Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Jamaica Ginger Paralysis: Forty-seven-Year Follow-up

Jamaica Ginger Paralysis: Forty-seven-Year Follow-up Abstract • In 1930, thousands of Americans were poisoned by an illicit extract of Jamaica ginger ("jake") used to circumvent the Prohibition laws. A neurotoxic organophosphate compound, triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP), had been used as an adulterant. The earliest reports were of peripheral neuritis, but later it was evident that an upper motor neuron syndrome had supervened. This TOCP poisoning apparently involved various cell groups and tracts in the spinal cord; the lesion was not peripheral at all. We interviewed 11 survivors of the illness residing in eastern Tennessee. Four were carefully examined. The principal findings showed the spasticity and abnormal reflexes of an upper motor neuron syndrome. One patient had mild disease, despite typical findings, and had lived a normal life. References 1. Meritt HH, Moore M: Peripheral neuritis associated with ginger extract ingestion . N Engl J Med 203:4-12, 1930.Crossref 2. Bennett CR: A group of patients suffering from paralysis due to drinking Jamaica ginger . South Med J 23:371-380, 1930.Crossref 3. Aring CD: The systemic nervous affinity of triorthocresyl phosphate (Jamaica ginger palsy) . Brain 65:34-47, 1942.Crossref 4. Kidd JG, Langworthy OR: Jake paralysis: Paralysis following the ingestion of Jamaica ginger extract adulterated with tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate . Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 52:39-65, 1933. 5. Ashburn PM: Jake paralysis . Hygeia 13:738-740, 1935. 6. Valaer P: Adulterated ginger: Responsible for recent paralysis epidemic . Am Pharm Assoc J 19:948-950, (September) , 1930.Crossref 7. Turley LA, Shoemaker HA, Bowden DT: Jake Paralysis . Norman, Okla, University of Oklahoma Press, 1931. 8. Goldfain E: Jamaica ginger multiple neuritis . J Oklahoma State Med Assoc 23:191-192, 1930. 9. Werden DH: Ascending paralysis resulting from the drinking of "Jamaica Ginger"; A clinical study of 50 cases . Ann Intern Med 5:1257-1266, 1932.Crossref 10. Kiely CE, Rich ML: An epidemic of motor neuritis in Cincinnati, Ohio, due to drinking adulterated Jamaica ginger . Public Health Rep 47:2039-2063, 1932.Crossref 11. Weber ML: A follow-up study of 35 cases of paralysis caused by adulterated Jamaica ginger extract . Med Bull Veterans Administration 13:228-242, 1936. 12. Zeligs MA: Upper motor neuron sequelae in "Jake" paralysis: A clinical follow-up study . J Nerv Ment Dis 87:464-470, 1938.Crossref 13. Morgan JP, Tulloss TT: The jake walk blues: A toxicologic tragedy mirrored in American popular music . Ann Intern Med 85:804-808, 1976.Crossref 14. Cavanaugh JB: Toxic substances and the nervous system . Br Med Bull 25:268-273, 1969. 15. Smith HV, Spalding JMK: Outbreak of paralysis in Morocco due to ortho-cresyl phosphate poisoning . Lancet 2:1019-1021, 1959.Crossref 16. Dennis DT: Jake walk in Vietnam . Ann Intern Med 86:665-666, 1977.Crossref 17. Bidstrup PL, Bonnel JA, Beckett AG: Paralysis following poisoning by a new organic phosphorus insecticide (Mipafox): Report on two cases . Br Med J 1:1068-1072, 1953.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Neurology American Medical Association

Jamaica Ginger Paralysis: Forty-seven-Year Follow-up

Archives of Neurology , Volume 35 (8) – Aug 1, 1978

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/jamaica-ginger-paralysis-forty-seven-year-follow-up-uLt0C0BxEd
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1978 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9942
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archneur.1978.00500320050011
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • In 1930, thousands of Americans were poisoned by an illicit extract of Jamaica ginger ("jake") used to circumvent the Prohibition laws. A neurotoxic organophosphate compound, triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP), had been used as an adulterant. The earliest reports were of peripheral neuritis, but later it was evident that an upper motor neuron syndrome had supervened. This TOCP poisoning apparently involved various cell groups and tracts in the spinal cord; the lesion was not peripheral at all. We interviewed 11 survivors of the illness residing in eastern Tennessee. Four were carefully examined. The principal findings showed the spasticity and abnormal reflexes of an upper motor neuron syndrome. One patient had mild disease, despite typical findings, and had lived a normal life. References 1. Meritt HH, Moore M: Peripheral neuritis associated with ginger extract ingestion . N Engl J Med 203:4-12, 1930.Crossref 2. Bennett CR: A group of patients suffering from paralysis due to drinking Jamaica ginger . South Med J 23:371-380, 1930.Crossref 3. Aring CD: The systemic nervous affinity of triorthocresyl phosphate (Jamaica ginger palsy) . Brain 65:34-47, 1942.Crossref 4. Kidd JG, Langworthy OR: Jake paralysis: Paralysis following the ingestion of Jamaica ginger extract adulterated with tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate . Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 52:39-65, 1933. 5. Ashburn PM: Jake paralysis . Hygeia 13:738-740, 1935. 6. Valaer P: Adulterated ginger: Responsible for recent paralysis epidemic . Am Pharm Assoc J 19:948-950, (September) , 1930.Crossref 7. Turley LA, Shoemaker HA, Bowden DT: Jake Paralysis . Norman, Okla, University of Oklahoma Press, 1931. 8. Goldfain E: Jamaica ginger multiple neuritis . J Oklahoma State Med Assoc 23:191-192, 1930. 9. Werden DH: Ascending paralysis resulting from the drinking of "Jamaica Ginger"; A clinical study of 50 cases . Ann Intern Med 5:1257-1266, 1932.Crossref 10. Kiely CE, Rich ML: An epidemic of motor neuritis in Cincinnati, Ohio, due to drinking adulterated Jamaica ginger . Public Health Rep 47:2039-2063, 1932.Crossref 11. Weber ML: A follow-up study of 35 cases of paralysis caused by adulterated Jamaica ginger extract . Med Bull Veterans Administration 13:228-242, 1936. 12. Zeligs MA: Upper motor neuron sequelae in "Jake" paralysis: A clinical follow-up study . J Nerv Ment Dis 87:464-470, 1938.Crossref 13. Morgan JP, Tulloss TT: The jake walk blues: A toxicologic tragedy mirrored in American popular music . Ann Intern Med 85:804-808, 1976.Crossref 14. Cavanaugh JB: Toxic substances and the nervous system . Br Med Bull 25:268-273, 1969. 15. Smith HV, Spalding JMK: Outbreak of paralysis in Morocco due to ortho-cresyl phosphate poisoning . Lancet 2:1019-1021, 1959.Crossref 16. Dennis DT: Jake walk in Vietnam . Ann Intern Med 86:665-666, 1977.Crossref 17. Bidstrup PL, Bonnel JA, Beckett AG: Paralysis following poisoning by a new organic phosphorus insecticide (Mipafox): Report on two cases . Br Med J 1:1068-1072, 1953.Crossref

Journal

Archives of NeurologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Aug 1, 1978

References