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Kaposi's Sarcoma: Where Do We Go From Here?

Kaposi's Sarcoma: Where Do We Go From Here? Abstract KAPOSI'S SARCOMA (KS) has long been a clinical and therapeutic challenge. In the century since Moritz Kaposi's first description of this disease in elderly eastern European men, a number of clinical variants have been described along with multiple theories to explain its distribution in various unique and seemingly unrelated populations. To this day, there is still debate about the cell of origin of KS, the role of infectious agent(s), and even whether KS is a genuine malignancy or merely a reactive hyperplasia. A variety of antitumor approaches have been used,1,2 but optimal therapy may depend on answers to some of the more basic questions about the cause and pathogenesis of KS. Epidemiology offers the first clues. The seemingly disparate groups (classic KS; endemic, both in central Africa and, recently, Greece3; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated KS; and KS in otherwise immunosuppressed individuals) can best be explained by the notion References 1. Tappero JW, Conant MA, Wolfe SF, Berger TG. Kaposi's sarcoma: epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, clinical spectrum, staging criteria and therapy . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:371-395.Crossref 2. Krown SE, Myskowski PL, Paredes J. Kaposi's sarcoma: medical management of AIDS patients . Med Clin North Am. 1992;76:235-257. 3. Rappersberger K, Hatzakis AM, Zonzits E, et al. Greek Kaposi's sarcoma (GKS): a new KS entity . Clin Res. 1989;37:665A. Abstract. 4. Pollack MS, Safai B, Myskowski PL, Gold JWM, Pandey J, Dupont B. Frequencies of HLA and GM immonogenetic markers in Kaposi's sarcoma . Tissue Antigens. 1983;21:1-8.Crossref 5. Tzfoni EE, Scherman L, Battat S, Brautbar H. No HLA antigen is significant in classic Kaposi's sarcoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:118-119.Crossref 6. Real FX, Krown SE, Koziner B. Steroid-related development of Kaposi's sarcoma in a homosexual man with Burkitt's lymphoma . Am J Med. 1986;80:119-122.Crossref 7. Tebbe B, Mayer-de-Silva A, Garbe C, Von Keyserlingk HJ, Orfanos CE. Genetically determined coincidence of Kaposi sarcoma and psoriasis in an HIV-negative patient after prednisolone treatment: spontaneous regression 8 months after discontinuing therapy . Int J Dermatol. 1991;30:114-120.Crossref 8. Fournet JC, Peachmaur M, Eckart P, et al. Multicentric Kaposi's sarcoma in a 5-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative renal allograft recipient . Hum Pathol. 1992;23:956-960.Crossref 9. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, Jaffe HW. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet. 1990;335:123-125.Crossref 10. Vogel J, Hinrichs SH, Reynolds RK, Luciw PA, Jay G. The HIV tat gene induces dermal lesions resembling Kaposi's sarcoma in transgenic mice . Nature. 1988; 335:606-611.Crossref 11. Tur E, Brenner S, Michaelevicz R. Low dose recombinant interferon alfa treatment for classical Kaposi's sarcoma . Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:1297-1300.Crossref 12. Gill PS, Loureiro C, Bernstein-Singer M, Rarick MV, Sattler F, Levine AM. Clinical effect of glucocorticoid on Kaposi's sarcoma related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:937-940.Crossref 13. Blayney DW, Ito JI, Jensen FC. Spontaneous remission of Kaposi's sarcoma in an HTLV-III negative homosexual man . Cancer. 1986;58:1583-1584.Crossref 14. Nakamura S, Sakurada S, Gill P, Lunardi-Iskander Y, Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ. et al. Glucocorticoids enhanced in vitro growth of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived spindle cells . AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991;7:216-217. 15. Al-Sulaiman MH, Mousa DH, Dhar JM, Al-Khader AA. Does regressed post-transplantation Kaposi's sarcoma recur following reintroduction of immunosuppression? Am J Nephrol. 1992;12:384-386.Crossref 16. Ioachim HL, Dorsett B, Melamed J, Adsay V, Santagada EA. Cytomegalovirus, angiomatosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma: new observations of a debated relationship . Mod Pathol. 1992;5:169-178. 17. Huang YQ, Li JJ, Rush MG, et al. HPV-16-related DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1992;339:515-518.Crossref 18. Bovenzi D, Mirandola P, Secchiero P, Strumia R, Cassai E, DiLuca D. Herpes virus 6 (variant A) in Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1993;341:1288-1289.Crossref 19. Gill PS, Rarick M, McCutchan JA, et al. Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results of a randomized trial . Am J Med. 1991;90:427-433.Crossref 20. Masood R, Rahman A, Husain SR, Salahuddin SZ, Gill P. Potentiation of cytotoxicity of Kaposi's sarcoma related to immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (LED) . Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res. 1992;33:A1483. 21. Northfelt DW, Martin FJ, Kaplan LD, et al. Pharmacokinetics (PK), tumor localization (TL) and safety of Doxil (liposomal doxorubin) in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:51. Abstract 8A. 22. Presant CA, Scolaro M, Kennedy P, et al. Liposomal daunorubicin treatment in HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1993;34:1242-1244.Crossref 23. Krown SE, Real FX, Cunningham-Rundles S, et al. Preliminary observations on the effect of recombinant leukocyte A interferon in homosexual men with Kaposi's sarcoma . N Engl J Med. 1983;308:1071-1076.Crossref 24. Krown SE, Real FX, Lester T, Octtgen HF. Interferon alfa-2a plus-minus vinblastine (VLB) in AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS/AIDS): a prospective randomized trial . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1986;5:6. 25. Krown SE, Gold JWM, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Interferon alfa with zidovudine safety, tolerance and clinical and virologic effects in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:812-821.Crossref 26. Nisce LZ, Safai B, Poussin-Rosillo H. Once weekly total and subtotal skin electron beam . Cancer. 1981;47:640-644.Crossref 27. Lo TCM, Salzman FA, Smedal M, Wright KA. Radiotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma . Cancer. 1980;45:684-687.Crossref 28. Cooper JS, Steinfeld AD, Lerch I. Intentions and outcomes in the radiotherapeutic management of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991;20:419-420.Crossref 29. Real FX, Krown SE, Nisce LZ, Oettgen HF. Unexpected toxicity from radiation therapy in two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma receiving interferon . J Biol Response Mod. 1985;4:141-146. 30. Serfling V, Hood AF. Local therapies for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Dermatol. 1991;127: 1479-1481.Crossref 31. Tappero JW, Berger TG, Kaplan LD, Volberding P, Kahn JO. Cryotherapy for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a phase II trial . J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4:839-846.Crossref 32. Odom RB, Goette DK. Treatment of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma with intralesional vincristine . Arch Dermatol. 1978;114:1693-1694.Crossref 33. Epstein JB, Lozada-Nur F, McLeod WA, Spinelli J. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: review of management and report of the efficacy of intralesional vinblastine . Cancer. 1989;64:2424-2430.Crossref 34. Boudreaux AA, Smith LL, Cosby CD, Bason MM, Tappero JW, Berger TG. Intralesional vinblastine for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:61-65.Crossref 35. Alecu M, Ghyka G, Halalau F, Calugaru A, Coman G. Intralesional human leukocyte interferon treatment in the non-AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma . Rev Roum Med Int. 1990;28:61-67. 36. Ghyka G, Alecu M, Halalau F, Coman G. Intralesional human leukocyte interferon treatment alone or associated with IL-2 in non-AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma . J Dermatol. 1992;19:35. 37. Sulis E, Floris C, Sulis ML, et al. Interferon administered intralesionally in skin and oral cavity in heterosexual drug-addicted patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1988;25:759-761.Crossref 38. Muzyka BC, Glick M. Sclerotherapy for the treatment of nodular intraoral Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS . N Engl J Med. 1993:328:210 39. Kahn J, Kaplan L, Volberding P, et al. Intralesional tumor necrosis factor-α for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma . J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1989;2: 217-223. 40. Boente P, Sampiaio C, Brandao MA, Moreira ED, Badaro R, Jones TC. Local perilesional therapy with rhGMCSF for Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1993;341: 1154.Crossref 41. Ensoli B, Nakamura S, Salahuddin SZ, et al. AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells express cytokines with autocrine and paracrine growth factors . Science. 1989;243:223-226.Crossref 42. Barillari G, Buonaguro L, Fiorelli V, et al. Effects of cytokines from activated immune cells on vascular cell growth and HIV-1 gene expression: implications for AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis . J Immunol. 1992;149:3727-3734. 43. Smith KJ, Konzelman JL, Lombardo FA, et al. Iontophoresis of vinblastine into normal skin and for treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients . Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:1365-1370.Crossref 44. Bonhomme L, Fredj G, Averous S, et al. Topical treatment of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma with all-trans-retinoic acid . Ann Oncol. 1991;2:234-235. 45. Nakamura S, Salahuddin SZ, Biberfeld B, Ensoli B, Markham PD. Kaposi's sarcoma cells: long-term culture with growth factor from retrovirus-infection CD4+T cells . Science. 1988;242:426-430.Crossref 46. Corbeil J, Evans LA, Vasake, Cooper DA, Penny R. Culture and properties of cells derived from Kaposi's sarcoma . J Immunol. 1991;146:2972-2976. 47. Nair BC, DeVico AL, Nakamura S, et al. Identification of a major growth factor for AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma cells as oncostatin M . Science. 1992;255:1430-1432.Crossref 48. Miles SA, Martinez-Maza 0, Rezai A, et al. Oncostatin M as a potent mitogen for AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells . Science. 1992;255:1432-1434.Crossref 49. Salahuddin, SZ, Nakamura S, Biberfeld P, et al. Angiogenic properties of Kaposi's sarcoma derived cells after long-term culture in vitro . Science. 1988;242:433-437.Crossref 50. Fazely F, Dezube BJ, Allen-Ryan J, Pardee AB, Ruprecht RM. Pentoxifylline (Trental) decreases the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in cultured T cells . Blood. 1991;77:1653-1656. 51. Aboulafaivria D, Miles SA, Saks SR, Mitsuyasu RT. Intravenous recombinant tumor necrosis factor in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr. 1989;2:54-59. 52. Dezube BJ, Fridovich-Keil JL, Bouvard J, Lange RF, Pardee AB. Pentoxifylline and well-being in patients with cancer . Lancet. 1990;335:662.Crossref 53. Von Roenn J, Von Gunten C, Mullane M, French S, Blough R, Benson AB. All transretinoic (TRA) in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Kaposi's sarcoma: a phase II, Illinois Cancer Center Study) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:51. Abstract 6A. 54. Brockmeyer NH, Hengge UR, Jura S, Tillmann I, Goos M. Fumagillol and isotretinoin inhibit in vitro Kaposi's sarcoma cell growth . J Invest Dermatol. 1993; 100:558. 55. Xerri L, Hausson J, Planche J, et al. Fibroblast growth factor gene expression in AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma detected by in situ hybridization . Am J Pathol. 1991; 138:9-15. 56. Schwartsmann G, Sander E, Prolia G, et al. Phase II trial of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in patients (pts) with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:54. Abstract 18A. 57. Kahn J, Ruiz R, Kerschmann R, et al. A phase 1/2 study of recombinant platelet factor 4 (rPF4) in patients with AIDS related 4 (rPF4) in patients with AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:50. Abstract 4A. 58. Nakamura S, Sakurada S, Salahuddin SZ, et al. Inhibition of development of Kaposi's sarcoma-related lesions by a bacterial wall complex . Science. 1992; 255:1437-1440.Crossref 59. Ingber D, Fijita T, Kishimoto S, et al. Synthetic analogues of fumagillin that inhibit angiogenesis and suppress tumor growth . Nature. 1990;348:555-557.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Kaposi's Sarcoma: Where Do We Go From Here?

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 129 (10) – Oct 1, 1993

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American Medical Association
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Copyright © 1993 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
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0003-987X
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Abstract

Abstract KAPOSI'S SARCOMA (KS) has long been a clinical and therapeutic challenge. In the century since Moritz Kaposi's first description of this disease in elderly eastern European men, a number of clinical variants have been described along with multiple theories to explain its distribution in various unique and seemingly unrelated populations. To this day, there is still debate about the cell of origin of KS, the role of infectious agent(s), and even whether KS is a genuine malignancy or merely a reactive hyperplasia. A variety of antitumor approaches have been used,1,2 but optimal therapy may depend on answers to some of the more basic questions about the cause and pathogenesis of KS. Epidemiology offers the first clues. The seemingly disparate groups (classic KS; endemic, both in central Africa and, recently, Greece3; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated KS; and KS in otherwise immunosuppressed individuals) can best be explained by the notion References 1. Tappero JW, Conant MA, Wolfe SF, Berger TG. Kaposi's sarcoma: epidemiology, pathogenesis, histology, clinical spectrum, staging criteria and therapy . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:371-395.Crossref 2. Krown SE, Myskowski PL, Paredes J. Kaposi's sarcoma: medical management of AIDS patients . Med Clin North Am. 1992;76:235-257. 3. Rappersberger K, Hatzakis AM, Zonzits E, et al. Greek Kaposi's sarcoma (GKS): a new KS entity . Clin Res. 1989;37:665A. Abstract. 4. Pollack MS, Safai B, Myskowski PL, Gold JWM, Pandey J, Dupont B. Frequencies of HLA and GM immonogenetic markers in Kaposi's sarcoma . Tissue Antigens. 1983;21:1-8.Crossref 5. Tzfoni EE, Scherman L, Battat S, Brautbar H. No HLA antigen is significant in classic Kaposi's sarcoma . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:118-119.Crossref 6. Real FX, Krown SE, Koziner B. Steroid-related development of Kaposi's sarcoma in a homosexual man with Burkitt's lymphoma . Am J Med. 1986;80:119-122.Crossref 7. Tebbe B, Mayer-de-Silva A, Garbe C, Von Keyserlingk HJ, Orfanos CE. Genetically determined coincidence of Kaposi sarcoma and psoriasis in an HIV-negative patient after prednisolone treatment: spontaneous regression 8 months after discontinuing therapy . Int J Dermatol. 1991;30:114-120.Crossref 8. Fournet JC, Peachmaur M, Eckart P, et al. Multicentric Kaposi's sarcoma in a 5-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative renal allograft recipient . Hum Pathol. 1992;23:956-960.Crossref 9. Beral V, Peterman TA, Berkelman RL, Jaffe HW. Kaposi's sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection? Lancet. 1990;335:123-125.Crossref 10. Vogel J, Hinrichs SH, Reynolds RK, Luciw PA, Jay G. The HIV tat gene induces dermal lesions resembling Kaposi's sarcoma in transgenic mice . Nature. 1988; 335:606-611.Crossref 11. Tur E, Brenner S, Michaelevicz R. Low dose recombinant interferon alfa treatment for classical Kaposi's sarcoma . Arch Dermatol. 1993;129:1297-1300.Crossref 12. Gill PS, Loureiro C, Bernstein-Singer M, Rarick MV, Sattler F, Levine AM. Clinical effect of glucocorticoid on Kaposi's sarcoma related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:937-940.Crossref 13. Blayney DW, Ito JI, Jensen FC. Spontaneous remission of Kaposi's sarcoma in an HTLV-III negative homosexual man . Cancer. 1986;58:1583-1584.Crossref 14. Nakamura S, Sakurada S, Gill P, Lunardi-Iskander Y, Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ. et al. Glucocorticoids enhanced in vitro growth of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived spindle cells . AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1991;7:216-217. 15. Al-Sulaiman MH, Mousa DH, Dhar JM, Al-Khader AA. Does regressed post-transplantation Kaposi's sarcoma recur following reintroduction of immunosuppression? Am J Nephrol. 1992;12:384-386.Crossref 16. Ioachim HL, Dorsett B, Melamed J, Adsay V, Santagada EA. Cytomegalovirus, angiomatosis, and Kaposi's sarcoma: new observations of a debated relationship . Mod Pathol. 1992;5:169-178. 17. Huang YQ, Li JJ, Rush MG, et al. HPV-16-related DNA sequences in Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1992;339:515-518.Crossref 18. Bovenzi D, Mirandola P, Secchiero P, Strumia R, Cassai E, DiLuca D. Herpes virus 6 (variant A) in Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1993;341:1288-1289.Crossref 19. Gill PS, Rarick M, McCutchan JA, et al. Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: results of a randomized trial . Am J Med. 1991;90:427-433.Crossref 20. Masood R, Rahman A, Husain SR, Salahuddin SZ, Gill P. Potentiation of cytotoxicity of Kaposi's sarcoma related to immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by liposome encapsulated doxorubicin (LED) . Proc Annu Meet Am Assoc Cancer Res. 1992;33:A1483. 21. Northfelt DW, Martin FJ, Kaplan LD, et al. Pharmacokinetics (PK), tumor localization (TL) and safety of Doxil (liposomal doxorubin) in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:51. Abstract 8A. 22. Presant CA, Scolaro M, Kennedy P, et al. Liposomal daunorubicin treatment in HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1993;34:1242-1244.Crossref 23. Krown SE, Real FX, Cunningham-Rundles S, et al. Preliminary observations on the effect of recombinant leukocyte A interferon in homosexual men with Kaposi's sarcoma . N Engl J Med. 1983;308:1071-1076.Crossref 24. Krown SE, Real FX, Lester T, Octtgen HF. Interferon alfa-2a plus-minus vinblastine (VLB) in AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS/AIDS): a prospective randomized trial . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1986;5:6. 25. Krown SE, Gold JWM, Niedzwiecki D, et al. Interferon alfa with zidovudine safety, tolerance and clinical and virologic effects in patients with Kaposi's sarcoma associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) . Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:812-821.Crossref 26. Nisce LZ, Safai B, Poussin-Rosillo H. Once weekly total and subtotal skin electron beam . Cancer. 1981;47:640-644.Crossref 27. Lo TCM, Salzman FA, Smedal M, Wright KA. Radiotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma . Cancer. 1980;45:684-687.Crossref 28. Cooper JS, Steinfeld AD, Lerch I. Intentions and outcomes in the radiotherapeutic management of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma . Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1991;20:419-420.Crossref 29. Real FX, Krown SE, Nisce LZ, Oettgen HF. Unexpected toxicity from radiation therapy in two patients with Kaposi's sarcoma receiving interferon . J Biol Response Mod. 1985;4:141-146. 30. Serfling V, Hood AF. Local therapies for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Arch Dermatol. 1991;127: 1479-1481.Crossref 31. Tappero JW, Berger TG, Kaplan LD, Volberding P, Kahn JO. Cryotherapy for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a phase II trial . J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4:839-846.Crossref 32. Odom RB, Goette DK. Treatment of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma with intralesional vincristine . Arch Dermatol. 1978;114:1693-1694.Crossref 33. Epstein JB, Lozada-Nur F, McLeod WA, Spinelli J. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: review of management and report of the efficacy of intralesional vinblastine . Cancer. 1989;64:2424-2430.Crossref 34. Boudreaux AA, Smith LL, Cosby CD, Bason MM, Tappero JW, Berger TG. Intralesional vinblastine for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;28:61-65.Crossref 35. Alecu M, Ghyka G, Halalau F, Calugaru A, Coman G. Intralesional human leukocyte interferon treatment in the non-AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma . Rev Roum Med Int. 1990;28:61-67. 36. Ghyka G, Alecu M, Halalau F, Coman G. Intralesional human leukocyte interferon treatment alone or associated with IL-2 in non-AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma . J Dermatol. 1992;19:35. 37. Sulis E, Floris C, Sulis ML, et al. Interferon administered intralesionally in skin and oral cavity in heterosexual drug-addicted patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1988;25:759-761.Crossref 38. Muzyka BC, Glick M. Sclerotherapy for the treatment of nodular intraoral Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with AIDS . N Engl J Med. 1993:328:210 39. Kahn J, Kaplan L, Volberding P, et al. Intralesional tumor necrosis factor-α for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma . J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1989;2: 217-223. 40. Boente P, Sampiaio C, Brandao MA, Moreira ED, Badaro R, Jones TC. Local perilesional therapy with rhGMCSF for Kaposi's sarcoma . Lancet. 1993;341: 1154.Crossref 41. Ensoli B, Nakamura S, Salahuddin SZ, et al. AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells express cytokines with autocrine and paracrine growth factors . Science. 1989;243:223-226.Crossref 42. Barillari G, Buonaguro L, Fiorelli V, et al. Effects of cytokines from activated immune cells on vascular cell growth and HIV-1 gene expression: implications for AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis . J Immunol. 1992;149:3727-3734. 43. Smith KJ, Konzelman JL, Lombardo FA, et al. Iontophoresis of vinblastine into normal skin and for treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients . Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:1365-1370.Crossref 44. Bonhomme L, Fredj G, Averous S, et al. Topical treatment of epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma with all-trans-retinoic acid . Ann Oncol. 1991;2:234-235. 45. Nakamura S, Salahuddin SZ, Biberfeld B, Ensoli B, Markham PD. Kaposi's sarcoma cells: long-term culture with growth factor from retrovirus-infection CD4+T cells . Science. 1988;242:426-430.Crossref 46. Corbeil J, Evans LA, Vasake, Cooper DA, Penny R. Culture and properties of cells derived from Kaposi's sarcoma . J Immunol. 1991;146:2972-2976. 47. Nair BC, DeVico AL, Nakamura S, et al. Identification of a major growth factor for AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma cells as oncostatin M . Science. 1992;255:1430-1432.Crossref 48. Miles SA, Martinez-Maza 0, Rezai A, et al. Oncostatin M as a potent mitogen for AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma-derived cells . Science. 1992;255:1432-1434.Crossref 49. Salahuddin, SZ, Nakamura S, Biberfeld P, et al. Angiogenic properties of Kaposi's sarcoma derived cells after long-term culture in vitro . Science. 1988;242:433-437.Crossref 50. Fazely F, Dezube BJ, Allen-Ryan J, Pardee AB, Ruprecht RM. Pentoxifylline (Trental) decreases the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in cultured T cells . Blood. 1991;77:1653-1656. 51. Aboulafaivria D, Miles SA, Saks SR, Mitsuyasu RT. Intravenous recombinant tumor necrosis factor in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma . J Acquir Immun Defic Syndr. 1989;2:54-59. 52. Dezube BJ, Fridovich-Keil JL, Bouvard J, Lange RF, Pardee AB. Pentoxifylline and well-being in patients with cancer . Lancet. 1990;335:662.Crossref 53. Von Roenn J, Von Gunten C, Mullane M, French S, Blough R, Benson AB. All transretinoic (TRA) in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Kaposi's sarcoma: a phase II, Illinois Cancer Center Study) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:51. Abstract 6A. 54. Brockmeyer NH, Hengge UR, Jura S, Tillmann I, Goos M. Fumagillol and isotretinoin inhibit in vitro Kaposi's sarcoma cell growth . J Invest Dermatol. 1993; 100:558. 55. Xerri L, Hausson J, Planche J, et al. Fibroblast growth factor gene expression in AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma detected by in situ hybridization . Am J Pathol. 1991; 138:9-15. 56. Schwartsmann G, Sander E, Prolia G, et al. Phase II trial of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) in patients (pts) with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:54. Abstract 18A. 57. Kahn J, Ruiz R, Kerschmann R, et al. A phase 1/2 study of recombinant platelet factor 4 (rPF4) in patients with AIDS related 4 (rPF4) in patients with AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) . Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol. 1993;12:50. Abstract 4A. 58. Nakamura S, Sakurada S, Salahuddin SZ, et al. Inhibition of development of Kaposi's sarcoma-related lesions by a bacterial wall complex . Science. 1992; 255:1437-1440.Crossref 59. Ingber D, Fijita T, Kishimoto S, et al. Synthetic analogues of fumagillin that inhibit angiogenesis and suppress tumor growth . Nature. 1990;348:555-557.Crossref

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Oct 1, 1993

References