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Leukemia Cutis in Congenital Leukemia: Analysis and Review of the World Literature With Report of an Additional Case

Leukemia Cutis in Congenital Leukemia: Analysis and Review of the World Literature With Report of... Abstract Background: Congenital leukemia cutis is rarely reported in the dermatology literature despite various authors citing 50% of infants with congenital leukemia have skin involvement. These seemingly disparate facts prompted a review of the world literature that was performed by searching the MEDLINE database from 1966 up to and through December 1992, reviewing Index Medicus for the years prior to computerized MEDLINE search, and reviewing appropriate case report references. Observations: A 2-month premature male infant was born with 182×109/L circulating monoblasts, prominent hepatosplenomegaly, and multiple firm blue and red cutaneous nodules. Conclusion: Approximately 175 cases of congenital leukemia have been reported with at least 41 and possibly 56 cases identified with leukemia cutis. Specific cutaneous leukemic infiltrates occur in 25% to 30% of infants with congenital leukemia and usually appear as firm blue, red, or purple nodules in a generalized distribution. In contrast to the 50% incidence of gingival and oral infiltrates reported in adult monocytic leukemia, only 1% of congenital leukemia patients have oral involvement. Congenital leukemia cutis may precede other manifestations of leukemia by as much as 4 months. Whereas leukemia cutis is associated with a poor prognosis in adult leukemics, the natural history of congenital leukemia is not altered by leukemia cutis.(Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:1301-1306) References 1. Oski FA, Naiman JL. Hematologic Problems in the Newborn . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1982:237-240. 2. Isaacs H Jr. Congenital and neonatal malignant tumors: a 28-year experience at Children's Hospital of Los Angeles . Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1985;9:121-129.Crossref 3. Odom LF, Gordon EM. Acute monoblastic leukemia in infancy and early childhood: successful treatment with an epipodophyllotoxin . Blood . 1984;64:875-882. 4. Pierce MI. Leukemia in the newborn infant . J Pediatr. 1959;54:691-706.Crossref 5. Zussmann WV, Khan A, Shayesteh P. Congenital leukemia: report of a case with chromosome abnormalities . Cancer . 1967;20:1227-1233.Crossref 6. Bernhard WG, Gore I, Kilby RA. Congenital leukemia . Blood . 1951;6:990-1001. 7. Edwards L, Bangert JL, Goldberg GN, Hansen RC. Leukemias . In: Schachner LA, Hansen RC, eds. Pediatric Dermatology . New York, NY: Churchill-Livingstone Inc; 1988:1083-1086. 8. Reimann DL, Clemmens RL, Pillsbury WA. Congenital acute leukemia: skin nodules, a first sign . J Pediatr. 1955;46:415-418.Crossref 9. Engle WA, Schreiner RL, Baehner RL. Neonatal white blood cell disorders . Semin Perinatal. 1983;7:184-200. 10. Sippe JRA. Congenital leukemia . Aust J Dermatol. 1981;22:91-99.Crossref 11. Irimada K, Yokoyama S, Yoshimura Y, Saitoh T, Hayashi T. A case of congenital monocytic leukemia with skin nodules as an initial manifestation . Rinsho Ketsueki. 1979;20:1512-1519. 12. Gottesfeld E, Silverman RA, Coccia PF, Jacobs G, Zaim MT. Transient blueberry muffin appearance of a newborn with congenital monoblastic leukemia . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:347-351.Crossref 13. Francis JS, Sybert VP, Benjamin DR. Congenital monocytic leukemia: report of a case with cutaneous involvement, and review of the literature . Pediatr Dermatol. 1989;6:306-311.Crossref 14. Lampkin BC, Peipon JJ, Price JK, Bove KE, Srivastava AK, Jones MM. Spontaneous remission of presumed congenital acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) in a karyotypically normal neonate . Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1985;7:346-351. 15. Seo IS, McGuire WA, Heerema NA, Mirkin LD, Weetman RM. Congenital monoblastic leukemia cutis: a case report with chromosome abnormality: del (10p) . Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1986;8:158-162. 16. Van Eys J, Flexner JM. Transient spontaneous remission in a case of untreated congenital leukemia . AJDC . 1969;118:507-514. 17. Buhler M, Landolt R. Kongenitale Leukamie . Helv Paediatr Acta. 1970;2:176-193. 18. Krivit W, Good RA. The simultaneous occurrence of leukemia and mongolism . AJDC . 1956;91:218-222. 19. Lee CH, Ciner E. Congenital leukemia associated with mongolism . J Pediatr. 1952; 51:303-305.Crossref 20. Weinstein HJ. Congenital leukemia and the neonatal myeloproliferative disorders associated with Down's syndrome . Clin Haematol. 1978;7:147-154. 21. DeCarvalho S. Natural history of congenital leukemia: an experiment of nature revealing unexplored features of fetal-maternal isoimmunity: longest recorded survival following use of leukemostatic maternal isoantibody . Oncology . 1973;27:52-63.Crossref 22. Ridgway D, Benda GI, Magenis E, et al. Transient myeloproliferative disorder of the Down type in the normal newborn . AJDC . 1990;144:1117-1119. 23. Engel RR, Hammond D, Eitzman DV, Pearson H, Krivit W. Transient congenital leukemia in 7 infants with mongolism . J Pediatr. 1964;65:303-305.Crossref 24. Brodeur GM, Dahl GV, Williams DL, Tipton RE, Kalwinsky DK. Transient leukemoid reaction and trisomy 21 mosaicism in a phenotypically normal newborn . Blood . 1980;55:691-693. 25. Liang D, Shen E, Chyou S. To early distinguish neonatal transient leukemoid proliferation from congenital leukemia by in vitro cell growth . Blut. 1986;53:101-106.Crossref 26. Lilleyman JS. Congenital monocytic leukaemia . Clin Lab Haematol. 1980:2:243-245.Crossref 27. Chu J, O'Connor DM, Gale GB, Silberstein MJ. Congenital leukemia: two transient regressions without treatment in one patient . Pediatrics . 1983;71:277-279. 28. Lin HP, Menaka H, Lim KH, Yong HS. Congenital leukemoid reaction followed by fatal leukemia: a case with Down's syndrome . AJDC . 1980;134:939-941. 29. Muchi H, Karube T, Yano S, Miyao M, Kamoshita S, Itoh K. A case of congenital lymphoblastic leukemia: clinical course and significance of ultrasonography . Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1985;15:563-566. 30. Raney BR, Mohanakumar T, Metzgar RS, Hann HL, Buck BE, Donaldson MH. Acute monoblastic leukemia in two infants: histochemical and immunologic investigations . Leuk Res. 1979;4:61-67.Crossref 31. Iversen T. Leukemia in infancy and childhood: a material of 570 Danish cases . Acta Paediatr Scand. 1966;167( (suppl) ):169-172. 32. Chavelet JBF, Jacquillat C. Leucemies du nouveau-ne: a propos de 4 observations . Nouv Rev Fr Hematol. 1964;4:125-140. 33. Torres ML. Leucemia congenita diagnosticada en el primer dia de la vida . Arch Pediatr. 1959;57:305-313. 34. Hamne B. Ein fall von kongenitaler myeloischer Leukamie . Acta Pediatr. 1944; 31:330-340.Crossref 35. Venneklass GMH. Angeboren Leucamia . Nederl Tijd Geneeskd. 1941;85:552-557. 36. Whorton CM. Congenital histiocytic leukemia . Lab Invest. 1960;9:199-208. 37. Arnold HL, Odom RB, James WD. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1990:870-873. 38. Schade H, Schoeller L, Schultze KWD. Trisomie (Patau Syndrom) mit kongenitaler myeloischer Leukamie . Med Welt. 1962;50:2690-2691. 39. Rodgers R, Weiner M, Friedman AH. Ocular involvement in congenital leukemia . Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;101:730-732. 40. Modder B, Blumke S, Havers D, Sehlhorst D, Haupt H. Angeborene Leukose mit ungewohnlichem Hirnbefall . Klin Paediatr. 1975;187:101-107. 41. Lachmann D, Pfleger L, Weippl G, Zweymuller E. Hautveranderungen und konnatale Leukamie . Z Kinderheilkd. 1969;105:172-184.Crossref 42. Ambs E, Biren P, Klingmulller G. Uber eine angeborene Retikulose . Hautarzt. 1966;17:63-68. 43. Calvani M. La leucemia acuta congenita . Lattante. 1962;33:9-24. 44. Bjure J, Fichtelius KE, Ranstrom S. On the problem of congenital hemopathies . Acta Paediatr. 1960;49:358-370.Crossref 45. Hjelt L, Wegelius R. Congenital leukemia . Ann Paediatr Fenn. 1956;2:206-214. 46. Fischer S. Leucaemia congenita . Ugeskr Laeger. 1956;18:445-447. 47. Miller F. Angeborene leukamie . Virchows Arch. 1954;326:73-88.Crossref 48. Potter ED. Pathology of the Fetus and the Newborn . Chicago, III: Year Book Medical Publishers Inc; 1952:548-550. 49. Taylor FM, Geppert LJ. Congenital myelogenous leukemia . AJDC . 1950;80:417-422. 50. Stransky E. Beitrage zur klinischen Haematologie im Sauglingsal . Monatschr Kinderheilkd. 1925;29:654-659. 51. Werner W. Die angeborene leukose des Menschen . Frankfurt Z Pathol. 1966; 75:228-236. 52. Houstek J, Brachfeldova J. Leucemie congenitale . Ann Pediatr. 1949;172:98-103. 53. Bungeler W. Angeborene Leukamie . Frankfurt Z Pathol. 1931;41:257-264. 54. Koch MI. Zur frage du kongenitalen Leukamie . Zbl Allg Pathol. 1922;33:7-8. 55. Burgstedt H, Hartl F. Kongenitale Leukamie, zugleich ein Beitrag zum Problem der leukamischen Reticulendotheliose . Z Kinderheilkd. 1955;76:298-319.Crossref 56. Su WPD, Buechner SA, Li C. Clinicopathologic correlations in leukemia cutis . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:121-128.Crossref 57. Brough AJ, Jones D, Page RH, Mizukami I. Dermal erythropoiesis in neonatal infants: a manifestation of intra-uterine viral disease . Pediatrics . 1967;40:627-635. 58. Ambs E, Biren P, Klingmuller G. Problematik der sogenannten angeborenen Leukamien . Z Kinderheilkd. 1965;93:171-188.Crossref 59. Wegelius R. Discordant leukaemia in twins: a report of two cases, including one of congenital leukemia . Ann Paediatr Fenn. 1960;6:227-231. 60. Strenger W. Angeborene Leukamie . Krebsarzt. 1956;11:293-300. 61. Karlstrom F. Congenital leukaemie . Nord Med. 1953;49:819-820. 62. Riviere M, Fontan A, Bentegeat J, Martin C. Leucose aigue congenitale chez un nouveau-né Arch Fr Pediatr. 1952;9:768-769. 63. Morrison M, Samwick AA, Rubinstein Rl. Congenital leukemia with chloroma . AJDC . 1939;58:332-338. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Leukemia Cutis in Congenital Leukemia: Analysis and Review of the World Literature With Report of an Additional Case

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 129 (10) – Oct 1, 1993

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American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1993 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1993.01680310071012
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Abstract

Abstract Background: Congenital leukemia cutis is rarely reported in the dermatology literature despite various authors citing 50% of infants with congenital leukemia have skin involvement. These seemingly disparate facts prompted a review of the world literature that was performed by searching the MEDLINE database from 1966 up to and through December 1992, reviewing Index Medicus for the years prior to computerized MEDLINE search, and reviewing appropriate case report references. Observations: A 2-month premature male infant was born with 182×109/L circulating monoblasts, prominent hepatosplenomegaly, and multiple firm blue and red cutaneous nodules. Conclusion: Approximately 175 cases of congenital leukemia have been reported with at least 41 and possibly 56 cases identified with leukemia cutis. Specific cutaneous leukemic infiltrates occur in 25% to 30% of infants with congenital leukemia and usually appear as firm blue, red, or purple nodules in a generalized distribution. In contrast to the 50% incidence of gingival and oral infiltrates reported in adult monocytic leukemia, only 1% of congenital leukemia patients have oral involvement. Congenital leukemia cutis may precede other manifestations of leukemia by as much as 4 months. Whereas leukemia cutis is associated with a poor prognosis in adult leukemics, the natural history of congenital leukemia is not altered by leukemia cutis.(Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:1301-1306) References 1. Oski FA, Naiman JL. Hematologic Problems in the Newborn . Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1982:237-240. 2. Isaacs H Jr. Congenital and neonatal malignant tumors: a 28-year experience at Children's Hospital of Los Angeles . Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1985;9:121-129.Crossref 3. Odom LF, Gordon EM. Acute monoblastic leukemia in infancy and early childhood: successful treatment with an epipodophyllotoxin . Blood . 1984;64:875-882. 4. Pierce MI. Leukemia in the newborn infant . J Pediatr. 1959;54:691-706.Crossref 5. Zussmann WV, Khan A, Shayesteh P. Congenital leukemia: report of a case with chromosome abnormalities . Cancer . 1967;20:1227-1233.Crossref 6. Bernhard WG, Gore I, Kilby RA. Congenital leukemia . Blood . 1951;6:990-1001. 7. Edwards L, Bangert JL, Goldberg GN, Hansen RC. Leukemias . In: Schachner LA, Hansen RC, eds. Pediatric Dermatology . New York, NY: Churchill-Livingstone Inc; 1988:1083-1086. 8. Reimann DL, Clemmens RL, Pillsbury WA. Congenital acute leukemia: skin nodules, a first sign . J Pediatr. 1955;46:415-418.Crossref 9. Engle WA, Schreiner RL, Baehner RL. Neonatal white blood cell disorders . Semin Perinatal. 1983;7:184-200. 10. Sippe JRA. Congenital leukemia . Aust J Dermatol. 1981;22:91-99.Crossref 11. Irimada K, Yokoyama S, Yoshimura Y, Saitoh T, Hayashi T. A case of congenital monocytic leukemia with skin nodules as an initial manifestation . Rinsho Ketsueki. 1979;20:1512-1519. 12. Gottesfeld E, Silverman RA, Coccia PF, Jacobs G, Zaim MT. Transient blueberry muffin appearance of a newborn with congenital monoblastic leukemia . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:347-351.Crossref 13. Francis JS, Sybert VP, Benjamin DR. Congenital monocytic leukemia: report of a case with cutaneous involvement, and review of the literature . Pediatr Dermatol. 1989;6:306-311.Crossref 14. Lampkin BC, Peipon JJ, Price JK, Bove KE, Srivastava AK, Jones MM. Spontaneous remission of presumed congenital acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) in a karyotypically normal neonate . Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1985;7:346-351. 15. Seo IS, McGuire WA, Heerema NA, Mirkin LD, Weetman RM. Congenital monoblastic leukemia cutis: a case report with chromosome abnormality: del (10p) . Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1986;8:158-162. 16. Van Eys J, Flexner JM. Transient spontaneous remission in a case of untreated congenital leukemia . AJDC . 1969;118:507-514. 17. Buhler M, Landolt R. Kongenitale Leukamie . Helv Paediatr Acta. 1970;2:176-193. 18. Krivit W, Good RA. The simultaneous occurrence of leukemia and mongolism . AJDC . 1956;91:218-222. 19. Lee CH, Ciner E. Congenital leukemia associated with mongolism . J Pediatr. 1952; 51:303-305.Crossref 20. Weinstein HJ. Congenital leukemia and the neonatal myeloproliferative disorders associated with Down's syndrome . Clin Haematol. 1978;7:147-154. 21. DeCarvalho S. Natural history of congenital leukemia: an experiment of nature revealing unexplored features of fetal-maternal isoimmunity: longest recorded survival following use of leukemostatic maternal isoantibody . Oncology . 1973;27:52-63.Crossref 22. Ridgway D, Benda GI, Magenis E, et al. Transient myeloproliferative disorder of the Down type in the normal newborn . AJDC . 1990;144:1117-1119. 23. Engel RR, Hammond D, Eitzman DV, Pearson H, Krivit W. Transient congenital leukemia in 7 infants with mongolism . J Pediatr. 1964;65:303-305.Crossref 24. Brodeur GM, Dahl GV, Williams DL, Tipton RE, Kalwinsky DK. Transient leukemoid reaction and trisomy 21 mosaicism in a phenotypically normal newborn . Blood . 1980;55:691-693. 25. Liang D, Shen E, Chyou S. To early distinguish neonatal transient leukemoid proliferation from congenital leukemia by in vitro cell growth . Blut. 1986;53:101-106.Crossref 26. Lilleyman JS. Congenital monocytic leukaemia . Clin Lab Haematol. 1980:2:243-245.Crossref 27. Chu J, O'Connor DM, Gale GB, Silberstein MJ. Congenital leukemia: two transient regressions without treatment in one patient . Pediatrics . 1983;71:277-279. 28. Lin HP, Menaka H, Lim KH, Yong HS. Congenital leukemoid reaction followed by fatal leukemia: a case with Down's syndrome . AJDC . 1980;134:939-941. 29. Muchi H, Karube T, Yano S, Miyao M, Kamoshita S, Itoh K. A case of congenital lymphoblastic leukemia: clinical course and significance of ultrasonography . Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1985;15:563-566. 30. Raney BR, Mohanakumar T, Metzgar RS, Hann HL, Buck BE, Donaldson MH. Acute monoblastic leukemia in two infants: histochemical and immunologic investigations . Leuk Res. 1979;4:61-67.Crossref 31. Iversen T. Leukemia in infancy and childhood: a material of 570 Danish cases . Acta Paediatr Scand. 1966;167( (suppl) ):169-172. 32. Chavelet JBF, Jacquillat C. Leucemies du nouveau-ne: a propos de 4 observations . Nouv Rev Fr Hematol. 1964;4:125-140. 33. Torres ML. Leucemia congenita diagnosticada en el primer dia de la vida . Arch Pediatr. 1959;57:305-313. 34. Hamne B. Ein fall von kongenitaler myeloischer Leukamie . Acta Pediatr. 1944; 31:330-340.Crossref 35. Venneklass GMH. Angeboren Leucamia . Nederl Tijd Geneeskd. 1941;85:552-557. 36. Whorton CM. Congenital histiocytic leukemia . Lab Invest. 1960;9:199-208. 37. Arnold HL, Odom RB, James WD. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1990:870-873. 38. Schade H, Schoeller L, Schultze KWD. Trisomie (Patau Syndrom) mit kongenitaler myeloischer Leukamie . Med Welt. 1962;50:2690-2691. 39. Rodgers R, Weiner M, Friedman AH. Ocular involvement in congenital leukemia . Am J Ophthalmol. 1986;101:730-732. 40. Modder B, Blumke S, Havers D, Sehlhorst D, Haupt H. Angeborene Leukose mit ungewohnlichem Hirnbefall . Klin Paediatr. 1975;187:101-107. 41. Lachmann D, Pfleger L, Weippl G, Zweymuller E. Hautveranderungen und konnatale Leukamie . Z Kinderheilkd. 1969;105:172-184.Crossref 42. Ambs E, Biren P, Klingmulller G. Uber eine angeborene Retikulose . Hautarzt. 1966;17:63-68. 43. Calvani M. La leucemia acuta congenita . Lattante. 1962;33:9-24. 44. Bjure J, Fichtelius KE, Ranstrom S. On the problem of congenital hemopathies . Acta Paediatr. 1960;49:358-370.Crossref 45. Hjelt L, Wegelius R. Congenital leukemia . Ann Paediatr Fenn. 1956;2:206-214. 46. Fischer S. Leucaemia congenita . Ugeskr Laeger. 1956;18:445-447. 47. Miller F. Angeborene leukamie . Virchows Arch. 1954;326:73-88.Crossref 48. Potter ED. Pathology of the Fetus and the Newborn . Chicago, III: Year Book Medical Publishers Inc; 1952:548-550. 49. Taylor FM, Geppert LJ. Congenital myelogenous leukemia . AJDC . 1950;80:417-422. 50. Stransky E. Beitrage zur klinischen Haematologie im Sauglingsal . Monatschr Kinderheilkd. 1925;29:654-659. 51. Werner W. Die angeborene leukose des Menschen . Frankfurt Z Pathol. 1966; 75:228-236. 52. Houstek J, Brachfeldova J. Leucemie congenitale . Ann Pediatr. 1949;172:98-103. 53. Bungeler W. Angeborene Leukamie . Frankfurt Z Pathol. 1931;41:257-264. 54. Koch MI. Zur frage du kongenitalen Leukamie . Zbl Allg Pathol. 1922;33:7-8. 55. Burgstedt H, Hartl F. Kongenitale Leukamie, zugleich ein Beitrag zum Problem der leukamischen Reticulendotheliose . Z Kinderheilkd. 1955;76:298-319.Crossref 56. Su WPD, Buechner SA, Li C. Clinicopathologic correlations in leukemia cutis . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984;11:121-128.Crossref 57. Brough AJ, Jones D, Page RH, Mizukami I. Dermal erythropoiesis in neonatal infants: a manifestation of intra-uterine viral disease . Pediatrics . 1967;40:627-635. 58. Ambs E, Biren P, Klingmuller G. Problematik der sogenannten angeborenen Leukamien . Z Kinderheilkd. 1965;93:171-188.Crossref 59. Wegelius R. Discordant leukaemia in twins: a report of two cases, including one of congenital leukemia . Ann Paediatr Fenn. 1960;6:227-231. 60. Strenger W. Angeborene Leukamie . Krebsarzt. 1956;11:293-300. 61. Karlstrom F. Congenital leukaemie . Nord Med. 1953;49:819-820. 62. Riviere M, Fontan A, Bentegeat J, Martin C. Leucose aigue congenitale chez un nouveau-né Arch Fr Pediatr. 1952;9:768-769. 63. Morrison M, Samwick AA, Rubinstein Rl. Congenital leukemia with chloroma . AJDC . 1939;58:332-338.

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1993

References