Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Ischemic Forms of Acute Venous Thrombosis

Ischemic Forms of Acute Venous Thrombosis Abstract • Venous thrombosis in an extremity, when extensive, can cause reversible tissue ischemia or frank gangrene even without arterial or capillary occlusion. Patients gradually or abruptly develop severe pain, extensive edema, and cyanosis of the extremity, nearly always in the legs. Gangrene can occur unless the venous obstruction is relieved. Such ischemic venous thrombosis can complicate surgery, trauma, childbirth, or prolonged immobility, but malignant neoplasms, either obvious or occult, are a major predisposing factor. The optimal therapy is anticoagulation and thrombectomy. Patients with venous gangrene may require amputation if extensive, deep-tissue destruction occurs. The mortality rate for ischemic venous thrombosis is about 40%, the cause of death usually being the underlying disease or pulmonary emboli. (Arch Dermatol 1987;123:933-936) References 1. Gregoire R: La phlebite bleue (phlegmatia caerulea dolens) . Presse Med 1938;46:1313-1315. 2. Haimovici H: Ischemic Forms of Venous Thrombosis: Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens, Venous Gangrene . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publishers, 1971. 3. Ross JV, Baggenstoss AH, Juergens JL: Gangrene of the lower extremity secondary to extensive venous occlusion . Circulation 1961;24:549-556.Crossref 4. Brockman SK, Vasko JS: The pathologic physiology of phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Surgery 1966;59:997-1007. 5. Stallworth JM, Najib A, Kletke RR, et al: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: An experimental study . Ann Surg 1967;165:860-866.Crossref 6. Weber TR, Salles CA, Lindenauer SM: Circulation studies in experimental phlegmasia cerulea dolens . J Surg Res 1976;20:575-578.Crossref 7. Wright RB: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (pseudo-embolic phlegmasia) . Scott Med J 1956;1:267-269. 8. Stallworth JM, Najib A, Kletke RR: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: Report of nine representative cases . J SC Med Assoc 1966; 62:79-85. 9. Sutton RAL: Venous gangrene . Br Med J 1966;1:1465-1466.Crossref 10. Robles NL, Walske BR, Wilcox WC: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Am J Surg 1966;112:693-697.Crossref 11. Brickman RD, Fisher RD, Haller JA: Vena cava thrombosis after plication for pulmonary emboli . JAMA 1966;196:911-912.Crossref 12. Pelner L, Vamvas G: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: Case report with notes on a new treatment . JAMA 1966;196:913-915.Crossref 13. Levy JS, Trippel OH, Bergan JJ: Successful use of dextran in phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Arch Surg 1966;93:33-39.Crossref 14. Costello JL: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: The conservative approach . J Med Soc NJ 1966;63:54-56. 15. Woolling KR, Lawrence K, Rosenak BD: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens and ulcerative colitis: Report of a case . Angiology 1967;18:556-564.Crossref 16. McGarvey JFX, Ehrlich EW, Mason D: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: Early recognition and treatment . Rocky Mt Med J 1968; 65:31-35. 17. Weinberger HA: Surgically irreversible phlegmasiaceruleaa dolens masking disseminated cancer . NY State J Med 1968; 68:2807-2809. 18. Berelsen S, Anker N: Phlegmasia coerulea dolens: Pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prognosis . Acta Chir Scand 1968;134:107-114. 19. Balas P, Antonopoulos D, Segditsas T: Venous gangrene of the toe . Angiology 1971;22:491-493.Crossref 20. Scheinfeld A, Steiner A, Menczel J, et al: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Int Surg 1971;56:213-219. 21. Galvin C: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Angiology 1971;22:237-243.Crossref 22. Shah SS, Venugopal A, Vaidya CH: Venous gangrene associated with haemolytic anemia . J Indian Med Assoc 1973;60:468-469. 23. Bulow S, Sager P: Venous gangrene . Acta Chir Scand 1975;141:272-278. 24. Chatterji AN, Apthorp GH: Venous gangrene in multiple myeloma . Br Med J 1975;1:574-575.Crossref 25. Dale WA, Allen TR: Unusual problems of venous thrombosis . Surgery 1975;78:707-722. 26. Thomas ML, Carty H: Arteriographic changes in phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Australas Radiol 1975;19:57-59.Crossref 27. Hans SS, Hans BA, Lee PT, et al: Uncommon presentations of venous disease . Am Surg 1978;44:455-458. 28. Elliot MS, Immelman EJ, Jeffery P, et al: The role of thrombolytic therapy in the management of phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Br J Surg 1979;66:422-424.Crossref 29. Lipchik EO, Altman DP: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Radiology 1979;133:81-82.Crossref 30. Saffle JR, Maxwell JG, Warden GD, et al: Measurement of intramuscular pressure in the management of massive venous occlusion . Surgery 1981;89:394-397. 31. Paletta FX: Venous gangrene of the hand . Plast Reconstr Surg 1981;67:67-69.Crossref 32. Smith BM, Shield GW, Riddell DH, et al: Venous gangrene of the upper extremity . Ann Surg 1985;201:511-519.Crossref 33. Battey PM, Salam AA: Venous gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia . Surgery 1985;97:618-620. 34. Schafer AI: The hypercoagulable states . Ann Intern Med 1985;102:814-828.Crossref 35. Brockman SK, Vasko JS: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1965;121:1347-1356. 36. Qvarfordt P, Eklof B, Ohlin P: Intramuscular pressure in the lower leg in deep venous thrombosis and phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Ann Surg 1983;197:450-453.Crossref 37. Matsen FA, Winquist RA, Krugmire RB: Diagnosis and management of compartmental syndromes . J Bone Joint Surg Am 1980;62:286-291. 38. Rutherford RB: Role of surgery in ileofemoral venous thrombosis . Chest 1986;89( (suppl) ):434S-437S.Crossref 39. Plate G, Einarsson E, Ohlin P, et al: Thrombectomy with temporary arteriovenous fistula: The treatment of choice in acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis . J Vasc Surg 1984;1:867-876.Crossref 40. Greenfield LJ, Alexander EL: Current status of surgical therapy for deep venous thrombosis . Am J Surg 1985;150:64-70. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Dermatology American Medical Association

Ischemic Forms of Acute Venous Thrombosis

Archives of Dermatology , Volume 123 (7) – Jul 1, 1987

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-medical-association/ischemic-forms-of-acute-venous-thrombosis-xA0j8u80Qh
Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1987 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-987X
eISSN
1538-3652
DOI
10.1001/archderm.1987.01660310101024
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • Venous thrombosis in an extremity, when extensive, can cause reversible tissue ischemia or frank gangrene even without arterial or capillary occlusion. Patients gradually or abruptly develop severe pain, extensive edema, and cyanosis of the extremity, nearly always in the legs. Gangrene can occur unless the venous obstruction is relieved. Such ischemic venous thrombosis can complicate surgery, trauma, childbirth, or prolonged immobility, but malignant neoplasms, either obvious or occult, are a major predisposing factor. The optimal therapy is anticoagulation and thrombectomy. Patients with venous gangrene may require amputation if extensive, deep-tissue destruction occurs. The mortality rate for ischemic venous thrombosis is about 40%, the cause of death usually being the underlying disease or pulmonary emboli. (Arch Dermatol 1987;123:933-936) References 1. Gregoire R: La phlebite bleue (phlegmatia caerulea dolens) . Presse Med 1938;46:1313-1315. 2. Haimovici H: Ischemic Forms of Venous Thrombosis: Phlegmasia Cerulea Dolens, Venous Gangrene . Springfield, Ill, Charles C Thomas Publishers, 1971. 3. Ross JV, Baggenstoss AH, Juergens JL: Gangrene of the lower extremity secondary to extensive venous occlusion . Circulation 1961;24:549-556.Crossref 4. Brockman SK, Vasko JS: The pathologic physiology of phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Surgery 1966;59:997-1007. 5. Stallworth JM, Najib A, Kletke RR, et al: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: An experimental study . Ann Surg 1967;165:860-866.Crossref 6. Weber TR, Salles CA, Lindenauer SM: Circulation studies in experimental phlegmasia cerulea dolens . J Surg Res 1976;20:575-578.Crossref 7. Wright RB: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (pseudo-embolic phlegmasia) . Scott Med J 1956;1:267-269. 8. Stallworth JM, Najib A, Kletke RR: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: Report of nine representative cases . J SC Med Assoc 1966; 62:79-85. 9. Sutton RAL: Venous gangrene . Br Med J 1966;1:1465-1466.Crossref 10. Robles NL, Walske BR, Wilcox WC: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Am J Surg 1966;112:693-697.Crossref 11. Brickman RD, Fisher RD, Haller JA: Vena cava thrombosis after plication for pulmonary emboli . JAMA 1966;196:911-912.Crossref 12. Pelner L, Vamvas G: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: Case report with notes on a new treatment . JAMA 1966;196:913-915.Crossref 13. Levy JS, Trippel OH, Bergan JJ: Successful use of dextran in phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Arch Surg 1966;93:33-39.Crossref 14. Costello JL: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: The conservative approach . J Med Soc NJ 1966;63:54-56. 15. Woolling KR, Lawrence K, Rosenak BD: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens and ulcerative colitis: Report of a case . Angiology 1967;18:556-564.Crossref 16. McGarvey JFX, Ehrlich EW, Mason D: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens: Early recognition and treatment . Rocky Mt Med J 1968; 65:31-35. 17. Weinberger HA: Surgically irreversible phlegmasiaceruleaa dolens masking disseminated cancer . NY State J Med 1968; 68:2807-2809. 18. Berelsen S, Anker N: Phlegmasia coerulea dolens: Pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prognosis . Acta Chir Scand 1968;134:107-114. 19. Balas P, Antonopoulos D, Segditsas T: Venous gangrene of the toe . Angiology 1971;22:491-493.Crossref 20. Scheinfeld A, Steiner A, Menczel J, et al: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Int Surg 1971;56:213-219. 21. Galvin C: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Angiology 1971;22:237-243.Crossref 22. Shah SS, Venugopal A, Vaidya CH: Venous gangrene associated with haemolytic anemia . J Indian Med Assoc 1973;60:468-469. 23. Bulow S, Sager P: Venous gangrene . Acta Chir Scand 1975;141:272-278. 24. Chatterji AN, Apthorp GH: Venous gangrene in multiple myeloma . Br Med J 1975;1:574-575.Crossref 25. Dale WA, Allen TR: Unusual problems of venous thrombosis . Surgery 1975;78:707-722. 26. Thomas ML, Carty H: Arteriographic changes in phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Australas Radiol 1975;19:57-59.Crossref 27. Hans SS, Hans BA, Lee PT, et al: Uncommon presentations of venous disease . Am Surg 1978;44:455-458. 28. Elliot MS, Immelman EJ, Jeffery P, et al: The role of thrombolytic therapy in the management of phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Br J Surg 1979;66:422-424.Crossref 29. Lipchik EO, Altman DP: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Radiology 1979;133:81-82.Crossref 30. Saffle JR, Maxwell JG, Warden GD, et al: Measurement of intramuscular pressure in the management of massive venous occlusion . Surgery 1981;89:394-397. 31. Paletta FX: Venous gangrene of the hand . Plast Reconstr Surg 1981;67:67-69.Crossref 32. Smith BM, Shield GW, Riddell DH, et al: Venous gangrene of the upper extremity . Ann Surg 1985;201:511-519.Crossref 33. Battey PM, Salam AA: Venous gangrene associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia . Surgery 1985;97:618-620. 34. Schafer AI: The hypercoagulable states . Ann Intern Med 1985;102:814-828.Crossref 35. Brockman SK, Vasko JS: Phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Surg Gynecol Obstet 1965;121:1347-1356. 36. Qvarfordt P, Eklof B, Ohlin P: Intramuscular pressure in the lower leg in deep venous thrombosis and phlegmasia cerulea dolens . Ann Surg 1983;197:450-453.Crossref 37. Matsen FA, Winquist RA, Krugmire RB: Diagnosis and management of compartmental syndromes . J Bone Joint Surg Am 1980;62:286-291. 38. Rutherford RB: Role of surgery in ileofemoral venous thrombosis . Chest 1986;89( (suppl) ):434S-437S.Crossref 39. Plate G, Einarsson E, Ohlin P, et al: Thrombectomy with temporary arteriovenous fistula: The treatment of choice in acute iliofemoral venous thrombosis . J Vasc Surg 1984;1:867-876.Crossref 40. Greenfield LJ, Alexander EL: Current status of surgical therapy for deep venous thrombosis . Am J Surg 1985;150:64-70.

Journal

Archives of DermatologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jul 1, 1987

References