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Leukonychia: Total and Partial Leukonychia in a Single Family With a Review of the Literature

Leukonychia: Total and Partial Leukonychia in a Single Family With a Review of the Literature Abstract Leukonychia totalis is described in a mother and leukonychia partialis in her two daughters. This is the first report of hereditary leukonychia of two different types in one family. A survey of reported cases of hereditary, congenital, and acquired leukonychia is included. There are four major types of leukonychia: Total, partial, striate, and punctate. All but the punctate type may be congential or hereditary. Inheritance appears to be of the autosomal dominant type. All four forms may be acquired. Total and partial leukonychia usually follow a severe, long-standing systemic disorder or local insult. Leukonychia striata may follow either a relatively short or recurrent systemic disorder or local trauma. Leukonychia punctata is a very common phenomenon and appears to result from periodic minor local trauma to the nail matrix. Pathogenesis of leukonychia is not established with certainty. Opacity of the nail plate due to abnormal keratinization probably is the primary defect. References 1. References 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 19, 23. 2. References 19, 27, 37, 46, 56, 63, 69, 70. 3. Wilks, S.: Markings or Furrows on Nails as the Result of Illness , Lancet 1:5-6, 1869.Crossref 4. Murchison, C.: Continued Fevers of Great Britain , ed 2, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1873, p 136. 5. Geber, E.: in Handbook of Diseases of the Skin , H. Ziemssen, ed., New York: William Wood and Company, 1885, p 485. 6. Unna, P. G.: in International Atlas of Rare Skin Diseases , Hamburg and Leipzig: L. Voss, 1891, (plate 19) . 7. Giovannini, S.: in International Atlas of Rare Skin Diseases , Hamburg and Leipzig: L. Voss, 1891, (plate 19) . 8. Unna, P. G.: Histopathology of Diseases of Skin , New York: Macmillan and Company, 1896, pp 1047-1058. 9. Weber, F. P.: Some Pathologic Conditions of Nails , Int Clin 1:108-130, 1918. 10. Sibley, K.: Leuconychia Striata , Brit J Derm Syph 34:238-239, 1922.Crossref 11. Mitchell, J. C.: Clinical Study of Leukonychia , Brit J Derm 65:121-130, 1953.Crossref 12. Bauer, A. W.: Beitrage zur klinischen Konstitutionspathologie V. heredofamiliare Leukonychie und multiple atherombildung der Kopfhaut , Z Ang Anat 5:47-58, 1920. 13. Samuel, H. C.: Case of Leucodermia and Melanodermia Associated With Leuconychia , Brit J Child Dis 16:217, 1919. 14. Graciansky, P. de et Boulle, S.: Association de koilonychie et de leuconychie transmises en dominance , Bull Soc Franc Derm Syph 68:15-17, 1961. 15. Bettmann, S.: Uber Leukonychia Totalis , Derm Z 13:461-469, 1906.Crossref 16. Gutman, P.: Einen Fall von Leukonychia Totalis , Klin Wschr 50:1459, 1913. 17. Fox, H., and Pisko: Leukonychia in Three Generations , J Cutan Dis 35:559, 1917. 18. Stubenbord, J. G., III: Leukonychia Totalis , US Naval Med Bull 49:710-712, 1949. 19. Kruse, W. T.; Cawley, E. P.; and Cotterman, C. W.: Hereditary Leuconychia Totalis , J Invest Derm 17:135-140, 1951.Crossref 20. Medansky, R. S., and Fox, J. M.: Hereditary Leukonychia Totalis , AMA Arch Derm 82:412-414, 1960.Crossref 21. Juhlin, L.: Hereditary Leukonychia , Acta Dermatovener (Stockholm) 43:136-141, 1963. 22. Lawrence, H.: Leucopathia Unguium , Aust Med J 15:483, 1893. 23. Samuel, H. C.: Case of Leucodermia and Melanodermia Associated With Leuconychia , Proc Roy Soc Med 12:58-59, 1918-1919. 24. DuBois, C.: Un cas de leuconychie semilunaire congenitale , Schweiz Med Wschr 58:422, 1928. 25. Cockayne, E. A.: Inherited Abnormalities of Skin and Its Appendages , London: Oxford University Press, 1933, pp 272-273. 26. Hedderich: Uber Leukonychia Totalis , Derm Zbl 13:264, 1910. 27. Costa, O. G.: Leuconiquia Total Congenita , Ann Brasil Derm Syph 22:147-149, 1947. 28. Lingamfelter, C. S., and Whitmore, C. W.: Leuconychia Totalis , Virginia Med Monthly 81:68, 1954. 29. Becker, S. W.: Leukonychia Striata , Arch Derm Syph 21:957-960, 1930.Crossref 30. Pardo-Castello, V., and Pardo, O. A.: Diseases of Nails , ed 3, Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1960, pp 132-133. 31. Stubenbord, J. G., and Stubenbord, W. D.: Leukonychia Totalis , Arch Derm Syph 32:761-763, 1935.Crossref 32. Terry, R.: White Nails in Hepatic Cirrhosis , Lancet 266:757-759, 1954.Crossref 33. Bernstein, E. T., and Goldberger, L.: Acute Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 57:542, 1948. 34. Michelson, H. E.: Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 39:1092, 1939. 35. Almeida, N. de, Jr.: Leuconiquia Emetinica , Hospital (Rio) 28:67-71, 1945. 36. Alkiewicz, J.: Spostrzezenia kliniczne i Badania histopatologiczne Zjawiska Bielactwa mglawego Paznokci w Przbiegu Wlosnicy (Histopathologic Study of Leukonychia in Trichinosis) , Pol Tyg Lek 2:1200-1204, 1947. 37. Samuel, H. C.: Case of Leuconychia , Proc Roy Soc Med 12:57-58, 1918-1919. 38. O'Donovan, W. J.: Affections of Nails , Practitioner 141:177-185, 1938. 39. Thal, M.: Leukonychie als berufschaden im Fleischereigewerbe , Derm Wschr 134:1178-1183, 1956. 40. Eller, J. J., and Anderson, N. P.: Leuconychia Totalis , Med J Record 127:318-319, 1928. 41. Joseph, M.: Leukonychie , Derm Z 5:651-654, 1898. 42. Joseph, M.: Ueber Nagelkrankheiten , Berl Klinik 173:25-31, 1902. 43. Weiss, L.: Leukonychia , J Cutan Dis 36:594-595, 1918. 44. Pernet, G.: Case of Multiple Leuconychia Striata, Associated With Leuconychia Totalis of One Thumb Nail , Proc Roy Soc Med 12:28-29, 1919. 45. Fearnsides, E. G.: Case Showing an Abnormal Condition of Nails of Hands Associated With Secondary Carcinomatosis , Proc Roy Soc Med 5:102-104, 1912. 46. Brauns, T.: Zur kenntnis der Leukonychie , Arch F Derm u Syph 67:63-71, 1903.Crossref 47. Morey, D. A. J., and Burke, J. O.: Distinctive Nail Changes in Advanced Hepatic Cirrhosis , Gastroenterology 29:258-261, 1955. 48. Heidingsfeld, M. L.: Leucopathia Unguium , J Cutan Dis 18:490-499, 1900. 49. Fraser, J. F.: Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 16:359-360, 1927. 50. Netherton, E. W.: Leukonychia Striata , JAMA 93:116, 1929.Crossref 51. Josephson, E. M., and Lerner, C.: Leukonychia and "Colds," Arch Derm Syph 29:703-705, 1934.Crossref 52. Urbach, E.: White Cross Striae of Finger Nails Following Cardiac Infarction , Arch Derm Syph 52:106-107, 1945.Crossref 53. Costa, O. G., and Horizonte, B.: Leukonychia Striata Semilunaris , Arch Derm Syph 54:60-61, 1946.Crossref 54. Muehrcke, R. C.: Finger-Nails in Chronic Hypoalbuminemia , Brit Med J 1:1327-1328, 1956.Crossref 55. Donald, G. F.; Hunter, G. A.; and Gillam, B. D.: Transverse Leukonychia Due to Pellagra , Arch Derm 85:530-531, 1962.Crossref 56. Stout, F. J.: Leukopathia Unguium , Med News (Philadelphia) 64:212-213, 1894. 57. Woolf, M. S.: Leukonychia Striata , Arch Derm Syph 12:520-521, 1925.Crossref 58. Sibley, W. K.: Discoloratio Unguium: 1. Leucopathia Unguium; 2. Ungues Flavi , Brit J Derm 23:281-291, 1911.Crossref 59. Abramowitz, E. W.: "Discussion on Bernstein, E. T. and Goldberger, L.," in Acute Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 57:542, 1948.Crossref 60. Reynolds, E. S.: Account of Epidemic Outbreak of Arsenical Poisoning Occurring in Beer-Drinkers in North of England and Midland Counties in 1900 , Lancet 1:166-170, 1901.Crossref 61. Aldrich, C. J.: Leuconychia Striata Arsenic alis Transversus , Amer J Med Sci 127:702-709, 1904.Crossref 62. Mees, R. A.: Een Verschijnsel Bij Polyneuritis Arsenicosa , Nederl T Geneesk 1:391-396, 1919. 63. Heller, J.: Handbuch der Haut-und Geschlechts-Krankheiten , Berlin: Julius Springer, 1927, pp 123-130. 64. Jenkins, R. B.: Reynolds, Aldrich or Mees? Consideration of Transverse Striate Leukonychia , Amer J Med Sci 246:707-709, 1963.Crossref 65. Singer, P. L.: Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 24:112-115, 1931.Crossref 66. Morison, R. B.: Leucopathia Unguium, Peculiar Affection of Nails , Med News (Philadelphia) 51:430-431, 1887. 67. Burrows, M. T.: Significance of Lunula of Nail , Hopkins Hosp Rep 18:357-361, 1919. 68. Pillsbury, D. M.; Shelley, W. B.; and Kligman, A. M.: Dermatology , Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1956, pp 33-34. 69. Sulzberger, M. B., and Baer, R. L.: Yearbook of Dermatology and Syphilology , Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1953-1954, p 261. 70. Pfister, R.: Dermatologie und Venerologie , H. A. Gottron, and W. Schonfeld, ed., Stuttgart: G. Thieme, 1959, vol 3, p 924. 71. Alkiewicz, J.: Etúde Clinique et Histologique de la Leuconychie , Ann Derm Syph 7:99, 1936. 72. Alkiewicz, J., and Majewski, C.: Contribution to Histopathology of Changes in Human Nails in Exanthematous Fever , Bull Soc Amis Sci Poznan (Med) 6:105-110, 1956. 73. Sykes, W.: White Specks in Nails , Brit Med J 2:1260, 1897. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Leukonychia: Total and Partial Leukonychia in a Single Family With a Review of the Literature

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1964 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1964.01600040020003
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Abstract

Abstract Leukonychia totalis is described in a mother and leukonychia partialis in her two daughters. This is the first report of hereditary leukonychia of two different types in one family. A survey of reported cases of hereditary, congenital, and acquired leukonychia is included. There are four major types of leukonychia: Total, partial, striate, and punctate. All but the punctate type may be congential or hereditary. Inheritance appears to be of the autosomal dominant type. All four forms may be acquired. Total and partial leukonychia usually follow a severe, long-standing systemic disorder or local insult. Leukonychia striata may follow either a relatively short or recurrent systemic disorder or local trauma. Leukonychia punctata is a very common phenomenon and appears to result from periodic minor local trauma to the nail matrix. Pathogenesis of leukonychia is not established with certainty. Opacity of the nail plate due to abnormal keratinization probably is the primary defect. References 1. References 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 19, 23. 2. References 19, 27, 37, 46, 56, 63, 69, 70. 3. Wilks, S.: Markings or Furrows on Nails as the Result of Illness , Lancet 1:5-6, 1869.Crossref 4. Murchison, C.: Continued Fevers of Great Britain , ed 2, London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1873, p 136. 5. Geber, E.: in Handbook of Diseases of the Skin , H. Ziemssen, ed., New York: William Wood and Company, 1885, p 485. 6. Unna, P. G.: in International Atlas of Rare Skin Diseases , Hamburg and Leipzig: L. Voss, 1891, (plate 19) . 7. Giovannini, S.: in International Atlas of Rare Skin Diseases , Hamburg and Leipzig: L. Voss, 1891, (plate 19) . 8. Unna, P. G.: Histopathology of Diseases of Skin , New York: Macmillan and Company, 1896, pp 1047-1058. 9. Weber, F. P.: Some Pathologic Conditions of Nails , Int Clin 1:108-130, 1918. 10. Sibley, K.: Leuconychia Striata , Brit J Derm Syph 34:238-239, 1922.Crossref 11. Mitchell, J. C.: Clinical Study of Leukonychia , Brit J Derm 65:121-130, 1953.Crossref 12. Bauer, A. W.: Beitrage zur klinischen Konstitutionspathologie V. heredofamiliare Leukonychie und multiple atherombildung der Kopfhaut , Z Ang Anat 5:47-58, 1920. 13. Samuel, H. C.: Case of Leucodermia and Melanodermia Associated With Leuconychia , Brit J Child Dis 16:217, 1919. 14. Graciansky, P. de et Boulle, S.: Association de koilonychie et de leuconychie transmises en dominance , Bull Soc Franc Derm Syph 68:15-17, 1961. 15. Bettmann, S.: Uber Leukonychia Totalis , Derm Z 13:461-469, 1906.Crossref 16. Gutman, P.: Einen Fall von Leukonychia Totalis , Klin Wschr 50:1459, 1913. 17. Fox, H., and Pisko: Leukonychia in Three Generations , J Cutan Dis 35:559, 1917. 18. Stubenbord, J. G., III: Leukonychia Totalis , US Naval Med Bull 49:710-712, 1949. 19. Kruse, W. T.; Cawley, E. P.; and Cotterman, C. W.: Hereditary Leuconychia Totalis , J Invest Derm 17:135-140, 1951.Crossref 20. Medansky, R. S., and Fox, J. M.: Hereditary Leukonychia Totalis , AMA Arch Derm 82:412-414, 1960.Crossref 21. Juhlin, L.: Hereditary Leukonychia , Acta Dermatovener (Stockholm) 43:136-141, 1963. 22. Lawrence, H.: Leucopathia Unguium , Aust Med J 15:483, 1893. 23. Samuel, H. C.: Case of Leucodermia and Melanodermia Associated With Leuconychia , Proc Roy Soc Med 12:58-59, 1918-1919. 24. DuBois, C.: Un cas de leuconychie semilunaire congenitale , Schweiz Med Wschr 58:422, 1928. 25. Cockayne, E. A.: Inherited Abnormalities of Skin and Its Appendages , London: Oxford University Press, 1933, pp 272-273. 26. Hedderich: Uber Leukonychia Totalis , Derm Zbl 13:264, 1910. 27. Costa, O. G.: Leuconiquia Total Congenita , Ann Brasil Derm Syph 22:147-149, 1947. 28. Lingamfelter, C. S., and Whitmore, C. W.: Leuconychia Totalis , Virginia Med Monthly 81:68, 1954. 29. Becker, S. W.: Leukonychia Striata , Arch Derm Syph 21:957-960, 1930.Crossref 30. Pardo-Castello, V., and Pardo, O. A.: Diseases of Nails , ed 3, Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 1960, pp 132-133. 31. Stubenbord, J. G., and Stubenbord, W. D.: Leukonychia Totalis , Arch Derm Syph 32:761-763, 1935.Crossref 32. Terry, R.: White Nails in Hepatic Cirrhosis , Lancet 266:757-759, 1954.Crossref 33. Bernstein, E. T., and Goldberger, L.: Acute Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 57:542, 1948. 34. Michelson, H. E.: Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 39:1092, 1939. 35. Almeida, N. de, Jr.: Leuconiquia Emetinica , Hospital (Rio) 28:67-71, 1945. 36. Alkiewicz, J.: Spostrzezenia kliniczne i Badania histopatologiczne Zjawiska Bielactwa mglawego Paznokci w Przbiegu Wlosnicy (Histopathologic Study of Leukonychia in Trichinosis) , Pol Tyg Lek 2:1200-1204, 1947. 37. Samuel, H. C.: Case of Leuconychia , Proc Roy Soc Med 12:57-58, 1918-1919. 38. O'Donovan, W. J.: Affections of Nails , Practitioner 141:177-185, 1938. 39. Thal, M.: Leukonychie als berufschaden im Fleischereigewerbe , Derm Wschr 134:1178-1183, 1956. 40. Eller, J. J., and Anderson, N. P.: Leuconychia Totalis , Med J Record 127:318-319, 1928. 41. Joseph, M.: Leukonychie , Derm Z 5:651-654, 1898. 42. Joseph, M.: Ueber Nagelkrankheiten , Berl Klinik 173:25-31, 1902. 43. Weiss, L.: Leukonychia , J Cutan Dis 36:594-595, 1918. 44. Pernet, G.: Case of Multiple Leuconychia Striata, Associated With Leuconychia Totalis of One Thumb Nail , Proc Roy Soc Med 12:28-29, 1919. 45. Fearnsides, E. G.: Case Showing an Abnormal Condition of Nails of Hands Associated With Secondary Carcinomatosis , Proc Roy Soc Med 5:102-104, 1912. 46. Brauns, T.: Zur kenntnis der Leukonychie , Arch F Derm u Syph 67:63-71, 1903.Crossref 47. Morey, D. A. J., and Burke, J. O.: Distinctive Nail Changes in Advanced Hepatic Cirrhosis , Gastroenterology 29:258-261, 1955. 48. Heidingsfeld, M. L.: Leucopathia Unguium , J Cutan Dis 18:490-499, 1900. 49. Fraser, J. F.: Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 16:359-360, 1927. 50. Netherton, E. W.: Leukonychia Striata , JAMA 93:116, 1929.Crossref 51. Josephson, E. M., and Lerner, C.: Leukonychia and "Colds," Arch Derm Syph 29:703-705, 1934.Crossref 52. Urbach, E.: White Cross Striae of Finger Nails Following Cardiac Infarction , Arch Derm Syph 52:106-107, 1945.Crossref 53. Costa, O. G., and Horizonte, B.: Leukonychia Striata Semilunaris , Arch Derm Syph 54:60-61, 1946.Crossref 54. Muehrcke, R. C.: Finger-Nails in Chronic Hypoalbuminemia , Brit Med J 1:1327-1328, 1956.Crossref 55. Donald, G. F.; Hunter, G. A.; and Gillam, B. D.: Transverse Leukonychia Due to Pellagra , Arch Derm 85:530-531, 1962.Crossref 56. Stout, F. J.: Leukopathia Unguium , Med News (Philadelphia) 64:212-213, 1894. 57. Woolf, M. S.: Leukonychia Striata , Arch Derm Syph 12:520-521, 1925.Crossref 58. Sibley, W. K.: Discoloratio Unguium: 1. Leucopathia Unguium; 2. Ungues Flavi , Brit J Derm 23:281-291, 1911.Crossref 59. Abramowitz, E. W.: "Discussion on Bernstein, E. T. and Goldberger, L.," in Acute Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 57:542, 1948.Crossref 60. Reynolds, E. S.: Account of Epidemic Outbreak of Arsenical Poisoning Occurring in Beer-Drinkers in North of England and Midland Counties in 1900 , Lancet 1:166-170, 1901.Crossref 61. Aldrich, C. J.: Leuconychia Striata Arsenic alis Transversus , Amer J Med Sci 127:702-709, 1904.Crossref 62. Mees, R. A.: Een Verschijnsel Bij Polyneuritis Arsenicosa , Nederl T Geneesk 1:391-396, 1919. 63. Heller, J.: Handbuch der Haut-und Geschlechts-Krankheiten , Berlin: Julius Springer, 1927, pp 123-130. 64. Jenkins, R. B.: Reynolds, Aldrich or Mees? Consideration of Transverse Striate Leukonychia , Amer J Med Sci 246:707-709, 1963.Crossref 65. Singer, P. L.: Leukonychia , Arch Derm Syph 24:112-115, 1931.Crossref 66. Morison, R. B.: Leucopathia Unguium, Peculiar Affection of Nails , Med News (Philadelphia) 51:430-431, 1887. 67. Burrows, M. T.: Significance of Lunula of Nail , Hopkins Hosp Rep 18:357-361, 1919. 68. Pillsbury, D. M.; Shelley, W. B.; and Kligman, A. M.: Dermatology , Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1956, pp 33-34. 69. Sulzberger, M. B., and Baer, R. L.: Yearbook of Dermatology and Syphilology , Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1953-1954, p 261. 70. Pfister, R.: Dermatologie und Venerologie , H. A. Gottron, and W. Schonfeld, ed., Stuttgart: G. Thieme, 1959, vol 3, p 924. 71. Alkiewicz, J.: Etúde Clinique et Histologique de la Leuconychie , Ann Derm Syph 7:99, 1936. 72. Alkiewicz, J., and Majewski, C.: Contribution to Histopathology of Changes in Human Nails in Exanthematous Fever , Bull Soc Amis Sci Poznan (Med) 6:105-110, 1956. 73. Sykes, W.: White Specks in Nails , Brit Med J 2:1260, 1897.

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1964

References