264. 3. Adams, R. D., and Denny-Brown, D.: Muscular Dystrophies , in Diseases of Muscle: A Study in Pathology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Dept. of Harper & Brothers, 1953, Chap. 6, pp. 239-283. 4. Tyler, F. H., and Stephens, F. E.: Studies in Disorders of Muscle: Clinical Manifestations and Inheritance of Childhood Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Ann. Intern. Med. 35:169, 1951Crossref 5. Ann. Intern. Med. 35:1164, 1951. 6. Morton, N. E., and Chung, C. S.: Formal Genetics of Muscular Dystrophy , Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 11:360, 1959. 7. Walton, J. N.: Genetic Aspects of Muscular and Neuromuscular Diseases , in Structure and Function of Muscle, Vol. III, Pharmacology and Diseases , edited by G. H. Bourne, New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1960, Chap. XII, pp. 395-419. 8. Schapira, G.; Dreyfus, J. C.; Schapira, F., and Kruh, J.: Glycogenolytic Enzymes in Human Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Amer. J. Phys. Med. 34:313, 1955. 9. Dreyfus, J. C.; Schapira, G., and Schapira, F.: Serum Enzymes in the Physiopathology of Muscle , Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 75:235, 1958.Crossref 10. Soltan, H. C., and Blanchaer, M. C.: Activity of Serum Aldolase and Lactic Dehydrogenase in Patients Affected with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in Their Immediate Relatives , J. Pediat. 54:27, 1959.Crossref 11. Pearson, C. M.: Serum Enzymes in Muscular Dystrophy and Certain other Muscular and Neuromuscular Diseases: I. Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase , New Engl. J. Med. 256:1069, 1957.Crossref 12. Bourne, G. H., and Golarz, M. N.: Human Muscular Dystrophy as an Aberration of Connective Tissue , Nature (Lond.) 183:1741, 1959.Crossref 13. Ebashi, S.; Toyokura, Y.; Momai, H., and Sugita, H.: High Creatine-Phosphokinase Activity of Sera of Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , J. Biochem. 46:103, 1959. 14. Wacker, W. E., and Vallee, B. L.: Magnesium Metabolism , New Engl. J. Med. 259:431, 1958.Crossref 15. Weber, A.: On the Role of Calcium in the Activity of Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate Hydrolysis by Actomyosin , J. Biol. Chem. 234:2764, 1959. 16. Watanabe, S., and Sleator, W., Jr.: EDTA Relaxation of Glycerol-Treated Muscle Fibers and the Effects of Magnesium, Calcium and Manganese Ions , Arch. Biochem. 68:81, 1957.Crossref 17. Friedman, H. S., and Rubin, M. A.: Clinical Significance of the Magnesium Calcium Ratio: Technique for the Determination of Magnesium and Calcium in Biologic Fluids , Clin. Chem. 1:125, 1955. 18. Hein, R. E., and Clegg, R. E.: A Laboratory Experiment on Exchange and Binding of Ca45 by Serum Proteins , J. Chem. Ed. 33:320, 1956.Crossref 19. Gornall, A. G.; Bardawill, C. J., and David, M. M.: Determination of Serum Proteins by Means of the Biuret Reaction , J. Biol. Chem. 177:751, 1949. 20. Instruction Manual for RIM 5 Spinco Model R. Paper Electrophoresis System, Beckman Spinco Division , Palo Alto, Calif., pp. 48-50. 21. Danowski, T. S.; Wirth, P. M.; Leinberger, M. H.; Randall, L. A., and Peters, J. H.: Muscular Dystrophy: III. Serum and Blood Solutes and Other Laboratory Indices , A.M.A. J. Dis. Child. 91:346, 1956.Crossref 22. Milhorat, A. T., and Toscani, V.: Studies in Diseases of Muscle: Metabolism of Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy, Myotonia Atrophica and Familial Periodic Paralysis , Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 41: 1130, 1939.Crossref 23. Hellman, L.; Zumoff, B.; Kanof, A., and Kramer, B.: Magnesium Kinetics in Muscular Dystrophy , A.M.A. J. Dis. Child. 98:520, 1959. 24. Hunter, G.: Calcium and Magnesium Content of Normal Human Blood Serum , Nature (Lond.) 182:263, 1958.Crossref 25. Flink, E. B.: Magnesium Deficiency Syndrome in Man , J.A.M.A. 160:1406, 1956.Crossref 26. Martin, H. E., and Wertman, M.: Serum Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium Levels in Diabetic Acidosis , J. Clin. Invest. 26:217, 1947.Crossref 27. Martin, H. E.; Mehl, J. W., and Wertman, M.: Symposium on Recent Advances in Medicine: Clinical Studies of Magnesium Metabolism , Med. Clin. N. Amer. 36:1157, 1952. 28. Copeland, B. E., and Sunderman, W. F.: Studies in Serum Electrolytes: The Magnesium-Binding Property of the Serum Proteins , J. Biol. Chem. 197:331, 1952. 29. Carr, C. W., and Woods, K. R.: Studies on the Binding of Small Ions in Protein Solutions with the Use of Membrane Electrodes: V. The Binding of Magnesium Ions in Solutions of Various Proteins , Arch. Biochem. 55:1, 1955.Crossref 30. Prasad, A. S.; Flink, E. B., and Zinneman, H. H.: The Base Binding Property of the Serum Proteins with Respect to Magnesium , J. Lab. Clin. Med. 54:357, 1959. 31. Johnson, P. C.; Smith, W. O., and Wulff, B.: Calcium-45 Binding by Human Prealbumin , J. Appl. Physiol. 14:859, 1959. 32. Smith, H. L.; Fischer, R. L., and Etteldorf, J. N.: Studies of Serum Calcium and Magnesium in Muscular Dystrophy , Amer. J. Dis. Child. 100:714, 1960. 33. Toribara, T. Y.; Terepka, A. R., and Dewey, P. A.: The Ultrafiltrable Calcium of Human Serum: I. Ultrafiltration Methods and Normal Values , J. Clin. Invest. 36:738, 1957.Crossref 34. Hopkins, T.; Howard, J. E., and Eisenberg, H.: Ultrafiltration Studies on Calcium and Phosphorus in Human Serum , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 91:1, 1952. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Diseases of Children American Medical Association

Magnesium and Calcium in Human Muscular Dystrophy: Complexometric Analyses of Serum and Serum Ultrafiltrates

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1962 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0002-922X
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1962.02080020788006
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Abstract

Abstract Human muscular dystrophy is a condition of unknown etiology which produces progressive and severe dysfunction of symmetrical groups of skeletal muscle. Although its clinical manifestations1-3 and patterns of heredity4-6 have long been recognized, relatively little attention has been given the study of distribution and utilization of metal ions in this disorder. In recent years, new impetus has been given the study of metal ions in health and disease by the increasing recognition of their important influences upon activities of enzymes. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal activities of various glycogenolytic enzymes,7-9 transaminase,10 nucleotidase,11 and creatine phosphokinase12 have been described. It is well known that all of the enzymes which catalyze the transfer of phosphate from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a phosphate receptor, or from a phosphorylated compound to adenosine diphosphate, (ADP) are activated by magnesium. Since ATP is necessary in such diverse functions as muscle contraction; References 1. Shank, R. E.; Gilder, H., and Hoagland, C. L.: Studies on Diseases of Muscle: I. Progressive Muscular Dystrophy; A Clinical Review of 40 Cases , Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 52:431, 1944.Crossref 2. Hsia, D. Y.: The Muscular Dystrophies , in Inborn Errors of Metabolism , Chicago, The Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1959, Chap. 13, pp. 256-264. 3. Adams, R. D., and Denny-Brown, D.: Muscular Dystrophies , in Diseases of Muscle: A Study in Pathology , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., Medical Book Dept. of Harper & Brothers, 1953, Chap. 6, pp. 239-283. 4. Tyler, F. H., and Stephens, F. E.: Studies in Disorders of Muscle: Clinical Manifestations and Inheritance of Childhood Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Ann. Intern. Med. 35:169, 1951Crossref 5. Ann. Intern. Med. 35:1164, 1951. 6. Morton, N. E., and Chung, C. S.: Formal Genetics of Muscular Dystrophy , Amer. J. Hum. Genet. 11:360, 1959. 7. Walton, J. N.: Genetic Aspects of Muscular and Neuromuscular Diseases , in Structure and Function of Muscle, Vol. III, Pharmacology and Diseases , edited by G. H. Bourne, New York, Academic Press, Inc., 1960, Chap. XII, pp. 395-419. 8. Schapira, G.; Dreyfus, J. C.; Schapira, F., and Kruh, J.: Glycogenolytic Enzymes in Human Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , Amer. J. Phys. Med. 34:313, 1955. 9. Dreyfus, J. C.; Schapira, G., and Schapira, F.: Serum Enzymes in the Physiopathology of Muscle , Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 75:235, 1958.Crossref 10. Soltan, H. C., and Blanchaer, M. C.: Activity of Serum Aldolase and Lactic Dehydrogenase in Patients Affected with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and in Their Immediate Relatives , J. Pediat. 54:27, 1959.Crossref 11. Pearson, C. M.: Serum Enzymes in Muscular Dystrophy and Certain other Muscular and Neuromuscular Diseases: I. Serum Glutamic Oxalacetic Transaminase , New Engl. J. Med. 256:1069, 1957.Crossref 12. Bourne, G. H., and Golarz, M. N.: Human Muscular Dystrophy as an Aberration of Connective Tissue , Nature (Lond.) 183:1741, 1959.Crossref 13. Ebashi, S.; Toyokura, Y.; Momai, H., and Sugita, H.: High Creatine-Phosphokinase Activity of Sera of Progressive Muscular Dystrophy , J. Biochem. 46:103, 1959. 14. Wacker, W. E., and Vallee, B. L.: Magnesium Metabolism , New Engl. J. Med. 259:431, 1958.Crossref 15. Weber, A.: On the Role of Calcium in the Activity of Adenosine 5′-Triphosphate Hydrolysis by Actomyosin , J. Biol. Chem. 234:2764, 1959. 16. Watanabe, S., and Sleator, W., Jr.: EDTA Relaxation of Glycerol-Treated Muscle Fibers and the Effects of Magnesium, Calcium and Manganese Ions , Arch. Biochem. 68:81, 1957.Crossref 17. Friedman, H. S., and Rubin, M. A.: Clinical Significance of the Magnesium Calcium Ratio: Technique for the Determination of Magnesium and Calcium in Biologic Fluids , Clin. Chem. 1:125, 1955. 18. Hein, R. E., and Clegg, R. E.: A Laboratory Experiment on Exchange and Binding of Ca45 by Serum Proteins , J. Chem. Ed. 33:320, 1956.Crossref 19. Gornall, A. G.; Bardawill, C. J., and David, M. M.: Determination of Serum Proteins by Means of the Biuret Reaction , J. Biol. Chem. 177:751, 1949. 20. Instruction Manual for RIM 5 Spinco Model R. Paper Electrophoresis System, Beckman Spinco Division , Palo Alto, Calif., pp. 48-50. 21. Danowski, T. S.; Wirth, P. M.; Leinberger, M. H.; Randall, L. A., and Peters, J. H.: Muscular Dystrophy: III. Serum and Blood Solutes and Other Laboratory Indices , A.M.A. J. Dis. Child. 91:346, 1956.Crossref 22. Milhorat, A. T., and Toscani, V.: Studies in Diseases of Muscle: Metabolism of Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium in Progressive Muscular Dystrophy, Myotonia Atrophica and Familial Periodic Paralysis , Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 41: 1130, 1939.Crossref 23. Hellman, L.; Zumoff, B.; Kanof, A., and Kramer, B.: Magnesium Kinetics in Muscular Dystrophy , A.M.A. J. Dis. Child. 98:520, 1959. 24. Hunter, G.: Calcium and Magnesium Content of Normal Human Blood Serum , Nature (Lond.) 182:263, 1958.Crossref 25. Flink, E. B.: Magnesium Deficiency Syndrome in Man , J.A.M.A. 160:1406, 1956.Crossref 26. Martin, H. E., and Wertman, M.: Serum Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium Levels in Diabetic Acidosis , J. Clin. Invest. 26:217, 1947.Crossref 27. Martin, H. E.; Mehl, J. W., and Wertman, M.: Symposium on Recent Advances in Medicine: Clinical Studies of Magnesium Metabolism , Med. Clin. N. Amer. 36:1157, 1952. 28. Copeland, B. E., and Sunderman, W. F.: Studies in Serum Electrolytes: The Magnesium-Binding Property of the Serum Proteins , J. Biol. Chem. 197:331, 1952. 29. Carr, C. W., and Woods, K. R.: Studies on the Binding of Small Ions in Protein Solutions with the Use of Membrane Electrodes: V. The Binding of Magnesium Ions in Solutions of Various Proteins , Arch. Biochem. 55:1, 1955.Crossref 30. Prasad, A. S.; Flink, E. B., and Zinneman, H. H.: The Base Binding Property of the Serum Proteins with Respect to Magnesium , J. Lab. Clin. Med. 54:357, 1959. 31. Johnson, P. C.; Smith, W. O., and Wulff, B.: Calcium-45 Binding by Human Prealbumin , J. Appl. Physiol. 14:859, 1959. 32. Smith, H. L.; Fischer, R. L., and Etteldorf, J. N.: Studies of Serum Calcium and Magnesium in Muscular Dystrophy , Amer. J. Dis. Child. 100:714, 1960. 33. Toribara, T. Y.; Terepka, A. R., and Dewey, P. A.: The Ultrafiltrable Calcium of Human Serum: I. Ultrafiltration Methods and Normal Values , J. Clin. Invest. 36:738, 1957.Crossref 34. Hopkins, T.; Howard, J. E., and Eisenberg, H.: Ultrafiltration Studies on Calcium and Phosphorus in Human Serum , Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 91:1, 1952.

Journal

American Journal of Diseases of ChildrenAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1962

References