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Longitudinal Head Growth in Developmentally Normal Preterm Infants

Longitudinal Head Growth in Developmentally Normal Preterm Infants Abstract Objective: To determine growth in head circumference from birth to 18 months of age in normal infants with low birth weight. Methods: Healthy, appropriate-for-gestational-age, singleton, white infants weighing less than or equal to 2500 g at birth and with normal development at 18 months of age were included in this study. Serial measurements of head circumference (corrected for gestational age) from 450 eligible infants were compared with reference data for head circumference. Results: Longitudinal measurements of head circumference for infants weighing more than 1000 g at birth were similar to reference data for term infants. Head measurements for infants weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth were notably smaller than the measurements in the reference data. A cubic spline curve drawn through the head circumference measurements between birth and age 18 months (corrected for gestational age) for infants weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth was significantly (P<.001) below the curve for infants weighing more than 1000 g at birth. At age 18 months, the mean difference in head circumference between the group weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth and the weights in the reference data was 1.6 cm (P<.01). (Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon's signed rank test.) Conclusions: These data show that head circumference grids are appropriate for observing head growth in infants with a birth weight more than 1000 g. However, head circumference growth for normal infants with birth weight less than or equal to 1000 g does not "catch up" with that of larger premature infants or term infants.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:1358-1361) References 1. Nellhaus G. Head circumference growth in North American Negro children . Pediatrics . 1970:46:817-820. 2. Pryor HB, Thelander H. Abnormally small head size and intellect in children . J Pediatr . 1968;73:593-598.Crossref 3. Hack M, Breslau N, Weissman B, Aram D, Klein N, Borawski E. Effect of very low birth weight and subnormal head size on cognitive abilities at school age . N Engl J Med . 1991;325:231-237.Crossref 4. Babson SG, Benda GI. Growth graphs for the clinical assessment of infants of varying gestational age . J Pediatr . 1976;89:814-820.Crossref 5. Lubchenco LO, Hansman C, Boyd E. Intrauterine growth in length and head circumference as estimated from live births at gestational ages from 26 to 42 weeks . Pediatrics . 1966;37:403-408. 6. Lubchenco LO, Hansman C, Dressier M, Boyd E. Intrauterine growth as estimated from liveborn birth-weight data at 24 to 42 weeks of gestation . Pediatrics . 1963;32:793-800. 7. Wright K, Dawson JP, Fallis D, Vogt E, Lorch V. New postnatal growth grids for very low birth weight infants . Pediatrics . 1993;91:922-926. 8. Raymond GV, Holmes LB. Head circumference standards in neonates . J Child Neurol . 1994;9:63-66.Crossref 9. Ballard JL, Novak KK, Driver M. A simplified score for assessment of fetal maturation of newly born infants . J Pediatr . 1979;95:769-774.Crossref 10. Hamill PW, Drizid TA, Johnson CL, Reed DB, Roche AF. NCHS Growth Curves for Children: Birth-18 Years . In: Hamill PVV, ed. Washington, DC: Vital Health Statistics Health Resources Administration; 1974. US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication PHS78-1650. 11. Nellhaus G. Head circumference from birth to eighteen years . Pediatrics . 1968; 41:106-113. 12. Usher R, McLean F. Intrauterine growth of liveborn caucasian infants at sea level: standards obtained in seven dimensions of infants born between 25 and 42 weeks of gestation . J Pediatr . 1969;74:901-910.Crossref 13. Keen DV, Pearse RG. Weight, length, and head circumference curves for boys and girls of between 20 and 42 weeks' gestation . Arch Dis Child . 1988;63: 1170-1172.Crossref 14. Moore WHO, Ward BS, Jones VP, Bamford FN. Sex difference in fetal head growth . Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1988;95:238-242.Crossref 15. Wong KS, Scott KE. Fetal growth at sea level . Biol Neonate . 1972;20:175-188.Crossref 16. Wingerd J, Schoen EJ, Solomon IL. Growth standards in the first two years of life based on measurements of white and black children in a prepaid health care program . Pediatrics . 1971;47:818-825. 17. Sher PK, Brown SB. A longitudinal study of head growth in preterm infants, II: differentiation between 'catch-up' head growth and early infantile hydrocephalus . Dev Med Child Neurol . 1975;17:711-718.Crossref 18. Fujimoto S, Ishikawa T, Togari H, Kanayama M, Okajima K, Inukai K. Postnatal head growth in very premature infants with good outcome . Acta Paediatr Jpn . 1991;33:83-86.Crossref 19. Volpe JJ. Neurology of the Newborn . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1995:95-124. 20. Hack M, Taylor HG, Klein N, Eiben R, Schatschneider C, Mercuri-Minich N. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g . N Engl J Med . 1994:331:753-759.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine American Medical Association

Longitudinal Head Growth in Developmentally Normal Preterm Infants

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1995 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
1072-4710
eISSN
1538-3628
DOI
10.1001/archpedi.1995.02170250064011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective: To determine growth in head circumference from birth to 18 months of age in normal infants with low birth weight. Methods: Healthy, appropriate-for-gestational-age, singleton, white infants weighing less than or equal to 2500 g at birth and with normal development at 18 months of age were included in this study. Serial measurements of head circumference (corrected for gestational age) from 450 eligible infants were compared with reference data for head circumference. Results: Longitudinal measurements of head circumference for infants weighing more than 1000 g at birth were similar to reference data for term infants. Head measurements for infants weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth were notably smaller than the measurements in the reference data. A cubic spline curve drawn through the head circumference measurements between birth and age 18 months (corrected for gestational age) for infants weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth was significantly (P<.001) below the curve for infants weighing more than 1000 g at birth. At age 18 months, the mean difference in head circumference between the group weighing less than or equal to 1000 g at birth and the weights in the reference data was 1.6 cm (P<.01). (Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon's signed rank test.) Conclusions: These data show that head circumference grids are appropriate for observing head growth in infants with a birth weight more than 1000 g. However, head circumference growth for normal infants with birth weight less than or equal to 1000 g does not "catch up" with that of larger premature infants or term infants.(Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:1358-1361) References 1. Nellhaus G. Head circumference growth in North American Negro children . Pediatrics . 1970:46:817-820. 2. Pryor HB, Thelander H. Abnormally small head size and intellect in children . J Pediatr . 1968;73:593-598.Crossref 3. Hack M, Breslau N, Weissman B, Aram D, Klein N, Borawski E. Effect of very low birth weight and subnormal head size on cognitive abilities at school age . N Engl J Med . 1991;325:231-237.Crossref 4. Babson SG, Benda GI. Growth graphs for the clinical assessment of infants of varying gestational age . J Pediatr . 1976;89:814-820.Crossref 5. Lubchenco LO, Hansman C, Boyd E. Intrauterine growth in length and head circumference as estimated from live births at gestational ages from 26 to 42 weeks . Pediatrics . 1966;37:403-408. 6. Lubchenco LO, Hansman C, Dressier M, Boyd E. Intrauterine growth as estimated from liveborn birth-weight data at 24 to 42 weeks of gestation . Pediatrics . 1963;32:793-800. 7. Wright K, Dawson JP, Fallis D, Vogt E, Lorch V. New postnatal growth grids for very low birth weight infants . Pediatrics . 1993;91:922-926. 8. Raymond GV, Holmes LB. Head circumference standards in neonates . J Child Neurol . 1994;9:63-66.Crossref 9. Ballard JL, Novak KK, Driver M. A simplified score for assessment of fetal maturation of newly born infants . J Pediatr . 1979;95:769-774.Crossref 10. Hamill PW, Drizid TA, Johnson CL, Reed DB, Roche AF. NCHS Growth Curves for Children: Birth-18 Years . In: Hamill PVV, ed. Washington, DC: Vital Health Statistics Health Resources Administration; 1974. US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare publication PHS78-1650. 11. Nellhaus G. Head circumference from birth to eighteen years . Pediatrics . 1968; 41:106-113. 12. Usher R, McLean F. Intrauterine growth of liveborn caucasian infants at sea level: standards obtained in seven dimensions of infants born between 25 and 42 weeks of gestation . J Pediatr . 1969;74:901-910.Crossref 13. Keen DV, Pearse RG. Weight, length, and head circumference curves for boys and girls of between 20 and 42 weeks' gestation . Arch Dis Child . 1988;63: 1170-1172.Crossref 14. Moore WHO, Ward BS, Jones VP, Bamford FN. Sex difference in fetal head growth . Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1988;95:238-242.Crossref 15. Wong KS, Scott KE. Fetal growth at sea level . Biol Neonate . 1972;20:175-188.Crossref 16. Wingerd J, Schoen EJ, Solomon IL. Growth standards in the first two years of life based on measurements of white and black children in a prepaid health care program . Pediatrics . 1971;47:818-825. 17. Sher PK, Brown SB. A longitudinal study of head growth in preterm infants, II: differentiation between 'catch-up' head growth and early infantile hydrocephalus . Dev Med Child Neurol . 1975;17:711-718.Crossref 18. Fujimoto S, Ishikawa T, Togari H, Kanayama M, Okajima K, Inukai K. Postnatal head growth in very premature infants with good outcome . Acta Paediatr Jpn . 1991;33:83-86.Crossref 19. Volpe JJ. Neurology of the Newborn . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1995:95-124. 20. Hack M, Taylor HG, Klein N, Eiben R, Schatschneider C, Mercuri-Minich N. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g . N Engl J Med . 1994:331:753-759.Crossref

Journal

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent MedicineAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1995

References