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JAMA Surgery

JAMA Surgery Mission Statement: To promote the art and science of surgery by publishing relevant peer-reviewed research to assist the surgeon in optimizing patient care. JAMA Surgery will also serve as a forum for the discussion of issues pertinent to surgery, such as the education and training of the surgical workforce, quality improvement, and the ethics and economics of healthcare delivery. Editor Melina R. Kibbe, MD Deputy Editors Adil H. Haider, MD, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts Timothy M. Pawlik, MD, MPH, MTS, PhD, Baltimore, Maryland Julie Ann Sosa, MD, MA, Durham, North Carolina Managing Editor Terri Carter Phone: (312) 464-4444 jamasurg@jamanetwork.org Section Editors Review Editor Gerard M. Doherty, MD, Boston, Massachusetts Surgical Innovation Editor Justin B. Dimick, MD, MPH, Ann Arbor, Michigan Web and Social Media Editor Amalia L. Cochran, MD, Salt Lake City, Utah Clinical Challenge and CME Editor Pamela A. Lipsett, MD, MHPE, Baltimore, Maryland Statistical Editors Terry Hyslop, PhD, Durham, North Carolina Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Torrance, California Alfred W. Rademaker, PhD, Chicago, Illinois Editorial Board Karl Y. Bilimoria, MD, MS, Chicago, Illinois Sally E. Carty, MD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Danny Chu, MD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Diana L. Farmer, MD, Sacramento, California James W. Fleshman Jr, MD, Dallas, Texas James C. Hebert, MD, Burlington, Vermont Jonathan R. Hiatt, MD, Los Angeles, California O. Joe Hines, MD, Los Angeles, California David C. Linehan, MD, Rochester, New York Eric K. Nakakura, MD, PhD, San Francisco, California Lisa A. Newman, MD, MPH, Ann Arbor, Michigan Martin G. Paul, MD, Washington, DC Gilbert R. Upchurch Jr, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia George C. Velmahos, MD, PhD, MSEd, Boston, Massachusetts Sherry M. Wren, MD, Palo Alto, California International Editorial Board Juan I. Arcelus, MD, PhD, Granada, Spain Kevin C. P. Conlon, MA, MCh, MBA, Dublin, Ireland Marco Del Chiaro, MD, PhD, Stockholm, Sweden Liane S. Feldman, MD, CM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Alberto R. Ferreres, MD, PhD, JD, MPH, Buenos Aires, Argentina Andrew G. Hill, MBChB, MD, EdD, Auckland, New Zealand Simon Y. K. Law, MBBChir, MS, Hong Kong Dimitrios A. Linos, MD, PhD, Marousi, Greece Olle Ljungqvist, MD, PhD, Örebro, Sweden Chung-Mau Lo, MBBS, MS(HK), Hong Kong Avery B. Nathens, MD, MPH, PhD, Toronto, Ontario, Canada John A. Windsor, MD, Auckland, New Zealand Manabu Yamamoto, MD, PhD, Tokyo, Japan Han-Kwang Yang, MD, PhD, Seoul, South Korea Cheng-Har Yip, MBBS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Former Editors Dean Lewis, MD, 1920-1940 Waltman Walters, MD, 1941-1942; 1946-1961 Lester Dragstedt, MD, 1943-1945 J. Garrett Allen, MD, 1962-1969 Richard Warren, MD, 1970-1976 Arthur Baue, MD, 1977-1988 Claude H. Organ Jr, MD, 1989-2004 Julie Ann Freischlag, MD, 2005-2014 Publication Staff Offices: 330 N Wabash Ave, Chicago, IL 60611 Editor in Chief, The JAMA Network Howard Bauchner, MD Executive Editor Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD, MBA Executive Managing Editor Annette Flanagin Managing Editor Brenda Gregoline Editorial Processing Manuscript Editing Manager Tracy Frey Senior Manuscript Editors Miriam Y. Cintron, Shannon L. Sparenga Manuscript Editors Kevin Brown, Paul Ruich, Suzanne Walker Freelance Manuscript Editing Manager Diane L. Cannon Freelance Manuscript Editing Coordinators Connie L. Manno, Fred Marshall Freelance Copy Editors and Copyreaders Catherine A. Alden, Stephanie Lang Beckmeyer, Jan Clavey, Mary Coerver-Connolly, Paula Glitman, Laura King, Kenneth W. Lane, Brandy Y. Patton, Donna J. Thordsen Editorial Assistant Wanda Hill Editorial Operations and Systems Directors Larry Bryant, Monica Mungle, Elaine Williams Managers and Staff Kathryn Brokke, Fanny L. Brown, Lenette Gardner-Gullens, Erin Kato, Peter K. Kim, Rachell Lozano, Michaela Mark, Elizabeth Zak Scientific Online Resources Deputy Editor and Director Michael Berkwits, MD Director, Development and Design Michelle Kurzynski Staff Eric Butkus, Will English IV, Mustafa Ishaq, Daniel Morrow, Reuben Rios Editorial Graphics Deputy Editor and Director Ronna Henry, MD Staff Joshua Bird, Karen Bucher, Samantha Welker, David Song Clinical Review & Education Deputy Editor Edward H. Livingston, MD CME Editor Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH Administration Director Marla A. Hall Staff Deanna Willis, Yolanda Davis Editorial Counsel Joseph P. Thornton, JD Media Relations Staff Preeti Malani, MD, MSJ, Deanna Bellandi, Jim Michalski Periodical Publishing Staff Senior Vice President and Publisher, Periodical Publications Thomas J. Easley Vice President, Publishing Business Operations Brian Shields Vice President, Publishing Production Operations Karen Adams-Taylor Staff Monica Smith Advertising Print & Online Sales & Marketing Director Jeffery J. Bonistalli Manager Kathy Russell Staff Mirna Monal Sales Representative Stacey McHugh Director, Marketing Mark Thornbury Staff Tricia Castellano Classified Advertising Manager Thalia Moss Staff Mike Harvey, Susan J. Henning Reprint Communications Manager Susan Lovenberg Circulation Print & Online Sales & Marketing Director, Worldwide Sales Vida Damijonaitis Managers Saskia Bolore, Gretchen Linder, Brian McCartney Staff David Baum, Christine Hearne, Rebecca Lisek, Natasha Nekola, Ron Thomas Marketing and Product Development Directors Paul Gee, Matt Herron, Elizabeth Solaro Associate Publisher/Senior Product Development Geoffrey Flick Managers Rick Bell, Fergus Clare, Lindsay Dawson, Ellen Gibson, Craig McCaffrey, Michael McGraw, Romando Rossini, Stacy Tucker Staff Millette Jackson-Bates Business Operations Directors Karl Elvin, Nancy Essex, Jaye Mize, Sean O’Donnell, Sue Sherrill Managers David Antos, Chris Borden, Debbie Camp, Lydia Cruz, Scott Curl, Diane Darnell, Colleen Kelly, Chris Meyer, Annemarie Neff, J.D. Neff, Sean Ohlson, Phil O'Leary, Bill Pedone, Susan Price, Binita Shah, Denise Steinhauser, Joe Wixted Advertising and Production Services Kim Boler, Rhonda Bailey Brown, Daniel DeGroot, Jordynn Farrar, Shawn Hansen, Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Tiffany Jones, Joshua Lane, Cindy Rendlen, Ellen Yoshihara Circulation Services Julie Burton, Dexter Golden, Erin Hinchcliff, Noemi Rivera, Geneine Van Someren Composition and New Media Gail Barrett, Regina Brownlee, Amanda Camino, Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Emily Dunn, Amy Evers, Teri Hutchison, Mary Ann Kuranda, Joshua Lampinen, Nathan Mitre, Patricia E. Panek, La'son Diggs Sledge, George T. Thomson Graphics Joe Amft, Maria Duda, Fred Furtner, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski Proofreading Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Michael Ryder AMA Executives Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer James L. Madara, MD Chief Operating Officer Bernard L. Hengesbaugh The JAMA Network is a consortium of peer-reviewed print and online medical publications that includes JAMA®, JAMA Surgery, and other specialty journals. All articles published, including editorials, letters, and book reviews, represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the policy of the American Medical Association, the Editorial Board, or the institution with which the author is affiliated, unless this is clearly specified. ©2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png JAMA Surgery American Medical Association

JAMA Surgery

JAMA Surgery , Volume 151 (3) – Mar 1, 2016

JAMA Surgery

Abstract

Mission Statement: To promote the art and science of surgery by publishing relevant peer-reviewed research to assist the surgeon in optimizing patient care. JAMA Surgery will also serve as a forum for the discussion of issues pertinent to surgery, such as the education and training of the surgical workforce, quality improvement, and the ethics and economics of healthcare delivery. Editor Melina R. Kibbe, MD Deputy Editors Adil H. Haider, MD, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts Timothy M. Pawlik, MD,...
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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
2168-6254
eISSN
2168-6262
DOI
10.1001/jamasurg.2015.2905
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Mission Statement: To promote the art and science of surgery by publishing relevant peer-reviewed research to assist the surgeon in optimizing patient care. JAMA Surgery will also serve as a forum for the discussion of issues pertinent to surgery, such as the education and training of the surgical workforce, quality improvement, and the ethics and economics of healthcare delivery. Editor Melina R. Kibbe, MD Deputy Editors Adil H. Haider, MD, MPH, Boston, Massachusetts Timothy M. Pawlik, MD, MPH, MTS, PhD, Baltimore, Maryland Julie Ann Sosa, MD, MA, Durham, North Carolina Managing Editor Terri Carter Phone: (312) 464-4444 jamasurg@jamanetwork.org Section Editors Review Editor Gerard M. Doherty, MD, Boston, Massachusetts Surgical Innovation Editor Justin B. Dimick, MD, MPH, Ann Arbor, Michigan Web and Social Media Editor Amalia L. Cochran, MD, Salt Lake City, Utah Clinical Challenge and CME Editor Pamela A. Lipsett, MD, MHPE, Baltimore, Maryland Statistical Editors Terry Hyslop, PhD, Durham, North Carolina Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Torrance, California Alfred W. Rademaker, PhD, Chicago, Illinois Editorial Board Karl Y. Bilimoria, MD, MS, Chicago, Illinois Sally E. Carty, MD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Danny Chu, MD, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Diana L. Farmer, MD, Sacramento, California James W. Fleshman Jr, MD, Dallas, Texas James C. Hebert, MD, Burlington, Vermont Jonathan R. Hiatt, MD, Los Angeles, California O. Joe Hines, MD, Los Angeles, California David C. Linehan, MD, Rochester, New York Eric K. Nakakura, MD, PhD, San Francisco, California Lisa A. Newman, MD, MPH, Ann Arbor, Michigan Martin G. Paul, MD, Washington, DC Gilbert R. Upchurch Jr, MD, Charlottesville, Virginia George C. Velmahos, MD, PhD, MSEd, Boston, Massachusetts Sherry M. Wren, MD, Palo Alto, California International Editorial Board Juan I. Arcelus, MD, PhD, Granada, Spain Kevin C. P. Conlon, MA, MCh, MBA, Dublin, Ireland Marco Del Chiaro, MD, PhD, Stockholm, Sweden Liane S. Feldman, MD, CM, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Alberto R. Ferreres, MD, PhD, JD, MPH, Buenos Aires, Argentina Andrew G. Hill, MBChB, MD, EdD, Auckland, New Zealand Simon Y. K. Law, MBBChir, MS, Hong Kong Dimitrios A. Linos, MD, PhD, Marousi, Greece Olle Ljungqvist, MD, PhD, Örebro, Sweden Chung-Mau Lo, MBBS, MS(HK), Hong Kong Avery B. Nathens, MD, MPH, PhD, Toronto, Ontario, Canada John A. Windsor, MD, Auckland, New Zealand Manabu Yamamoto, MD, PhD, Tokyo, Japan Han-Kwang Yang, MD, PhD, Seoul, South Korea Cheng-Har Yip, MBBS, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Former Editors Dean Lewis, MD, 1920-1940 Waltman Walters, MD, 1941-1942; 1946-1961 Lester Dragstedt, MD, 1943-1945 J. Garrett Allen, MD, 1962-1969 Richard Warren, MD, 1970-1976 Arthur Baue, MD, 1977-1988 Claude H. Organ Jr, MD, 1989-2004 Julie Ann Freischlag, MD, 2005-2014 Publication Staff Offices: 330 N Wabash Ave, Chicago, IL 60611 Editor in Chief, The JAMA Network Howard Bauchner, MD Executive Editor Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD, MBA Executive Managing Editor Annette Flanagin Managing Editor Brenda Gregoline Editorial Processing Manuscript Editing Manager Tracy Frey Senior Manuscript Editors Miriam Y. Cintron, Shannon L. Sparenga Manuscript Editors Kevin Brown, Paul Ruich, Suzanne Walker Freelance Manuscript Editing Manager Diane L. Cannon Freelance Manuscript Editing Coordinators Connie L. Manno, Fred Marshall Freelance Copy Editors and Copyreaders Catherine A. Alden, Stephanie Lang Beckmeyer, Jan Clavey, Mary Coerver-Connolly, Paula Glitman, Laura King, Kenneth W. Lane, Brandy Y. Patton, Donna J. Thordsen Editorial Assistant Wanda Hill Editorial Operations and Systems Directors Larry Bryant, Monica Mungle, Elaine Williams Managers and Staff Kathryn Brokke, Fanny L. Brown, Lenette Gardner-Gullens, Erin Kato, Peter K. Kim, Rachell Lozano, Michaela Mark, Elizabeth Zak Scientific Online Resources Deputy Editor and Director Michael Berkwits, MD Director, Development and Design Michelle Kurzynski Staff Eric Butkus, Will English IV, Mustafa Ishaq, Daniel Morrow, Reuben Rios Editorial Graphics Deputy Editor and Director Ronna Henry, MD Staff Joshua Bird, Karen Bucher, Samantha Welker, David Song Clinical Review & Education Deputy Editor Edward H. Livingston, MD CME Editor Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH Administration Director Marla A. Hall Staff Deanna Willis, Yolanda Davis Editorial Counsel Joseph P. Thornton, JD Media Relations Staff Preeti Malani, MD, MSJ, Deanna Bellandi, Jim Michalski Periodical Publishing Staff Senior Vice President and Publisher, Periodical Publications Thomas J. Easley Vice President, Publishing Business Operations Brian Shields Vice President, Publishing Production Operations Karen Adams-Taylor Staff Monica Smith Advertising Print & Online Sales & Marketing Director Jeffery J. Bonistalli Manager Kathy Russell Staff Mirna Monal Sales Representative Stacey McHugh Director, Marketing Mark Thornbury Staff Tricia Castellano Classified Advertising Manager Thalia Moss Staff Mike Harvey, Susan J. Henning Reprint Communications Manager Susan Lovenberg Circulation Print & Online Sales & Marketing Director, Worldwide Sales Vida Damijonaitis Managers Saskia Bolore, Gretchen Linder, Brian McCartney Staff David Baum, Christine Hearne, Rebecca Lisek, Natasha Nekola, Ron Thomas Marketing and Product Development Directors Paul Gee, Matt Herron, Elizabeth Solaro Associate Publisher/Senior Product Development Geoffrey Flick Managers Rick Bell, Fergus Clare, Lindsay Dawson, Ellen Gibson, Craig McCaffrey, Michael McGraw, Romando Rossini, Stacy Tucker Staff Millette Jackson-Bates Business Operations Directors Karl Elvin, Nancy Essex, Jaye Mize, Sean O’Donnell, Sue Sherrill Managers David Antos, Chris Borden, Debbie Camp, Lydia Cruz, Scott Curl, Diane Darnell, Colleen Kelly, Chris Meyer, Annemarie Neff, J.D. Neff, Sean Ohlson, Phil O'Leary, Bill Pedone, Susan Price, Binita Shah, Denise Steinhauser, Joe Wixted Advertising and Production Services Kim Boler, Rhonda Bailey Brown, Daniel DeGroot, Jordynn Farrar, Shawn Hansen, Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Tiffany Jones, Joshua Lane, Cindy Rendlen, Ellen Yoshihara Circulation Services Julie Burton, Dexter Golden, Erin Hinchcliff, Noemi Rivera, Geneine Van Someren Composition and New Media Gail Barrett, Regina Brownlee, Amanda Camino, Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Emily Dunn, Amy Evers, Teri Hutchison, Mary Ann Kuranda, Joshua Lampinen, Nathan Mitre, Patricia E. Panek, La'son Diggs Sledge, George T. Thomson Graphics Joe Amft, Maria Duda, Fred Furtner, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski Proofreading Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Michael Ryder AMA Executives Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer James L. Madara, MD Chief Operating Officer Bernard L. Hengesbaugh The JAMA Network is a consortium of peer-reviewed print and online medical publications that includes JAMA®, JAMA Surgery, and other specialty journals. All articles published, including editorials, letters, and book reviews, represent the opinions of the authors and do not reflect the policy of the American Medical Association, the Editorial Board, or the institution with which the author is affiliated, unless this is clearly specified. ©2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited.

Journal

JAMA SurgeryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Mar 1, 2016

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