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IS OCULAR PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSE CONCERNED IN VISION?

IS OCULAR PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSE CONCERNED IN VISION? Abstract In recent years, importance has been attributed to the part played by the proprioceptive sense of the extra-ocular muscles in orienting and modifying certain visual perceptions such as projection, stereopsis and the interpretation of motion on the retina. Disturbance of the proprioceptive sense has been cited as an etiologic factor in various motor anomalies, as nystagmus1 and certain squints.2 The work of Sherrington2 has been accepted and interpreted as proof of proprioceptive sense in extra-ocular muscles by Duane,3 Duke-Elder,4 Adler5 and Byrne6 in their textbooks and by Karrer and Stevens7 and McLean8 in recent articles. In contemporary English literature on the extrinsic muscles of the eye this point of view seems prevalent, overshadowing that of such old authorities as Helmholtz,9 Tscherning10 and Hering,11 who attributed no importance to the proprioceptive sense of the eye muscles in References 1. Bartels, M.: Ueber willkürliche und unwillkürliche Augenwegungen , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 53:358, 1914. 2. Sherrington, C.: Observations on Sensual Rôle of Proprioceptive Nerve-Supply of Extrinsic Ocular Muscles , Brain 41:332, 1918.Crossref 3. Fuchs, E.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , translated by A. Duane, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1924. 4. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1933, vol. 1, p. 1051. 5. Adler, F. H.: Clinical Physiology of the Eye , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1933, p. 230. 6. Byrne, J. G.: Studies on the Physiology of the Eye , London, H. K. Lewis & Co., Ltd., 1933, pp. 39 and 81. 7. Karrer, E., and Stevens, H. C.: Response of Negative After-Images to Passive Motion of Eyeball and Bearing of These Observations on Visual Perception of Motion , Am. J. Physiol. 94:611 ( (Sept.) ) 1930. 8. McLean, A. J.: An Attempt to Identify the Central Cells Mediating Kinesthetic Sense in the Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Arch. Neurol., & Psychiat. 17: 285 ( (March) ) 1927. 9. Helmholtz, H.: Treatise on Physiological Optics , translated by J. P. C. Southall, Ithaca, The Optical Society of America, 1925, vol. 3. 10. Tscherning, M.: Physiologic Optics , translated by C. Weiland, Philadelphia, Keystone Publishing Co., 1900, chap. 21. 11. Hering, E.: Handbuch der Physiologie , Berlin, A. Hirschwald, 1880, p. 534. 12. Myers, C. S.: Textbook of Experimental Psychology , London, Cambridge University Press, 1911. 13. Irvine, S. R.: Histology of Extra-Ocular Muscles Arch. Ophth. 15:847 ( (May) ) 1936. 14. Sherrington.2 Duke-Elder.4 15. Heidenhain, M.: Ueber progressive Veränderungen der Muskulatur bei Myotonia atrophica , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 64:198, 1917-1918. 16. Rollet, cited by Ramón y Cajal, S.: Histology , Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1933, p. 275. 17. (a) Sherrington: Further Note on the Sensory Nerves of Muscles , Proc. Roy. Soc. London 61:247, 1897 18. Constitution of Nerves of Skeletal Muscles with Remarks on Recurrent Fibers in the Ventral Spinal Nerve-Root , J. Physiol. 17: 211, 1894. 19. (b) Ruffini: On the Minute Anatomy of the Neuro-Muscular Spindles of the Cat and on Their Physiological Significance , J. Physiol. 23:190, 1898-1899. 20. (c) Cilimbaris: Histologische Untersuchungen über die Muskelspindeln der Augenmuskeln , Arch. f. mikr. Anat. 75:692, 1910. 21. (d) Sutton, A. C.: Development of Neuro-Muscular Spindle in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Pig , Am. J. Anat. 18:117, 1915. 22. (e) Schiefferdecker: Eigentümlichkeit im Baue der Augenmuskeln , Sitzungsb. d. nied.-rhein. Gesellsch. f. Nat. u. Heilk. zu Bonn 14:54, 1905. 23. (f) Crevatin, F.: Particolari forme di terminazioni nervose nei muscoli che muovono l'occhio , Rendic. Accad. d. sc. d. Ist. di Bologna 5:37, 1900 24. Su di alcune forme di terminazioni nervose nei muscoli dell'occhio del dromedario , Crevatin Rendic. Accad. d. sc. d. Ist. di Bologna 6:57, 1902. 25. (a) Hines: Studies on Innervation of Skeletal Muscle: Innervation of Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Rabbit , Am. J. Anat. 47:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1931. 26. (b) Golgi, C.: Sui nervi dei tendini dell'uomo e di altri vertebrati e di un nuovo organo nervoso terminale muscolotendineo , Torino Accad. d. sc. Mem. 32:359, 1880. 27. (c) Marchi: Ueber die Terminalorgane der Nerven (Golgi's Nervenkörperchen) in den Sehnen der Augenmuskeln , Arch. f. Ophth. 28:203, 1882. 28. (d) Ciaccio: Sur les plaques nerveuses finales dans les tendons des vertébrés , Arch. ital. de biol. 14:31, 1890. 29. (e) Huber, G. C.: Observation on the Degeneration and Regeneration of Motor and Sensory Nerve-Endings in Voluntary Muscle , Am. J. Physiol. 3:339, 1900 30. Sensory Nerve Terminations in the Tendons of the Extrinsic Eye-Muscles of the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 10: 152, 1900. 31. Hoffmann, P.: Ist es möglich die physiologischen Erfahrungen über die Sehnenreflexe mit den pathologischen in Einklang zu bringen? Nervenarzt 2:641, ( (Nov. 15) ) 1929. 32. McCouch, G., and Adler, F.: Extraocular Reflexes , Am. J. Physiol. 100:78 ( (March) ) 1932. 33. Bremer, F.: Pharmacologie du tonus musculaire , Rev. neurol. 2:403 ( (Oct.) ) 1931. 34. Liljestrand, G., and Magnus, R.: Ueber die Wirkung des Novokains auf den normalen und den tetanusstarren Skelett-muskel und über die Entstehung der lokalen Muskelstarre beim Wundstarrkrampf , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 176:168, 1919.Crossref 35. Sherrington, in discussion on Cobb, S., and Wolff, H. G.: Muscle Tonus: A Critical Review Based on Work Presented at the International Neurological Congress, Bern, Switzerland, 1931 , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:661 ( (Sept.) ) 1932. 36. Schwartz: Ueber das Vorkommen quergestreifter Ringbinden bei den Augenmuskeln , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Anat. (Abt. 1) 75:361, 1925. 37. Duke-Elder, W. S.: New Observations on the Physiology of the Extra-ocular Muscles , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 100:181, 1930. 38. Bielschowsky, A.: Lectures on Motor Anomalies of Eyes: Functional Neuroses; Etiology, Prognosis and Treatment of Ocular Paralysis , Arch. Ophth. 13:751 ( (May) ) 1935. 39. Sherrington, C.: Experimental Note on Two Movements of the Eye , J. Physiol. 17:27, 1894. 40. de Kleyn: Ueber vestibuläre Augenreflexe , Arch. f. Ophth. 107:480, 1922. 41. Sherrington, C.: Further Note on the Sensory Nerves of the Eye-Muscles , Proc. Roy. Soc. London 64:120, 1898. 42. Buzzard, E. F., and Greenfield, J. G.: Pathology of the Nervous System , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1923. 43. Gasser, H. S., and Erlanger: Rôle Played by Sizes of Constituent Fibers of Nerve Trunk in Determining Form of Its Action Potential Wave , Am. J. Physiol. 80:522, 1927. 44. Hinsey, J. C.: Innervation of Skeletal Muscle , Physiol. Rev. 14:514 ( (Oct.) ) 1934. 45. Carmichael, E. A., and Woollard, H. H.: Some Observations on Fifth and Seventh Cranial Nerves , Brain 56:109 ( (July) ) 1933. 46. Tschermak: Optischer Raumsinn , in Bethe, A., and others: Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1931, p. 977. 47. Aubert, H.: Physiologie der Netzhaut , Breslau, E. Morgenstern, 1865. 48. Denny-Brown, D. E.: Inhibition as Reflex Accompaniment of Tendon Jerk and of Other Forms of Active Muscular Response , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 103:321 ( (Sept.) ) 1928. 49. Matthews, B.: Response of a Single End-Organ , J. Physiol. 71:64, 1931. 50. Mach, E.: Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen , Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann, 1875, p. 83. 51. Guillery: Ueber die Schnelligkeit der Augenbewegungen , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 73:87, 1898. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Ophthalmology American Medical Association

IS OCULAR PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSE CONCERNED IN VISION?

Archives of Ophthalmology , Volume 15 (6) – Jun 1, 1936

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Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1936 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-9950
eISSN
1538-3687
DOI
10.1001/archopht.1936.00840180081008
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Abstract

Abstract In recent years, importance has been attributed to the part played by the proprioceptive sense of the extra-ocular muscles in orienting and modifying certain visual perceptions such as projection, stereopsis and the interpretation of motion on the retina. Disturbance of the proprioceptive sense has been cited as an etiologic factor in various motor anomalies, as nystagmus1 and certain squints.2 The work of Sherrington2 has been accepted and interpreted as proof of proprioceptive sense in extra-ocular muscles by Duane,3 Duke-Elder,4 Adler5 and Byrne6 in their textbooks and by Karrer and Stevens7 and McLean8 in recent articles. In contemporary English literature on the extrinsic muscles of the eye this point of view seems prevalent, overshadowing that of such old authorities as Helmholtz,9 Tscherning10 and Hering,11 who attributed no importance to the proprioceptive sense of the eye muscles in References 1. Bartels, M.: Ueber willkürliche und unwillkürliche Augenwegungen , Klin. Monatsbl. f. Augenh. 53:358, 1914. 2. Sherrington, C.: Observations on Sensual Rôle of Proprioceptive Nerve-Supply of Extrinsic Ocular Muscles , Brain 41:332, 1918.Crossref 3. Fuchs, E.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , translated by A. Duane, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1924. 4. Duke-Elder, W. S.: Text-Book of Ophthalmology , St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Company, 1933, vol. 1, p. 1051. 5. Adler, F. H.: Clinical Physiology of the Eye , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1933, p. 230. 6. Byrne, J. G.: Studies on the Physiology of the Eye , London, H. K. Lewis & Co., Ltd., 1933, pp. 39 and 81. 7. Karrer, E., and Stevens, H. C.: Response of Negative After-Images to Passive Motion of Eyeball and Bearing of These Observations on Visual Perception of Motion , Am. J. Physiol. 94:611 ( (Sept.) ) 1930. 8. McLean, A. J.: An Attempt to Identify the Central Cells Mediating Kinesthetic Sense in the Extrinsic Eye Muscles , Arch. Neurol., & Psychiat. 17: 285 ( (March) ) 1927. 9. Helmholtz, H.: Treatise on Physiological Optics , translated by J. P. C. Southall, Ithaca, The Optical Society of America, 1925, vol. 3. 10. Tscherning, M.: Physiologic Optics , translated by C. Weiland, Philadelphia, Keystone Publishing Co., 1900, chap. 21. 11. Hering, E.: Handbuch der Physiologie , Berlin, A. Hirschwald, 1880, p. 534. 12. Myers, C. S.: Textbook of Experimental Psychology , London, Cambridge University Press, 1911. 13. Irvine, S. R.: Histology of Extra-Ocular Muscles Arch. Ophth. 15:847 ( (May) ) 1936. 14. Sherrington.2 Duke-Elder.4 15. Heidenhain, M.: Ueber progressive Veränderungen der Muskulatur bei Myotonia atrophica , Beitr. z. path. Anat. u. z. allg. Path. 64:198, 1917-1918. 16. Rollet, cited by Ramón y Cajal, S.: Histology , Baltimore, William Wood & Company, 1933, p. 275. 17. (a) Sherrington: Further Note on the Sensory Nerves of Muscles , Proc. Roy. Soc. London 61:247, 1897 18. Constitution of Nerves of Skeletal Muscles with Remarks on Recurrent Fibers in the Ventral Spinal Nerve-Root , J. Physiol. 17: 211, 1894. 19. (b) Ruffini: On the Minute Anatomy of the Neuro-Muscular Spindles of the Cat and on Their Physiological Significance , J. Physiol. 23:190, 1898-1899. 20. (c) Cilimbaris: Histologische Untersuchungen über die Muskelspindeln der Augenmuskeln , Arch. f. mikr. Anat. 75:692, 1910. 21. (d) Sutton, A. C.: Development of Neuro-Muscular Spindle in Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Pig , Am. J. Anat. 18:117, 1915. 22. (e) Schiefferdecker: Eigentümlichkeit im Baue der Augenmuskeln , Sitzungsb. d. nied.-rhein. Gesellsch. f. Nat. u. Heilk. zu Bonn 14:54, 1905. 23. (f) Crevatin, F.: Particolari forme di terminazioni nervose nei muscoli che muovono l'occhio , Rendic. Accad. d. sc. d. Ist. di Bologna 5:37, 1900 24. Su di alcune forme di terminazioni nervose nei muscoli dell'occhio del dromedario , Crevatin Rendic. Accad. d. sc. d. Ist. di Bologna 6:57, 1902. 25. (a) Hines: Studies on Innervation of Skeletal Muscle: Innervation of Extrinsic Eye Muscles of Rabbit , Am. J. Anat. 47:1 ( (Jan.) ) 1931. 26. (b) Golgi, C.: Sui nervi dei tendini dell'uomo e di altri vertebrati e di un nuovo organo nervoso terminale muscolotendineo , Torino Accad. d. sc. Mem. 32:359, 1880. 27. (c) Marchi: Ueber die Terminalorgane der Nerven (Golgi's Nervenkörperchen) in den Sehnen der Augenmuskeln , Arch. f. Ophth. 28:203, 1882. 28. (d) Ciaccio: Sur les plaques nerveuses finales dans les tendons des vertébrés , Arch. ital. de biol. 14:31, 1890. 29. (e) Huber, G. C.: Observation on the Degeneration and Regeneration of Motor and Sensory Nerve-Endings in Voluntary Muscle , Am. J. Physiol. 3:339, 1900 30. Sensory Nerve Terminations in the Tendons of the Extrinsic Eye-Muscles of the Cat , J. Comp. Neurol. 10: 152, 1900. 31. Hoffmann, P.: Ist es möglich die physiologischen Erfahrungen über die Sehnenreflexe mit den pathologischen in Einklang zu bringen? Nervenarzt 2:641, ( (Nov. 15) ) 1929. 32. McCouch, G., and Adler, F.: Extraocular Reflexes , Am. J. Physiol. 100:78 ( (March) ) 1932. 33. Bremer, F.: Pharmacologie du tonus musculaire , Rev. neurol. 2:403 ( (Oct.) ) 1931. 34. Liljestrand, G., and Magnus, R.: Ueber die Wirkung des Novokains auf den normalen und den tetanusstarren Skelett-muskel und über die Entstehung der lokalen Muskelstarre beim Wundstarrkrampf , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 176:168, 1919.Crossref 35. Sherrington, in discussion on Cobb, S., and Wolff, H. G.: Muscle Tonus: A Critical Review Based on Work Presented at the International Neurological Congress, Bern, Switzerland, 1931 , Arch. Neurol. & Psychiat. 28:661 ( (Sept.) ) 1932. 36. Schwartz: Ueber das Vorkommen quergestreifter Ringbinden bei den Augenmuskeln , Ztschr. f. d. ges. Anat. (Abt. 1) 75:361, 1925. 37. Duke-Elder, W. S.: New Observations on the Physiology of the Extra-ocular Muscles , Tr. Ophth. Soc. U. Kingdom 100:181, 1930. 38. Bielschowsky, A.: Lectures on Motor Anomalies of Eyes: Functional Neuroses; Etiology, Prognosis and Treatment of Ocular Paralysis , Arch. Ophth. 13:751 ( (May) ) 1935. 39. Sherrington, C.: Experimental Note on Two Movements of the Eye , J. Physiol. 17:27, 1894. 40. de Kleyn: Ueber vestibuläre Augenreflexe , Arch. f. Ophth. 107:480, 1922. 41. Sherrington, C.: Further Note on the Sensory Nerves of the Eye-Muscles , Proc. Roy. Soc. London 64:120, 1898. 42. Buzzard, E. F., and Greenfield, J. G.: Pathology of the Nervous System , New York, Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1923. 43. Gasser, H. S., and Erlanger: Rôle Played by Sizes of Constituent Fibers of Nerve Trunk in Determining Form of Its Action Potential Wave , Am. J. Physiol. 80:522, 1927. 44. Hinsey, J. C.: Innervation of Skeletal Muscle , Physiol. Rev. 14:514 ( (Oct.) ) 1934. 45. Carmichael, E. A., and Woollard, H. H.: Some Observations on Fifth and Seventh Cranial Nerves , Brain 56:109 ( (July) ) 1933. 46. Tschermak: Optischer Raumsinn , in Bethe, A., and others: Handbuch der normalen und pathologischen Physiologie , Berlin, Julius Springer, 1931, p. 977. 47. Aubert, H.: Physiologie der Netzhaut , Breslau, E. Morgenstern, 1865. 48. Denny-Brown, D. E.: Inhibition as Reflex Accompaniment of Tendon Jerk and of Other Forms of Active Muscular Response , Proc. Roy. Soc., London, s.B 103:321 ( (Sept.) ) 1928. 49. Matthews, B.: Response of a Single End-Organ , J. Physiol. 71:64, 1931. 50. Mach, E.: Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen , Leipzig, Wilhelm Engelmann, 1875, p. 83. 51. Guillery: Ueber die Schnelligkeit der Augenbewegungen , Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. 73:87, 1898.

Journal

Archives of OphthalmologyAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1936

References

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