Abstract • The effect of endotoxin tolerance on ocular inflammation was studied in rabbits. A single intravenous (IV) injection of endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) produced a mild acute iridocyclitis. Repeated daily (five to seven days) IV injections of LPS (5 μg extracted from Salmonella typhimurium) led to a state of refractoriness or LPS "tolerance," and ocular inflammation was no longer produced. In contrast to controls, in rabbits tolerant to LPS, IV LPS failed to elevate prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, or chemotactic factors in the aqueous humor. Rabbits tolerant to LPS also resisted the increase in vascular permeability normally induced by an ocular reversed passive Arthus reaction. These results demonstrated that LPS tolerance can induce anti-inflammatory effects in the eye. References 1. Morrison DC, Ulevitch RJ: The effect of bacterial endotoxin on host mediation systems . Am J Pathol 1978;93:527-617. 2. McKay DG: Acute inflammation of the circulating blood . Pathobiol Annu 1973;3:71-106. 3. Howes EL Jr, Aronson SB, McKay DG: Ocular vascular permeability: Effect of systemic administration of bacterial endotoxin . Arch Ophthalmol 1970;84:360-367.Crossref 4. Ayo C: Toxic ocular reaction: New property of Shwartzman toxins . J Immunol 1943;46:113-125. 5. Cousins SW, Rosenbaum JT, Guss RB, et al: Ocular albumin fluorophotometric quantitation of endotoxin induced vascular permeability . Infect Immun 1982;36:730-736. 6. Levene RZ, Breinen GM: Ocular effects of endotoxin . Arch Ophthalmol 1957;61:568-577.Crossref 7. Greisman SE, Hornick RB: Mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance with special reference to man . J Infect Dis 1973;128( (suppl) ):257-268.Crossref 8. Young LS, Steven P, Ingram J: Functional role of antibody against 'core' glycolipid of enterobacteriaceae . J Clin Invest 1975;56:850-861.Crossref 9. Johnson KJ, Ward PA, Goralnick S, et al: Isolation from human serum of an inactivator of bacterial lipopolysaccharide . 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Perez HD, Lipton M, Goldstein IM: A specific inhibitor of complement (C5)-derived chemotactic activity in serum from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus . J Clin Invest 1978;62:29-38.Crossref 17. Zigmond SH, Hirsch JG: Leukocyte locomotion and chemotaxis: New methods for evaluation and demonstration of a cell derived chemotactic factor . J Exp Med 1973;137:387-410.Crossref 18. Howes EL Jr, McKay DG: Comparison of the ocular effects of circulating endotoxin and immune complexes: Role of vasoactive amines . J Immunol 1975;114:734-737. 19. Rosenbaum JT, Wong K, Perez HD, et al: Characterization of endotoxin-induced C5-derived chemotactic activity in aqueous humor . Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1984;25:1184-1191. 20. Nowotny A, Behling UH: Studies on host defenses enhanced by endotoxin: A brief review . Klin Wochenschr 1982;60:735-739.Crossref 21. Cluff LE: Effects of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxins) on susceptibility to infections , in Kadis S, Weinbaum G, Ajl SJ (eds): Microbial Toxins . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1971, vol 5, pp 399-414. 22. Morrison DC, Ryan JL: Bacterial endotoxins and host immune responses . Adv Immunol 1979;28:293-450. 23. Urbaschek R, Urbaschek B: Aspects of beneficial endotoxin-mediated effects . Klin Wochenschr 1982;60:746-748.Crossref 24. Verghese MW, Snyderman R: Differential anti-inflammatory effects of LPS in susceptible and resistant mouse strains . J Immunol 1981;127:288-293. 25. Levene RZ: General and ocular effects of endotoxin . Surv Ophthalmol 1959;4:581-592. 26. Solomon HC, Kopp I: Fever therapy . N Engl J Med 1937;217:805-814.Crossref 27. Rosenbaum JT, Hartiala KT, Webster RO, et al: Antiinflammatory effects of endotoxin: Inhibition of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte responses to complement (C5)-derived peptides in vivo and in vitro . Am J Pathol 1983;113:291-299. 28. Rosenbaum JT, Howes EL Jr, Goldstein IM: Endotoxin tolerance diminishes some antiinflammatory effects of endotoxin , abstracted. Fed Proc 1982;41:558. 29. Crawford JP, Movat HZ, Ranadine NS, et al: Pathways to inflammation induced by immune complexes: Development of the Arthus reaction . Fed Proc 1982;41:2583-2587. 30. Bhattacherjee P, Phylactos A: Increased prostaglandin synthetase activity in inflamed tissues of the rabbit eye . Eur J Pharmacol 1977;44:75-80.Crossref 31. Eakins KE, Whitelocke RAF, Perkins ES, et al: Release of prostaglandins in ocular inflammation in rabbits . Nature New Biol 1972;239:248-249.Crossref 32. Wedmore C, Williams TJ: Control of vascular permeability by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in inflammation . Nature 1981;289:646-650.Crossref 33. Howes EL Jr, Rosenbaum JT: Lipopolysaccharide tolerance inhibits eye inflammation: II. Preliminary studies on the mechanism . Arch Ophthalmol 1985;103:261-265.Crossref
Archives of Ophthalmology – American Medical Association
Published: Feb 1, 1985
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