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JAMA

JAMA Editorial Staff Editor in Chief Howard Bauchner, MD Executive Editor Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD, MBA Deputy Editors Michael Berkwits, MD, MSCE, Robert M. Golub, MD, Ronna Henry, MD, Edward H. Livingston, MD, Jody W. Zylke, MD Executive Managing Editor Annette Flanagin Managing Editor Stacy L. Christiansen Senior Editors Philip Greenland, MD, Demetrios N. Kyriacou, MD, PhD, Mary McGrae McDermott, MD Associate Senior Editor Roxanne K. Young Associate Editors Derek C. Angus, MD, MPH, Ethan Basch, MD, Charlene Breedlove, Anne Rentoumis Cappola, MD, ScM, Helene M. Cole, MD, Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH, W. Gregory Feero, MD, PhD, J. Michael Gaziano, MD, MPH, Donald C. Goff, MD, Jill Jin, MD, Karen E. Joynt, MD, MPH, Preeti N. Malani, MD, MSJ, David H. Mark, MD, MPH, George T. O’Connor, MD, MS, Boris Pasche, MD, PhD, Eric D. Peterson, MD, MPH, Jeffrey L. Saver, MD, Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH, Jeanette M. Smith, MD, Amy E. Thompson, MD, Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer, MD, MPH, ScD Statistical Reviewers Joseph S. Wislar, MS, Naomi Vaisrub, PhD, Thomas D. Koepsell, MD, MPH, Roger J. Lewis, MD, PhD, Christopher J. Paciorek, PhD, Michael J. Pencina, PhD, Denise M. Scholtens, PhD, Alan B. Zonderman, PhD Fishbein Fellow Aria A. Razmaria, MD, MSc Contributing Writers Allan S. Detsky, MD, PhD, Elliott S. Fisher, MD, MPH, Lawrence O. Gostin, JD, John P. A. Ioannidis, MD, DSc, Ashish K. Jha, MD, MPH, David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD, Bruce M. Psaty, MD, PhD, Stephen M. Shortell, PhD, MPH, MBA, Robert Steinbrook, MD, Mary E. Tinetti, MD, Abraham Verghese, MD, Kevin Volpp, MD, PhD, Steven H. Woolf, MD, MPH Medical News & Perspectives Feyza Sancar, PhD (editor); Rebecca Voelker, MSJ (associate managing editor); Julie A. Jacob (senior staff writer); Joan Stephenson, PhD (consulting editor) Assistant Editors Carrie Butt, Kate Pezalla, Jennifer Reiling Manuscript Editing Kristine B. Simmons (assistant managing editor); Emily A. Greenhow, Joy K. Jaeger, Phil Sefton, Beverly Stewart (senior manuscript editors); Kim S. P. Campbell, Lila Haile (manuscript editors); Cara Wallace (freelance manuscript editor) Editorial Graphics Karen Bucher (senior medical illustrator); Samantha Welker (medical illustrator); David Song (editorial assistant) Electronic Media Michelle Kurzynski (director, development and design); Eric Butkus, Will English IV, Mustafa Ishaq, Daniel Morrow (developers/designers); Reuben Rios (social media coordinator) Editorial Systems and Services Monica Mungle (director); Peter K. Kim (programmer analyst) Content Management System Larry Bryant (director); Erin Kato (systems administrator) Editorial Systems and Administration Elaine Williams (director); Elizabeth Zak (editorial systems specialist); Lenette Gardner-Gullens (electronic input supervisor); Fanny L. Brown, Michaela Mark (electronic input assistants) Administration Marla A. Hall (director); Gloria Tate (supervisor); Deanna Willis (executive assistant); Yolanda Davis (copyright/library services coordinator) Editorial Assistants Mary Cannon, Susan Collister, Carmina Conley, Dawn Cortez, Audrey Forman, Gwenn Gregg, Lisa Hardin, Rachell M. Lozano, Rosa E. Miranda, Lupe Morales, Cheryl Sykes, Felicia Walker Editorial Counsel Joseph P. Thornton, JD Media Relations Jim Michalski, Deanna Bellandi Editorial Board Donald M. Berwick, MD, MPP, Newton, Massachusetts Christine K. Cassel, MD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Carolyn M. Clancy, MD, Silver Spring, Maryland Jordan J. Cohen, MD, Washington, DC Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD, PhD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Atlanta, Georgia Roger I. Glass, MD, PhD, Bethesda, Maryland Lee Goldman, MD, MPH, New York, New York Margaret A. Hamburg, MD, Washington, DC Michael M. E. Johns, MD, Atlanta, Georgia C. David Naylor, MD, DPhil, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Steven E. Nissen, MD, Cleveland, Ohio Uwe E. Reinhardt, PhD, Princeton, New Jersey Griffin Rodgers, MD, Bethesda, Maryland Joshua M. Sharfstein, MD, Baltimore, Maryland Harold C. Sox, MD, Hanover, New Hampshire Lars Wallentin, MD, PhD, Uppsala, Sweden John E. L. Wong, MBBS, Singapore The JAMA Network Editorial Board Robert O. Bonow, MD, MS Editor, JAMA Cardiology Neil Bressler, MD Editor, JAMA Ophthalmology Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD Editor, JAMA Oncology Stephan Heckers, MD, MSc Editor, JAMA Psychiatry Melina R. Kibbe, MD Editor, JAMA Surgery Jay F. Piccirillo, MD Editor, JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc Editor, JAMA Internal Medicine John S. Rhee, MD, MPH Editor, JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH Editor, JAMA Pediatrics June K. Robinson, MD Editor, JAMA Dermatology Roger N. Rosenberg, MD Editor, JAMA Neurology Journal Oversight Committee Claire Pomeroy, MD, MBA (chair), New York, New York Kent R. Anderson, MBA, Boston, Massachusetts Francisco G. Cigarroa, MD, San Antonio, Texas Vivian S. Lee, MD, PhD, MBA, Salt Lake City, Utah William W. Stead, MD, Nashville, Tennessee A. Eugene Washington, MD, MSc, Durham, North Carolina Modena Wilson, MD, MPH, Chicago, Illinois Former Editors Nathan S. Davis, MD (1883-1888) John B. Hamilton, MD (1889, 1893-1898) John H. Hollister, MD (1889-1891) James C. Culbertson, MD (1891-1893) Truman W. Miller, MD (1899) George H. Simmons, MD (1899-1924) Morris Fishbein, MD (1924-1949) Austin Smith, MD (1949-1958) Johnson F. Hammond, MD (1958-1959) John H. Talbott, MD (1959-1969) Hugh H. Hussey, MD (1970-1973) Robert H. Moser, MD (1973-1975) William R. Barclay, MD (1975-1982) George D. Lundberg, MD (1982-1999) Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH (2000-2011), Editor in Chief Emerita Periodical Publications Staff Senior Vice President and Publisher, Periodical Publications Thomas J. Easley Vice President, Publishing Business Operations Brian Shields Vice President, Publishing Production Operations Karen Adams-Taylor Staff Monica Smith Business Operations Directors Karl Elvin, Nancy Essex, Jaye Mize, Sean O’Donnell, Sue Sherrill Managers David Antos, Chris Borden, Debra Camp, Lydia Cruz, Scott Curl, Diane Darnell, Colleen Kelly, Chris Meyer, Annemarie Neff, J. D. Neff, Sean Ohlson, Phil O'Leary, Bill Pedone, Susan Price, Binita Shah, Denise Steinhauser, Joe Wixted Advertising and Production Services Kim Boler, Rhonda Bailey Brown, Daniel DeGroot, Jordynn Farrar, Shawn Hansen, Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Tiffany Jones, Joshua Lane, Cindy Rendlen, Ellen Yoshihara Circulation Services Julie Burton, Dexter Golden, Erin Hinchliff, Noemi Rivera, Geneine Van Someren Composition and New Media Gail Barrett, Regina Brownlee, Amanda Camino, Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Emily Dunn, Amy Evers, Teri Hutchison, Mary Ann Kuranda, Joshua Lampinen, Nathan Mitre, Patricia E. Panek, La'son Diggs Sledge, George Thomson Graphics Joe Amft, Maria Duda, Fred Furtner, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski Proofreading Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Michael Ryder Advertising Print and Online Sales and Marketing Director Jeffery J. Bonistalli Manager Kathy Russell Staff Mirna Monal Sales Representatives Maureen A. Reichert (973-263-9191, ext. 226), Nancy E. Souza (973-263-9191, ext. 209) Advertising Sales, Marketing and Research Mark Thornbury (director) Reprint & ePrint Communications Susan Lovenberg (manager); Joshua Lane (coordinator); Marsha Fogler (reprint sales representative) (USA: 1-800-482-1450; rest of world: 1-856-489-4446) Classified Advertising Thalia Moss (sales manager); Susan J. Henning (senior sales representative); Mike Harvey (sales representative) Print and Online Sales and Marketing Worldwide Sales Vida Damijonaitis (director); Saskia Bolore (Americas regional manager), Gretchen Linder (Europe/Middle East/Africa regional manager), Brian McCartney (Asia Pacific regional manager); Christine Hearne, Rebecca Lisek (sales representatives); David Baum, Natasha Nekola, Ron Thomas (staff) Marketing Elizabeth Solaro (director); Lindsay Dawson, Ellen Gibson, Michael McGraw (managers); Millette Jackson-Bates (staff) Product Development Matt Herron, Paul Gee (directors); Geoffrey Flick (associate publisher/senior product development); Rick Bell, Fergus Clare, Romando Rossini, Stacy Tucker (managers); Craig McCaffrey (web developer) JAMA Contact Information Customer Service 800-262-2350 Editorial Office 312-464-4444 jamams@jamanetwork.org Media Relations 312-464-5262 mediarelations@jamanetwork.org Permissions 312-464-2513 permissions@ama-assn.org Reprints 312-464-0776 reprints@jamanetwork.com Product Advertising 973-263-9191 display@jamanetwork.com Classified Advertising 800-262-2260 classifieds@ama-assn.org Subscriptions/Licenses 312-464-2452 sales@jamanetwork.com AMA Executives and Trustees Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer James L. Madara, MD Chief Operating Officer Bernard L. Hengesbaugh President Steven J. Stack, MD President-Elect Andrew W. Gurman, MD Immediate Past President Robert M. Wah, MD Secretary Gerald E. Harmon, MD Speaker, House of Delegates Susan R. Bailey, MD Vice-Speaker, House of Delegates Bruce A. Scott, MD Trustees Maya A. Babu, MD, MBA; David O. Barbe, MD, MHA; Jesse M. Ehrenfeld, MD, MPH; Julie K. Goonewardene; Gerald E. Harmon, MD; Patrice A. Harris, MD, MA (chair-elect); William E. Kobler, MD; Russell W. H. Kridel, MD; Barbara L. McAneny, MD (immediate past chair); Mary Anne McCaffree, MD; Albert J. Osbahr III, MD; Stephen R. Permut, MD, JD (chair); Dina Marie Pitta, MPP; Jack Resneck Jr, MD; Carl A. Sirio, MD; Steven J. Stack, MD; Georgia A. Tuttle, MD; Robert M. Wah, MD The JAMA Network is a consortium of peer-reviewed print and online medical publications that includes JAMA® and 11 other specialty Network journals. JAMA does not hold itself responsible for statements made by any contributor. All articles published, including opinion articles, represent the views of the authors and do not reflect the policy of JAMA, the American Medical Association, or the institution with which the author is affiliated unless otherwise indicated. ©2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png JAMA American Medical Association

JAMA

JAMA , Volume 315 (18) – May 10, 2016

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0098-7484
eISSN
1538-3598
DOI
10.1001/jama.2015.14254
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Editorial Staff Editor in Chief Howard Bauchner, MD Executive Editor Phil B. Fontanarosa, MD, MBA Deputy Editors Michael Berkwits, MD, MSCE, Robert M. Golub, MD, Ronna Henry, MD, Edward H. Livingston, MD, Jody W. Zylke, MD Executive Managing Editor Annette Flanagin Managing Editor Stacy L. Christiansen Senior Editors Philip Greenland, MD, Demetrios N. Kyriacou, MD, PhD, Mary McGrae McDermott, MD Associate Senior Editor Roxanne K. Young Associate Editors Derek C. Angus, MD, MPH, Ethan Basch, MD, Charlene Breedlove, Anne Rentoumis Cappola, MD, ScM, Helene M. Cole, MD, Thomas B. Cole, MD, MPH, W. Gregory Feero, MD, PhD, J. Michael Gaziano, MD, MPH, Donald C. Goff, MD, Jill Jin, MD, Karen E. Joynt, MD, MPH, Preeti N. Malani, MD, MSJ, David H. Mark, MD, MPH, George T. O’Connor, MD, MS, Boris Pasche, MD, PhD, Eric D. Peterson, MD, MPH, Jeffrey L. Saver, MD, Deborah Schrag, MD, MPH, Jeanette M. Smith, MD, Amy E. Thompson, MD, Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer, MD, MPH, ScD Statistical Reviewers Joseph S. Wislar, MS, Naomi Vaisrub, PhD, Thomas D. Koepsell, MD, MPH, Roger J. Lewis, MD, PhD, Christopher J. Paciorek, PhD, Michael J. Pencina, PhD, Denise M. Scholtens, PhD, Alan B. Zonderman, PhD Fishbein Fellow Aria A. Razmaria, MD, MSc Contributing Writers Allan S. Detsky, MD, PhD, Elliott S. Fisher, MD, MPH, Lawrence O. Gostin, JD, John P. A. Ioannidis, MD, DSc, Ashish K. Jha, MD, MPH, David S. Ludwig, MD, PhD, Bruce M. Psaty, MD, PhD, Stephen M. Shortell, PhD, MPH, MBA, Robert Steinbrook, MD, Mary E. Tinetti, MD, Abraham Verghese, MD, Kevin Volpp, MD, PhD, Steven H. Woolf, MD, MPH Medical News & Perspectives Feyza Sancar, PhD (editor); Rebecca Voelker, MSJ (associate managing editor); Julie A. Jacob (senior staff writer); Joan Stephenson, PhD (consulting editor) Assistant Editors Carrie Butt, Kate Pezalla, Jennifer Reiling Manuscript Editing Kristine B. Simmons (assistant managing editor); Emily A. Greenhow, Joy K. Jaeger, Phil Sefton, Beverly Stewart (senior manuscript editors); Kim S. P. Campbell, Lila Haile (manuscript editors); Cara Wallace (freelance manuscript editor) Editorial Graphics Karen Bucher (senior medical illustrator); Samantha Welker (medical illustrator); David Song (editorial assistant) Electronic Media Michelle Kurzynski (director, development and design); Eric Butkus, Will English IV, Mustafa Ishaq, Daniel Morrow (developers/designers); Reuben Rios (social media coordinator) Editorial Systems and Services Monica Mungle (director); Peter K. Kim (programmer analyst) Content Management System Larry Bryant (director); Erin Kato (systems administrator) Editorial Systems and Administration Elaine Williams (director); Elizabeth Zak (editorial systems specialist); Lenette Gardner-Gullens (electronic input supervisor); Fanny L. Brown, Michaela Mark (electronic input assistants) Administration Marla A. Hall (director); Gloria Tate (supervisor); Deanna Willis (executive assistant); Yolanda Davis (copyright/library services coordinator) Editorial Assistants Mary Cannon, Susan Collister, Carmina Conley, Dawn Cortez, Audrey Forman, Gwenn Gregg, Lisa Hardin, Rachell M. Lozano, Rosa E. Miranda, Lupe Morales, Cheryl Sykes, Felicia Walker Editorial Counsel Joseph P. Thornton, JD Media Relations Jim Michalski, Deanna Bellandi Editorial Board Donald M. Berwick, MD, MPP, Newton, Massachusetts Christine K. Cassel, MD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Carolyn M. Clancy, MD, Silver Spring, Maryland Jordan J. Cohen, MD, Washington, DC Ezekiel J. Emanuel, MD, PhD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Atlanta, Georgia Roger I. Glass, MD, PhD, Bethesda, Maryland Lee Goldman, MD, MPH, New York, New York Margaret A. Hamburg, MD, Washington, DC Michael M. E. Johns, MD, Atlanta, Georgia C. David Naylor, MD, DPhil, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Steven E. Nissen, MD, Cleveland, Ohio Uwe E. Reinhardt, PhD, Princeton, New Jersey Griffin Rodgers, MD, Bethesda, Maryland Joshua M. Sharfstein, MD, Baltimore, Maryland Harold C. Sox, MD, Hanover, New Hampshire Lars Wallentin, MD, PhD, Uppsala, Sweden John E. L. Wong, MBBS, Singapore The JAMA Network Editorial Board Robert O. Bonow, MD, MS Editor, JAMA Cardiology Neil Bressler, MD Editor, JAMA Ophthalmology Mary L. (Nora) Disis, MD Editor, JAMA Oncology Stephan Heckers, MD, MSc Editor, JAMA Psychiatry Melina R. Kibbe, MD Editor, JAMA Surgery Jay F. Piccirillo, MD Editor, JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery Rita F. Redberg, MD, MSc Editor, JAMA Internal Medicine John S. Rhee, MD, MPH Editor, JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH Editor, JAMA Pediatrics June K. Robinson, MD Editor, JAMA Dermatology Roger N. Rosenberg, MD Editor, JAMA Neurology Journal Oversight Committee Claire Pomeroy, MD, MBA (chair), New York, New York Kent R. Anderson, MBA, Boston, Massachusetts Francisco G. Cigarroa, MD, San Antonio, Texas Vivian S. Lee, MD, PhD, MBA, Salt Lake City, Utah William W. Stead, MD, Nashville, Tennessee A. Eugene Washington, MD, MSc, Durham, North Carolina Modena Wilson, MD, MPH, Chicago, Illinois Former Editors Nathan S. Davis, MD (1883-1888) John B. Hamilton, MD (1889, 1893-1898) John H. Hollister, MD (1889-1891) James C. Culbertson, MD (1891-1893) Truman W. Miller, MD (1899) George H. Simmons, MD (1899-1924) Morris Fishbein, MD (1924-1949) Austin Smith, MD (1949-1958) Johnson F. Hammond, MD (1958-1959) John H. Talbott, MD (1959-1969) Hugh H. Hussey, MD (1970-1973) Robert H. Moser, MD (1973-1975) William R. Barclay, MD (1975-1982) George D. Lundberg, MD (1982-1999) Catherine D. DeAngelis, MD, MPH (2000-2011), Editor in Chief Emerita Periodical Publications Staff Senior Vice President and Publisher, Periodical Publications Thomas J. Easley Vice President, Publishing Business Operations Brian Shields Vice President, Publishing Production Operations Karen Adams-Taylor Staff Monica Smith Business Operations Directors Karl Elvin, Nancy Essex, Jaye Mize, Sean O’Donnell, Sue Sherrill Managers David Antos, Chris Borden, Debra Camp, Lydia Cruz, Scott Curl, Diane Darnell, Colleen Kelly, Chris Meyer, Annemarie Neff, J. D. Neff, Sean Ohlson, Phil O'Leary, Bill Pedone, Susan Price, Binita Shah, Denise Steinhauser, Joe Wixted Advertising and Production Services Kim Boler, Rhonda Bailey Brown, Daniel DeGroot, Jordynn Farrar, Shawn Hansen, Euwanaha Joiner-Smith, Tiffany Jones, Joshua Lane, Cindy Rendlen, Ellen Yoshihara Circulation Services Julie Burton, Dexter Golden, Erin Hinchliff, Noemi Rivera, Geneine Van Someren Composition and New Media Gail Barrett, Regina Brownlee, Amanda Camino, Brenda Chandler-Grayer, Emily Dunn, Amy Evers, Teri Hutchison, Mary Ann Kuranda, Joshua Lampinen, Nathan Mitre, Patricia E. Panek, La'son Diggs Sledge, George Thomson Graphics Joe Amft, Maria Duda, Fred Furtner, Carolyn Hall, Maria Kowalkowski Proofreading Carol Joy Farrell, Daniel James, Judith A. Literskis, Teresa H. Omiotek, Michael Ryder Advertising Print and Online Sales and Marketing Director Jeffery J. Bonistalli Manager Kathy Russell Staff Mirna Monal Sales Representatives Maureen A. Reichert (973-263-9191, ext. 226), Nancy E. Souza (973-263-9191, ext. 209) Advertising Sales, Marketing and Research Mark Thornbury (director) Reprint & ePrint Communications Susan Lovenberg (manager); Joshua Lane (coordinator); Marsha Fogler (reprint sales representative) (USA: 1-800-482-1450; rest of world: 1-856-489-4446) Classified Advertising Thalia Moss (sales manager); Susan J. Henning (senior sales representative); Mike Harvey (sales representative) Print and Online Sales and Marketing Worldwide Sales Vida Damijonaitis (director); Saskia Bolore (Americas regional manager), Gretchen Linder (Europe/Middle East/Africa regional manager), Brian McCartney (Asia Pacific regional manager); Christine Hearne, Rebecca Lisek (sales representatives); David Baum, Natasha Nekola, Ron Thomas (staff) Marketing Elizabeth Solaro (director); Lindsay Dawson, Ellen Gibson, Michael McGraw (managers); Millette Jackson-Bates (staff) Product Development Matt Herron, Paul Gee (directors); Geoffrey Flick (associate publisher/senior product development); Rick Bell, Fergus Clare, Romando Rossini, Stacy Tucker (managers); Craig McCaffrey (web developer) JAMA Contact Information Customer Service 800-262-2350 Editorial Office 312-464-4444 jamams@jamanetwork.org Media Relations 312-464-5262 mediarelations@jamanetwork.org Permissions 312-464-2513 permissions@ama-assn.org Reprints 312-464-0776 reprints@jamanetwork.com Product Advertising 973-263-9191 display@jamanetwork.com Classified Advertising 800-262-2260 classifieds@ama-assn.org Subscriptions/Licenses 312-464-2452 sales@jamanetwork.com AMA Executives and Trustees Executive Vice President, Chief Executive Officer James L. Madara, MD Chief Operating Officer Bernard L. Hengesbaugh President Steven J. Stack, MD President-Elect Andrew W. Gurman, MD Immediate Past President Robert M. Wah, MD Secretary Gerald E. Harmon, MD Speaker, House of Delegates Susan R. Bailey, MD Vice-Speaker, House of Delegates Bruce A. Scott, MD Trustees Maya A. Babu, MD, MBA; David O. Barbe, MD, MHA; Jesse M. Ehrenfeld, MD, MPH; Julie K. Goonewardene; Gerald E. Harmon, MD; Patrice A. Harris, MD, MA (chair-elect); William E. Kobler, MD; Russell W. H. Kridel, MD; Barbara L. McAneny, MD (immediate past chair); Mary Anne McCaffree, MD; Albert J. Osbahr III, MD; Stephen R. Permut, MD, JD (chair); Dina Marie Pitta, MPP; Jack Resneck Jr, MD; Carl A. Sirio, MD; Steven J. Stack, MD; Georgia A. Tuttle, MD; Robert M. Wah, MD The JAMA Network is a consortium of peer-reviewed print and online medical publications that includes JAMA® and 11 other specialty Network journals. JAMA does not hold itself responsible for statements made by any contributor. All articles published, including opinion articles, represent the views of the authors and do not reflect the policy of JAMA, the American Medical Association, or the institution with which the author is affiliated unless otherwise indicated. ©2016 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Reproduction without permission is prohibited.

Journal

JAMAAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 10, 2016

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